Search results for: apprenticeship-in-critical-ethnographic-practice

Apprenticeship in Critical Ethnographic Practice

Author : Jean Lave
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In this extended meditation, Jean Lave interweaves analysis of the process of apprenticeship among the Vai and Gola tailors of Liberia with reflections on the evolution of her research on those tailors in the late 1970s. In so doing, she provides both a detailed account of her apprenticeship in the art of sustained fieldwork and an insightful overview of thirty years of changes in the empirical and theoretical facets of ethnographic practice. Examining the issues she confronted in her own work, Lave shows how the critical questions raised by ethnographic research erode conventional assumptions, altering the direction of the work that follows. As ethnography takes on increasing significance to an ever widening field of thinkers on topics from education to ecology, this erudite but accessible book will be essential to anyone tackling the question of what it means to undertake critical and conceptually challenging fieldwork. Apprenticeship in Critical Ethnographic Practice explains how to seriously explore what it means to be human in a complex world—and why it is so important.

Advocating Heightened Education

Author : Kathleen F. McConnell
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Colleges and universities face unprecedented pressure to streamline and reduce their infrastructure. A new generation of reformers, frustrated by bureaucratic obstacles and rising costs, dream of education without schools. Those reforms, if realized, promise to render education indistinguishable from other social spheres. Advocating Heightened Education mobilizes situated theories of learning to advocate the labor and expense that goes into maintaining campuses. Higher education’s bulky and incommensurable institutions—from the community colleges and Ivy Leagues to the regional public universities and small liberal arts campuses—serve a critical modality. They ensure that educational forms remain visible and available for critique. Their diversity of form retains the possibility of divergent and transformative educational futures. This ethnographic and archival study of two alternative campuses, The Evergreen State College and California State University, Monterey Bay, illustrates how educators advocate their work by heightening its visibility and by modeling appreciation for situated teaching and inquiry. It provides examples of those advocacy techniques with stories of professional life and close readings of historical documents that include institutional and legislative reports, facilities memoranda, and course descriptions. These materials offer a vibrant counter-narrative to reform movements that seek to standardize the college experience. Scholars of higher education, pedagogy, and communication will find this book particularly interesting.

Disruptive Fixation

Author : Christo Sims
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In New York City in 2009, a new kind of public school opened its doors to its inaugural class of middle schoolers. Conceived by a team of game designers and progressive educational reformers and backed by prominent philanthropic foundations, it promised to reinvent the classroom for the digital age. Ethnographer Christo Sims documented the life of the school from its planning stages to the graduation of its first eighth-grade class. Disruptive Fixation is his account of how this "school for digital kids," heralded as a model of tech-driven educational reform, reverted to a more conventional type of schooling with rote learning, an emphasis on discipline, and traditional hierarchies of authority. Troubling gender and racialized class divisions also emerged. Sims shows how the philanthropic possibilities of new media technologies are repeatedly idealized even though actual interventions routinely fall short of the desired outcomes—often dramatically so. He traces the complex processes by which idealistic tech-reform perennially takes root, unsettles the worlds into which it intervenes, and eventually stabilizes in ways that remake and extend many of the social predicaments reformers hope to fix. Sims offers a nuanced look at the roles that powerful elites, experts, the media, and the intended beneficiaries of reform—in this case, the students and their parents—play in perpetuating the cycle. Disruptive Fixation offers a timely examination of techno-philanthropism and the yearnings and dilemmas it seeks to address, revealing what failed interventions do manage to accomplish—and for whom.

Linguistic Bodies

Author : Ezequiel A. Di Paolo
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A novel theoretical framework for an embodied, non-representational approach to language that extends and deepens enactive theory, bridging the gap between sensorimotor skills and language. Linguistic Bodies offers a fully embodied and fully social treatment of human language without positing mental representations. The authors present the first coherent, overarching theory that connects dynamical explanations of action and perception with language. Arguing from the assumption of a deep continuity between life and mind, they show that this continuity extends to language. Expanding and deepening enactive theory, they offer a constitutive account of language and the co-emergent phenomena of personhood, reflexivity, social normativity, and ideality. Language, they argue, is not something we add to a range of existing cognitive capacities but a new way of being embodied. Each of us is a linguistic body in a community of other linguistic bodies. The book describes three distinct yet entangled kinds of human embodiment, organic, sensorimotor, and intersubjective; it traces the emergence of linguistic sensitivities and introduces the novel concept of linguistic bodies; and it explores the implications of living as linguistic bodies in perpetual becoming, applying the concept of linguistic bodies to questions of language acquisition, parenting, autism, grammar, symbol, narrative, and gesture, and to such ethical concerns as microaggression, institutional speech, and pedagogy.

