Search results for: anthocyanins-as-flower-pigments

Anthocyanins as Flower Pigments

Author : T. Mulder-Krieger
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To date, several possibilities exist to change the genetics of plants including classical breeding and modern molecular biological approaches such as recombinant DNA techniques and plant trans formation methods. The aim of this publication is to review the feasibilities, offered by the current technologies, to modify flower colours. Due to the great importance of anthocyanins as flower pigments, the main part of this study deals with this class of flavonoids responsible for most red-, purple- and blue colours. Being electron deficient, the flavylium nucleus of the anthocyanins is highly reactive and undergoes - dependent upon pH - readily structural transformations which are coupled with colour changes. A number of mechanisms that stabilizes the coloured - at expense of the colourless structures in plants are described, including acylation, co pigmentation and metal complex formation. Because no plant species possesses the genetic capacity for producing varieties in the full spectrum of colours, man has looked for methods to change the genetic properties of plants. In recent years, conventional flower breeding is more and more being supplemented by genetic engineering techniques. This technology offers the possibility to insert specific genes into the cell genome and to transfer genes most efficiently between different organisms. The common flower pigments, the anthocyanins, have been studied for many years and represent now the best understood group of secondary plant metabolites with respect to (bio)chemistry and genetics.

Anthocyanins as Flower Pigments

Author : T. Mulder-Krieger
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To date, several possibilities exist to change the genetics of plants including classical breeding and modern molecular biological approaches such as recombinant DNA techniques and plant trans formation methods. The aim of this publication is to review the feasibilities, offered by the current technologies, to modify flower colours. Due to the great importance of anthocyanins as flower pigments, the main part of this study deals with this class of flavonoids responsible for most red-, purple- and blue colours. Being electron deficient, the flavylium nucleus of the anthocyanins is highly reactive and undergoes - dependent upon pH - readily structural transformations which are coupled with colour changes. A number of mechanisms that stabilizes the coloured - at expense of the colourless structures in plants are described, including acylation, co pigmentation and metal complex formation. Because no plant species possesses the genetic capacity for producing varieties in the full spectrum of colours, man has looked for methods to change the genetic properties of plants. In recent years, conventional flower breeding is more and more being supplemented by genetic engineering techniques. This technology offers the possibility to insert specific genes into the cell genome and to transfer genes most efficiently between different organisms. The common flower pigments, the anthocyanins, have been studied for many years and represent now the best understood group of secondary plant metabolites with respect to (bio)chemistry and genetics.

The Anthocyanin Pigments of Plants

Author : Muriel Wheldale Onslow
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Anthocyanins

Author : Kevin Gould
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In recent years there has been an unprecedented expansion of knowledge about anthocyanins pigments. Indeed, the molecular genetic control of anthocyanins biosynthesis is now one of the best understood of all secondary metabolic pathways. There have also been substantial improvements in analytical technology that have led to the discovery of novel anthocyanin compounds. Armed with this knowledge and the tools for genetic engineering, plant breeders are now introducing vibrant new colors into horticultural crops. The food industry has also benefited from the resurgence of interest in anthocyanins. A greater understanding of the chemistry of these pigments has led to improved methods for stabilizing the color of anthocyanins extracts, so that they are more useful as food colorings. Methods for the bulk production of anthocyanins from cell cultures have been optimized for this purpose. Possible benefits to human health from the ingestion of anthocyanin-rich foods have also been a major feature of the recent scientific literature. Anthocyanins are remarkably potent antioxidants, and their ingestion has been postulated to stave off the effects of oxidative stress. These pigments, especially in conjunction with other flavonoids, have been associated with reductions in the incidence and severity of many other non-infectious diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease and certain cancers. An industry is developing around anthocyanins as nutritional supplements. Finally, there has been significant progress in our understanding of the benefits of anthocyanins to plants themselves. Originally considered an extravagance without a purpose, anthocyanins are now implicated in multifarious vital functions. These include the attraction of pollinators and frugivores, aposematic defense from herbivores, and protection from environmental stressors such as strong light, UVB, drought, and free radical attacks. Anthocyanins are evidently highly versatile, and enormously useful to plants. This book covers all aspects of the biosynthesis and function of anthocyanins (and related compounds such as proanthocyanidins) in plants, and their applications in agriculture, food products, and human health. Featured areas include their relevance to: * Plant stress * Flower and fruit color * Human health * Wine quality and health attributes * Food colorants and ingredients * Cell culture production systems * The pastoral sector

The Anthocyanin Pigments of Plants

Author : Muriel Wheldale Onslow
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First paperback edition of the original text from 1925

