Search results for: alternating-copolymers

Alternating Copolymers

Author : J.M.G. Cowie
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Examination of the early literature attests to the fact that the study of copolymerization was initiated when polymer science was in its infancy. It has continued to grow to a subject of major importance and has been a source of interest to both academic and industrialist alike. The wide spectrum of structures and properties available in the statistical copolymer has made this a fruitful field of exploration, but one particular and more restricted form which has held its own fascination for many is the limiting case of the strictly alternating copolymer. This is formed, in the ideal situation, when two monomers in a reaction mixture add consecutively to create a polymer chain with a regular {ABABAB} structure, irrespective of the monomer feed ratio. When this happens the resulting copolymer will always have the same composition, a feature which can be advantageous but also somewhat restrictive, as the ability to vary the properties is then limited. Within a series entitled Speciality Polymers it seems appropriate then to deal with this subject, particularly as no previous attempt has been made to draw together the various facets of alternating copolymerization into one volume. It also seems timely to present a more unified picture of the subject which will also illustrate the progress made.

Conformational studies on statistic and alternating copolymers

Author : Yoshimitsu Kuroyanagi
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Handbook of Advanced Electronic and Photonic Materials and Devices

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Synthesis and Morphology of Maleimide Vinyl Ether Alternating Copolymers in the Solution Phase

Author : Richard M. Bell (III.)
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Block Copolymers

Author : Allen Noshay
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Block Copolymers: Overview and Critical Survey is a critical review of block copolymer technology and a comprehensive critical survey on the synthesis, characterization, properties, and applications of the specific block copolymer structures reported in the literature. The copolymers are organized according to segmental architecture and chemical composition. Comprised of seven chapters, this book begins with an overview of what block copolymers are, how they are made, and what they can and cannot be expected to do. The next chapter defines block copolymers and compares them with other types of polymer "hybrids," that is, polymer blends, random copolymers, and graft copolymers. The various segmental architectures that are possible with block copolymers are then described, followed by a discussion on the various synthesis techniques applicable to block copolymers; the characterization methods capable of elucidating block copolymer structures; some applications of commercially available block copolymers; and some future challenges for block copolymer technology. The last three chapters are devoted to A-B diblock copolymers, A-B-A triblock copolymers, and (A-B)n multiblock copolymers. This monograph should be useful to readers who want to become generally conversant with block copolymer technology and to those who need to delve more deeply into the subject.

Sequence Controlled Polymers

Author : Jean-François Lutz
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Edited by a leading authority in the field, the first book on this important and emerging topic provides an overview of the latest trends in sequence-controlled polymers. Following a brief introduction, the book goes on to discuss various synthetic approaches to sequence-controlled polymers, including template polymerization, genetic engineering and solid-phase chemistry. Moreover, monomer sequence regulation in classical polymerization techniques such as step-growth polymerization, living ionic polymerizations and controlled radical polymerizations are explained, before concluding with a look at the future for sequence-controlled polymers. With its unique coverage of this interdisciplinary field, the text will prove invaluable to polymer and environmental chemists, as well as biochemists and bioengineers.

Handbook of Conducting Polymers Fourth Edition 2 Volume Set

Author : John R. Reynolds
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In the last 10 years there have been major advances in fundamental understanding and applications and a vast portfolio of new polymer structures with unique and tailored properties was developed. Work moved from a chemical repeat unit structure to one more based on structural control, new polymerization methodologies, properties, processing, and applications. The 4th Edition takes this into account and will be completely rewritten and reorganized, focusing on spin coating, spray coating, blade/slot die coating, layer-by-layer assembly, and fiber spinning methods; property characterizations of redox, interfacial, electrical, and optical phenomena; and commercial applications.

Encyclopedia of polymer science and technology

Author : Herman Francis Mark
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Dilute Solution Properties of a Strictly Alternating Copolymer

Author : Joseph Hamilton McCoy
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Catalytic Synthesis of Alkene Carbon Monoxide Copolymers and Cooligomers