Affinity Online

Author : Mizuko Ito
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How online affinity networks expand learning and opportunity for young people Boyband One Direction fanfiction writers, gamers who solve math problems together, Harry Potter fans who knit for a cause. Across subcultures and geographies, young fans have found each other and formed community online, learning from one another along the way. From these and other in-depth case studies of online affinity networks, Affinity Online considers how young people have found new opportunities for expanded learning in the digital age. These cases reveal the shared characteristics and unique cultures and practices of different online affinity networks, and how they support “connected learning”—learning that brings together youth interests, social activity, and accomplishment in civic, academic, and career relevant arenas. Although involvement in online communities is an established fixture of growing up in the networked age, participation in these spaces show how young people are actively taking up new media for their own engaged learning and social development. While providing a wealth of positive examples for how the online world provides new opportunities for learning, the book also examines the ways in which these communities still reproduce inequalities based on gender, race, and socioeconomic status. The book concludes with a set of concrete suggestions for how the positive learning opportunities offered by online communities could be made available to more young people, at school and at home. Affinity Online explores how online practices and networks bridge the divide between in-school and out-of-school learning, finding that online affinity networks are creating new spaces of opportunity for realizing the ideals of connected learning.

Teaching in Further Education

Author : L. B. Curzon
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Jonathan Tummons has sensitively updated Curzon's long-established Teaching in Further Education, ensuring that not only does this new edition provide the academically rigorous approach of previous editions but it also offers an up to date guide to current practice and research. Topics covered include: - Theories of learning - The teaching-learning process - Instructional techniques - Assessment and evaluation - Intelligence and ability This is the complete guide for those training to work in the Further Education sector.

A Companion to the Anthropology of Education

Author : Bradley A. Levinson
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A Companion to the Anthropology of Education presents a comprehensive and state-of-the-art overview of the field, exploring the social and cultural dimension of educational processes in both formal and nonformal settings. Explores theoretical and applied approaches to cultural practice in a diverse range of educational settings around the world, in both formal and non-formal contexts Includes contributions by leading educational anthropologists Integrates work from and on many different national systems of scholarship, including China, the United States, Africa, the Middle East, Colombia, Mexico, India, the United Kingdom, and Denmark Examines the consequences of history, cultural diversity, language policies, governmental mandates, inequality, and literacy for everyday educational processes

Learning and Everyday Life

Author : Jean Lave
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An incisive study of situated learning, analyzed through a critical theory of social practice as transformational change in everyday life.

Childhood Deployed

Author : Susan Shepler
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Childhood Deployed examines the reintegration of former child soldiers in Sierra Leone. Based on eighteen months of participant-observer ethnographic fieldwork and ten years of follow-up research, the book argues that there is a fundamental disconnect between the Western idea of the child soldier and the individual lived experiences of the child soldiers of Sierra Leone. Susan Shepler contends that the reintegration of former child soldiers is a political process having to do with changing notions of childhood as one of the central structures of society. For most Westerners the tragedy of the idea of “child soldier” centers around perceptions of lost and violated innocence. In contrast, Shepler finds that for most Sierra Leoneans, the problem is not lost innocence but the horror of being separated from one’s family and the resulting generational break in youth education. Further, Shepler argues that Sierra Leonean former child soldiers find themselves forced to strategically perform (or refuse to perform) as the“child soldier” Western human rights initiatives expect in order to most effectively gain access to the resources available for their social reintegration. The strategies don’t always work—in some cases, Shepler finds, Western human rights initiatives do more harm than good. While this volume focuses on the well-known case of child soldiers in Sierra Leone, it speaks to the larger concerns of childhood studies with a detailed ethnography of people struggling over the situated meaning of the categories of childhood.It offers an example of the cultural politics of childhood in action, in which the very definition of childhood is at stake and an important site of political contestation.

Critical Investigations Into Interns Urban Teaching Apprenticeship Experiences

Author : John Lockhart
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A critical task for public school teachers is to build and maintain productive relationships with their students, especially to facilitate learning. That task is particularly important in preparing new teachers for urban schools because cultural differences between the majority of urban teachers and their students can complicate and impair those relationships. Multicultural education literature often describes and analyzes preservice teachers--typically white, middle class, not urban, and often female--who are entering urban environments as being resistant to learning about race and class. That research has usually been conducted on preservice teachers in their coursework, often in the lone required diversity course, and apart from practice work in the schools. This study is guided by the theory that in situations, people rely upon the habits of thought, feeling, attitude, and action they've developed through interaction with others, and that people experience a strong continuity in the use of those habits during life. Though these habits may help one to negotiate situations, they may also be a hindrance, especially in situations significantly different from familiar ones. I studied three interns from white, middle class, suburban and rural backgrounds who were placed in urban high schools with many nonwhite students from working class backgrounds, to examine this central question: How did the three interns use the habits they formed as honors students in mainly white, monolingual, middle-class, rural or suburban schools and communities with their characteristics, to forge conceptions and practices for teaching students in urban high schools and communities with characteristics that differ appreciably? I conducted this study in the interns' placements using classroom observations, follow-up interviews, and data from university coursework to analyze the meaning of the intern's experiences for them. I highlight how interns' habitual views of race and class were consistent with descriptions in the literature and impacted their practices. However, I also analyze an important dimension not often considered: how interns' habits of being good students hindered their abilities to connect with their students, who generally did not have the same positive attitude toward schools as the interns. I then present a case study of each intern to analyze their teaching practices, which mostly involved lecture, worksheets, and recitation. In doing so, I demonstrate how resistance was operating, but also show a variety of factors that complicated interns' efforts to develop competence as teachers, including their efforts to form relationships with their students. I explore how the interns made sense of their situations in ways that negated issues of race and class. Because the interns' struggles to learn how to teach included, but exceeded, the scope of the resistance argument, I argue for a reconceptualization of resistance that recognizes it as an expected reaction when a piece of an intern's valued identity is under assault by experiences for which habits are largely unequipped to deal. I argue that such a conceptualization can help teacher educators to work with interns more effectively as learners in very unfamiliar and uncomfortable territory. I discuss some possible directions for teaching and research for teacher educators who undertake the charge of preparing future teachers to work with students from different backgrounds. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest llc. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page: http://www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.].