Plant Biochemistry

Author : Hans-Walter Heldt
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1 A Leaf Cell Consists of Several Metabolic Compartments 2 The Use of Energy from Sunlight by Photosynthesis is the Basis of Life on Earth 3 Photosynthesis is an Electron Transport Process 4 ATP is Generated by Photosynthesis 5 Mitochondria are the Power Station of the Cell 6 The Calvin Cycle Catalyzes Photosynthetic CO2 Assimilation 7 In the Photorespiratory Pathway Phosphoglycolate Formed by the Oxygenase Activity of RubisCo is Recycled 8 Photosynthesis Implies the Consumption of Water 9 Polysaccharides are Storage and Transport Forms of Carbohydrates Produced by Photosynthesis 10Nitrate Assimilation is Essential for the Synthesis of Organic Matter 11 Nitrogen Fixation Enables the Nitrogen in the Air to be Used for Plant Growth 12 Sulfate Assimilation Enables the Synthesis of Sulfur Containing Substances 13 Phloem Transport Distributes Photoassimilates to the Various Sites of Consumption and Storage 14 Products of Nitrate Assimilation are Deposited in Plants as Storage Proteins 15 Glycerolipids are Membrane Constituents and Function as Carbon Stores 16 Secondary Metabolites Fulfill Specific Ecological Functions in Plants 17 Large Diversity of Isoprenoids has Multiple Funtions in Plant Metabolism 18 Phenylpropanoids Comprise a Multitude of Plant Secondary Metabolites and Cell Wall Components 19 Multiple Signals Regulate the Growth and Development of Plant Organs and Enable Their Adaptation to Environmental Conditions 20 A Plant Cell has Three Different Genomes 21 Protein Biosynthesis Occurs at Different Sites of a Cell 22 Gene Technology Makes it Possible to Alter Plants to Meet Requirements of Agriculture, Nutrition, and Industry.

The Anthocyanin Pigments of Plants

Author : Muriel Wheldale Onslow (Hon. Mrs.)
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Biological Pigments Advances in Research and Application 2012 Edition

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Biological Pigments—Advances in Research and Application: 2012 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Biological Pigments. The editors have built Biological Pigments—Advances in Research and Application: 2012 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Biological Pigments in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Biological Pigments—Advances in Research and Application: 2012 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

Der Stoffwechsel Sekund rer Pflanzenstoffe The Metabolism of Secondary Plant Products

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Fortschritte der Chemie Organischer Naturstoffe Progress in the Chemistry of Organic Natural Products

Author : L. Zechmeister
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BARTON und COHEN haben r9S7 in einer Arbeit "Some Biogenetic Aspects of Phenol Oxidation" (3) Dienone der allgemeinen Formel (I) als biogenetische Vorstufen bestimmter Aporphin-Alkaloide postuliert (S. 260). Strukturen dieses Typs wurden erstmals r963 fUr die Alkaloide D-( +)-Pronuciferin und D-( +)-Crotonosin bewiesen [BERNAUER (II); HAYNES, STUART, BARTON und KIRBY (35)]. Der fur solche Verbin­ dungen vorgeschlagene Sammelname "Proaporphine" (23, 65) bringt den in zwischen experimentell bewiesenen· biogenetischen Zusammenhang mit der Gruppe der Aporphin-Alkaloide zum Ausdruck, ist aber auch vom praparativ-chemischen Standpunkt sinnvoll, da sich Proaporphine (I) leicht in Aporphine (2) umwandeln lassen (S. 2S0). AuBer den Alkaloiden mit Dienongruppierung sind auch solche be­ kannt geworden, in welchen eine oder mehrere Doppelbindungen des Dienonsystems aushydriert sind; sie werden sinnvollerweise den Pro­ aporphinen zugerechnet. Dieser Aufsatz berucksichtigt alle natiirlichen Alkaloide und ihre wichtigsten Derivate sowie alle synthetischen Ver­ bindungen, die das Skelett (3) besitzen (Tabellen I-3, SS. 270-279). Er macht ausschlieBlich von der in (3) angegebenen Bezifferung Gebrauch, welche der Nomenklatur der IUPAC und der Chemical Abstracts ent­ spricht. Verbindung (I, R = H) ist wie folgt zu bezeichnen: 2',3',8',8'a-Tetra­ hydro-S',6'-dihydroxy-spiro[2,S-cyclohexadien-r,7'(r'H)-cyclopent[ij]-iso­ chinolin ]-4-on. R2 (2) K=H oder Alkyl (I) R=H oder Alkyl Rt=H,OH oder O-Alkyl Proaporphine Aporphine In den Originalarbeiten sind verschiedene, von der in (3) angegebenen ab­ weichende Bezifferungsarten verwendet worden. Keine hat sich allgemein durch­ gesetzt. Auch die von SLAViK (69) fur das sauerstofffreie Grundgerust der Pro­ aporphine vorgeschlagene Bezeichnung Mecambran hat keinen Eingang in die Literatur gefunden.