Author : Ayusman Sen
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217 2. COPOLYMERIZATION OF PROPENE OR HIGHER I-ALKENES WITH 218 CARBON MONOXIDE 2. 1. Ligands and polymerization conditions 218 2. 2. Spiroketal formation 221 2. 3. Enantioselectivity 222 2. 4. Higher I-Alkenes 226 3. COPOLYMERIZATION OF STYRENE OR ITS DERIVATIVES WITH 226 CARBON MONOXIDE 4. COPOLYMERIZATION OF OTHER OLEANS WITH CARBON MONOXIDE 230 5. ASYMMETRIC TERPOLYMERIZATION OF MORE THAN Two KINDS OF 232 OLEFINS WITH CARBON MONOXIDE 6. POLYKETONE CONFORMATION 233 7. CONCLUSION 234 Chapter 8. Chain Propagation Mechanisms 237 Ayusman Sen 1. INTRODUCTION 237 2. PALLADIUM (II) BASED SYSTEMS 238 3. NICKEL (II) BASED SYSTEMS 256 4. RHODIUM (I) BASED SYSTEMS 257 5. CONCLUSION 261 Chapter 9. Theoretical Studies on Copolymerization of Polar Monomers 265 Peter Margl, Artur Michalak, and Tom Ziegler 1. INTRODUCTION 265 2. COPOLYMERIZATION OF CARBON MONOXIDE WITH ETHYLENE 267 2. 1. Experimental and calculated rates for the insertion processes for 267 copolymerization catalysed by Pd(II) systems. 2. 2. A more detailed look at the productive and unproductive cycles 270 in copolymerization catalysed by Pd(II) complexes. 2. 2. 1. The productive cycle 270 2. 2. 2. C2H4 misinsertion into an ethylene terminated polyketone 275 chain 2. 3. Experimental and calculated rates for the insertion processes for 277 alternating copolymerization catalyzed by Ni(II) systems 3. COPOLYMERIZATION OF OLEFINS WITH POLAR MONOMERS OTHER 280 THAN CO 3. 1. Preferred binding mode of oxygen containing monomers 282 3. 2. Preferred binding mode of nitrogen containing monomers 285 3. 3.

Introduction to Physical Polymer Science

Author : Leslie H. Sperling
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An Updated Edition of the Classic Text Polymers constitute the basis for the plastics, rubber, adhesives, fiber, and coating industries. The Fourth Edition of Introduction to Physical Polymer Science acknowledges the industrial success of polymers and the advancements made in the field while continuing to deliver the comprehensive introduction to polymer science that made its predecessors classic texts. The Fourth Edition continues its coverage of amorphous and crystalline materials, glass transitions, rubber elasticity, and mechanical behavior, and offers updated discussions of polymer blends, composites, and interfaces, as well as such basics as molecular weight determination. Thus, interrelationships among molecular structure, morphology, and mechanical behavior of polymers continue to provide much of the value of the book. Newly introduced topics include: * Nanocomposites, including carbon nanotubes and exfoliated montmorillonite clays * The structure, motions, and functions of DNA and proteins, as well as the interfaces of polymeric biomaterials with living organisms * The glass transition behavior of nano-thin plastic films In addition, new sections have been included on fire retardancy, friction and wear, optical tweezers, and more. Introduction to Physical Polymer Science, Fourth Edition provides both an essential introduction to the field as well as an entry point to the latest research and developments in polymer science and engineering, making it an indispensable text for chemistry, chemical engineering, materials science and engineering, and polymer science and engineering students and professionals.

Comprehensive Biomaterials

Author : Paul Ducheyne
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Comprehensive Biomaterials brings together the myriad facets of biomaterials into one, major series of six edited volumes that would cover the field of biomaterials in a major, extensive fashion: Volume 1: Metallic, Ceramic and Polymeric Biomaterials Volume 2: Biologically Inspired and Biomolecular Materials Volume 3: Methods of Analysis Volume 4: Biocompatibility, Surface Engineering, and Delivery Of Drugs, Genes and Other Molecules Volume 5: Tissue and Organ Engineering Volume 6: Biomaterials and Clinical Use Experts from around the world in hundreds of related biomaterials areas have contributed to this publication, resulting in a continuum of rich information appropriate for many audiences. The work addresses the current status of nearly all biomaterials in the field, their strengths and weaknesses, their future prospects, appropriate analytical methods and testing, device applications and performance, emerging candidate materials as competitors and disruptive technologies, and strategic insights for those entering and operational in diverse biomaterials applications, research and development, regulatory management, and commercial aspects. From the outset, the goal was to review materials in the context of medical devices and tissue properties, biocompatibility and surface analysis, tissue engineering and controlled release. It was also the intent both, to focus on material properties from the perspectives of therapeutic and diagnostic use, and to address questions relevant to state-of-the-art research endeavors. Reviews the current status of nearly all biomaterials in the field by analyzing their strengths and weaknesses, performance as well as future prospects Presents appropriate analytical methods and testing procedures in addition to potential device applications Provides strategic insights for those working on diverse application areas such as R&D, regulatory management, and commercial development

Radicals

Author : Nonhebel
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Metathesis Polymerization