Sorcerer s Apprentice

Author : Judith Gregory
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Revue Canadienne de Recherche en Sciences Infirmi res

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A Critical Discourse Analysis of Family Literacy Practices

Author : Rebecca Rogers
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In this groundbreaking, cross-disciplinary book, Rebecca Rogers explores the complexity of family literacy practices through an in-depth case study of one family, the attendant issues of power and identity, and contemporary social debates about the connections between literacy and society. The study focuses on June Treader and her daughter Vicky, urban African Americans labeled as "low income" and "low literate." Using participant-observation, ethnographic interviewing, photography, document collection, and discourse analysis, Rogers describes and explains the complexities of identity, power, and discursive practices that June and Vicky engage with in their daily life as they proficiently, critically, and strategically negotiate language and literacy in their home and community. She explores why, despite their proficiencies, neither June or Vicky sees themselves as literate, and how this and other contradictions prevent them from transforming their literate capital into social profit. This study contributes in multiple ways to extending both theoretically and empirically existing research on literacy, identity, and power: * Critical discourse analysis. The analytic technique of critical discourse analysis is brought into the area of family literacy. The detailed explanation, interpretation, and demonstration of critical discourse analysis will be extremely helpful for novices learning to use this technique. This is a timely book, for there are few ethnographic studies exploring the usefulness and limits of critical discourse analysis. * Combines critical discourse analysis and ethnography. This new synthesis, which is thoroughly illustrated, offers an explanatory framework for the stronghold of institutional discursive power. Using critical discourse analysis as a methodological tool in order to build critical language awareness in classrooms and schools, educators working toward a critical social democracy may be better armed to recognize sources of inequity. * Researcher reflexivity. Unlike most critical discourse analyses, throughout the book the researcher and analyst is clearly visible and complicated into the role of power and language. This practice allows clearer analysis of the ethical, moral, and theoretical implications in conducting ethnographic research concerned with issues of power. * A critical perspective on family literacy. Many discussions of family literacy do not acknowledge the raced, classed, and gendered nature of interacting with texts that constitutes a family's literacy practices. This book makes clear how the power relationships that are acquired as children and adults interact with literacy in the many domains of a family's literacy lives. A Critical Discourse Analysis of Family Literacy Practices: Power In and Out of Print will interest researchers and practitioners in the fields of qualitative methodology, discourse analysis, critical discourse studies, literacy education, and adult literacy, and is highly relevant as a text for courses in these areas.

Dissertation Abstracts International

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Of One Accord

Author : A. L. Anderson
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Participation Learning and a Trajectory of Development

Author : KaiLonnie Dunsmore
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Journal of the Society of Arts

Author :
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Literacies Across Educational Contexts

Author : Brian V. Street
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"International scholars and practitioners apply the principles of the New Literacy Studies, which views literacy as a social practice, to diverse educational contexts. Sixteen case studies explore what it means for students of all ages to learn and teachers to teach across diverse contexts"--Provided by the publisher.

Learning in School University Partnership

Author : Amy B.M. Tsui
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This volume looks at school-university partnerships from sociocultural perspectives of learning that view participation in social practice as fundamental to the process of learning. Its two major themes – school-university partnership and sociocultural and social theories of learning – have both been treated extensively in the literature. It is the bringing together of these two themes that makes this book unique. In this examination of an evolving model of school-university partnership, the Unified Professional Development Project in Hong Kong, the authors analyze the learning that takes place as the participants (student-teachers, mentor teachers, and university supervisors) mutually engage in the enterprise of improving teaching and learning in schools, developing shared practices, and creating new communities of practice. Although it describes one specific context, the book is not just about this locale. Rather, the Unified Professional Development Project is used as a context for theorizing more generally a social theory of learning for school-university partnerships that is relevant to any other similar context. This book will interest teacher educators, researchers in teacher education and teacher development, policy makers, and school practitioners who are involved in school-university partnerships.

Critical Multiculturalism

Author : Barry Kanpol
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Diverse writers show how different radical theories of education interact to find commonality and solidarity.