Search results for: aristotle-s-first-principles

Aristotle s First Principles

Author : Terence Irwin
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Aristotle's reliance on dialectic as a method of philosophy appears to conflict with his metaphysical realist view of his conclusions. This book explores Aristotle's philosophical method and the merits of his conclusions, and shows how he defends dialectic against the objection that it cannot justify a metaphysical realist's claims. The author does not presuppose extensive previous acquaintance with Aristotle. Greek texts are translated, and Greek words transliterated.

First Principles Substance and Action

Author : Fernando Inciarte
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Aristotle s First Principles

Author : Terence Irwin
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Aristotle's reliance on dialectic as a method of philosophy appears to conflict with his metaphysical realist view of his conclusions. This book explores Aristotle's philosophical method and the merits of his conclusions, and shows how he defends dialectic against the objection that it cannot justify a metaphysical realist's claims. The author does not presuppose extensive previous acquaintance with Aristotle. Greek texts are translated, and Greek words transliterated.

Teleology First Principles and Scientific Method in Aristotle s Biology

Author : Allan Gotthelf
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This volume draws together Allan Gotthelf's pioneering work on Aristotle's biology. He examines Aristotle's natural teleology, the axiomatic structure of biological explanation, and the reliance on scientifically organized data in the three great works with which Aristotle laid the foundations of biological science.

Initiation and Control of Gait from First Principles A Mathematically Animated Model of the Foot

Author : Craig Nevin
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This thesis examines the anatomical locations of the dynamic pressures that create the first five footprints when a standing person starts to walk. It is hypothesized that the primary activity starts with the dorsiflexion or lifting of the great toe. Consequently, the metatarsophalangeal region of the forefoot was studied from three directions. Viewed side-on, the great toe free-body is found from a detailed post hoc analysis of previous kinematic data obtained from cadavers to operate as a cam. The cam model also follows closely from Aristotle's ancient description of the hinged instrument of animate motion. Viewed in coronal cross-section, the first metatarsal torsion strength was estimated in 13 humans, 1 gorilla, 3 chimpanzees, 1 orangutan and 1 baboon set of dry-bone specimens of the hands and feet. The first metatarsal bone alone contributes 43% of the total strength of all the metatarsal bones. A result unique amongst the hominids and apes studied. Viewed in horizontal plan, the dynamic components and principle axes of the footprints of 54 barefoot humans (32 male, 22 female, age 32 +-11 years) were studied whilst standing on a 0.5m pressure plate, and then immediately when walking over a 2m plate (4 sensors per cm2 sampled at 100hz). Two footprints were obtained during the initial stance posture, and the first three footprints of the initial walk. Three new principles of animate motion were deduced from the divergent results obtained from complete and dissected cadavers: The metatarsal cam (from the sagittal side view) the ground reaction torque (from the frontal coronal view) and the amputation artifact. The philosophy of experimenting on inanimate cadavers rather than living subjects was intensively researched. Instead of assuming that gait is a uniform or regular motion as is usual, the foot was analyzed rather as if it was a beam attached to the ground. Engineering equations were used to determine the flexural properties of the foot every 0.01 seconds, including the principle axes, radius of gyration and the local shear stresses on the sensors spaced 5-7mm apart. A sequence of these impressions creates a mathematically animated model of the footprint. The local force under the foot was normalized against both the total force and contact duration. The forces under the foot were each divided between 10 anatomical regions using individual masks for each foot strike. Producing a 54-subject database from which the normal behavior of the foot could be quantified. The group showed a surprisingly low right foot step-off dominance of only 54%. The combination of the radius of gyration and impulse in particular produces a succinct but powerful summary of the footprint during dynamic activity. The initial angle and magnitudes of the loads that are applied and removed demonstrates that the body first rocks onto the heels after the instruction to walk is given. The feet simultaneously invert and their arches rise off the ground as anticipated. The principle axes were then animated in a mathematical four-dimensional model. The horizontal radius of gyration is on average 5 cm during heel strike, but increases to 20 cm as the forefoot comes into contact with the ground, finally rising to 25 cm at toe-off. Significantly the applied load during the fore-foot loading phase is more widely distributed than the load being removed. A new and unanticipated result that is believed to be a special characteristic of the animate foot. The standard deviation of the force under the great toe is the first mechanical parameter to converge in the 54 subjects, conclusively verifying the hypothesis that the great toe both initiates and controls gait.

Theophrastus On First Principles

Author : Théophraste
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Simultaneous critical editions based on all available evidence, with an introduction, English translations, and commentaries of the Greek text and a medieval Arabic translation of Theophrastus s "On First Principles" ( metaphysics ), together with a methodological excursus on Graeco-Arabic editorial technique and normative glossary.

Commentary on Aristotle s Physics

Author : Kenneth W. Thomas
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Theophrastus On First Principles known as his Metaphysics

Author : Dimitri Gutas
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Simultaneous critical editions based on all available evidence, with an introduction, English translations, and commentaries of the Greek text and a medieval Arabic translation of Theophrastus’s On First Principles (“metaphysics”), together with a methodological excursus on Graeco-Arabic editorial technique and normative glossary.

Aristotle s Physics Book I

Author : Diana Quarantotto
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This book provides a comprehensive and in-depth study of Physics I, the first book of Aristotle's foundational treatise on natural philosophy. While the text has inspired a rich scholarly literature, this is the first volume devoted solely to it to have been published for many years, and it includes a new translation of the Greek text. Book I introduces Aristotle's approach to topics such as matter and form, and discusses the fundamental problems of the study of natural science, examining the theories of previous thinkers including Parmenides. Leading experts provide fresh interpretations of key passages and raise new problems. The volume will appeal to scholars and students of ancient philosophy as well as to specialists working in the fields of philosophy and the history of science.

An Examination of First Principles in Thought and Being in the Light of Aristotle and Aquinas

Author : James Bacon Sullivan
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