Author : Michael R. Buchmeiser
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Macromolecular Chemistry 8

Author : K. Saarela
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Macromolecular Chemistry—8 focuses on the molecular configuration of polymers, charge-transfer complexes, polymerization reactions, molecular weight fractionation, and polymer systems. The selection first offers information on molecular configuration in bulk polymers and control of monomer reactivity in copolymerization. Discussions focus on thermodynamic behavior of concentrated polymer solutions; direct measurement of molecular dimensions; and modification of monomer reactivity in radical copolymerization. The book also ponders on non-equimolar compositions from comonomer charge-transfer complexes and preparation of oligomers with functional end groups by polymerization reactions. The text examines cooperative interactions of complementary synthetic macromolecules in solutions and molecular weight fractionation on the basis of solubility. Topics include interactions of chemically complementary molecules and conformational transitions and methods for evaluating the molecular size distribution of the original polymer. The book also tackles alkylaluminium compounds in carbenium ion polymerization and thermodynamics of multicomponent polymer systems. The selection is a dependable reference for readers interested in the molecular configuration of polymers, complexes, and polymer systems.

Polymers

Author : J.M.G. Cowie
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Extensively revised and updated to keep abreast of recent advances, Polymers: Chemistry and Physics of Modern Materials, Third Edition continues to provide a broad-based, high-information text at an introductory, reader-friendly level that illustrates the multidisciplinary nature of polymer science. Adding or amending roughly 50% of the material, t

Proceedings of the Third Symposium on Electrochromic Materials

Author : Kuo-Chuan Ho
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Fatigue and Tribological Properties of Plastics and Elastomers

Author : Laurence W. McKeen
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Part of a series of core databooks within the William Andrew Plastics Design Library, Fatigue and Tribological Properties of Plastics and Elastomers provides a comprehensive collection of graphical multipoint data and tabular data covering fatigue and tribology. The concept of fatigue is very straightforward: if an object is subjected to a stress or deformation, and it is repeated, the object becomes weaker. This weakening of plastic material is called fatigue. Tribology is the science and technology of surfaces in contact with each other and therefore covers friction, lubrication and wear. The reduction of wear and fatigue and the improvement of lubrication are key bottom-line issues for engineers and scientists involved in the plastics industry and product design with plastics. Fatigue and Tribological Properties of Plastics and Elastomers, 2e, is an update of all that has changed in the world of plastics since the 1st edition appeared nearly 15 years ago, and has been reorganized from a polymer chemistry point of view. A hard-working reference tool: part of the daily workflow of engineers and scientists involved in the plastics industry and product design with plastics The reduction of wear and fatigue and the improvement of lubrication are key bottom-line issues The data in this book provide engineers with the tools they need to design for low failure rates

Polymer Microscopy

Author : Linda C. Sawyer
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Modern materials include a vast array of polymers and plastics which are found in applications such as housing, appliances, clothing and household textiles and automotive and aerospace industries. Thus research scientists, engineers and materials science graduate students need to be aware of the methods and techniques required to understand the structure-property relations of polymer materials. This book will review the field of the microscopy of polymers. There is a vast literature which describes the research results obtained by study of polymer materials using microscopy and other complementary analytical techniques and such studies are best left to journals on specific topics. The major objective of this text is to provide the basic microscopy techniques and specimen preparation methods applicable to polymers. The book will attempt to provide enough detail so that the methods described can be applied, and also to reference appropriate publications for the investigator interested in more detail. The selection of two authors for this text came from the desire for a comprehen sive review of polymer microscopy with emphasis on methods and techniques, rather than on research results. The synergism provided by two authors with widely varied backgrounds was thought to be important: one author (LCS) has an industrial focus and a background in chemistry whilst the other (DTG) has an academic environment and offers a background in polymer physics.

Principles of Polymer Design and Synthesis

Author : Wei-Fang Su
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How can a scientist or engineer synthesize and utilize polymers to solve our daily problems? This introductory text, aimed at the advanced undergraduate or graduate student, provides future scientists and engineers with the fundamental knowledge of polymer design and synthesis to achieve specific properties required in everyday applications. In the first five chapters, this book discusses the properties and characterization of polymers, since designing a polymer initially requires us to understand the effects of chemical structure on physical and chemical characteristics. Six further chapters discuss the principles of polymerization reactions including step, radical chain, ionic chain, chain copolymerization, coordination and ring opening. Finally, material is also included on how commonly known polymers are synthesized in a laboratory and a factory. This book is suitable for a one semester course in polymer chemistry and does not demand prior knowledge of polymer science.