Search results for: atmospheric-chemical-compounds

Atmospheric Chemical Compounds

Author : T. E. Graedel
File Size : 77.68 MB
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This practical reference examines the structure and properties of the atmosphere, including listings of compounds in clouds, fog, rain, snow, and ice; a listing of compounds detected in the stratosphere; and a compendium of compounds in indoor air. An introduction to carcinogenicity and bioassay of atmospheric compounds is also presented. Readers will find the extensive cross-referencing especially useful--compounds can be located by chemical type, name, CAS registry number, or source.

Volatile Organic Compounds in the Atmosphere

Author : Ralf Koppmann
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Every day, large quantities of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted into the atmosphere from both anthropogenic and natural sources. The formation of gaseous and particulate secondary products caused by oxidation of VOCs is one of the largest unknowns in the quantitative prediction of the earth’s climate on a regional and global scale, and on the understanding of local air quality. To be able to model and control their impact, it is essential to understand the sources of VOCs, their distribution in the atmosphere and the chemical transformations which remove these compounds from the atmosphere. In recent years techniques for the analysis of organic compounds in the atmosphere have been developed to increase the spectrum of detectable compounds and their detection limits. New methods have been introduced to increase the time resolution of those measurements and to resolve more complex mixtures of organic compounds. Volatile Organic Compounds in the Atmosphere describes the current state of knowledge of the chemistry of VOCs as well as the methods and techniques to analyse gaseous and particulate organic compounds in the atmosphere. The aim is to provide an authoritative review to address the needs of both graduate students and active researchers in the field of atmospheric chemistry research.

Chemical Compounds in The Atmosphere

Author : T Graedel
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Chemical Compounds in the Atmosphere deals with the chemistry of organic and inorganic compounds found in the atmosphere, including rare gases and compounds of oxygen and hydrogen, halogenated aromatic compounds, and organometallic compounds. The sources and concentrations of atmospheric trace gases are discussed, along with their chemical reactions and ultimate fates. The compounds are divided into groups on the basis of chemical constituent or chemical structure. Comprised of 10 chapters, this book opens with an overview of atmospheric composition and atmospheric chemistry, followed by a discussion on inorganic compounds present in the troposphere such as rare gases and compounds containing nitrogen, sulfur, and halogens. The next chapters focus on hydrocarbons such as alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes; carbonyl compounds such as ketones and aldehydes; oxygenated and nitrogen- and sulfur-containing organic compounds; organic halogenated compounds such as mercaptans and thiocyanates; and organometallic compounds such as organophosphorus pesticides. The final chapter is a synthesis of data on atmospheric compounds mentioned in this text, with emphasis on their occurrence, sources, oxidation, and lifetimes. The chemistry of acid rain is also considered. This monograph will be of value to those engaged in atmospheric measurements, theoretical and laboratory studies of chemical parameters relevant to the atmosphere, and air quality assessments.

Atmospheric Chemistry

Author : Ann M Holloway
File Size : 63.93 MB
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Atmospheric Chemistry provides readers with a basic knowledge of the chemistry of Earth's atmosphere, and an understanding of the role that chemical transformations play in this vital part of our environment. The composition of the 'natural' atmosphere (troposphere, stratosphere and mesosphere) is described in terms of the physical and chemical cycles that govern the behaviour of the major and the many minor species present, and of the atmospheric lifetimes of those species. An extension of these ideas leads to a discussion of the impacts of Man's activities on the atmosphere, and to an understanding of some of the most important environmental issues of our time. One thread of the book explains how living organisms alter the composition and pressures in the atmosphere, modify temperatures, and change the intensity and wavelength-distribution of light arriving from the Sun. Meanwhile, the living organisms on Earth have depended on these very same environmental conditions being satisfactory for the maintenance and evolution of life. There thus appear to be two-way interactions between life and the atmosphere. Man, just one species of living organism, has developed an unfortunate ability to interfere with the feedbacks that seem to have maintained the atmosphere to be supportive of surface life for more than 3.5 billion years. This book will help chemists to understand the background to the problems that arise from such interference. The structure of the book and the development of the subject deviate somewhat from those usually encountered. Important and recurring concepts are presented in outline first, before more detailed discussions of the atmospheric behaviour of specific chemical species. Examples of such themes are the sources and sinks of trace gases, and their budgets and lifetimes. That is, the emphasis is initially on the principles of the subject, with the finer points emerging at later points in the book, sometimes in several successive chapters. In this way, some of the core material gets repeated exposure, but in new ways and in new contexts. The book is written at a level that makes it accessible to undergraduate chemists, and in a manner that should make it interesting to them. However, the material presented forms a solid base for those who are extending their studies to a higher level, and it will also provide non-specialists with the background to an understanding of Man's several and varied threats to the atmosphere. Well-informed citizens can then better assess measures proposed to prevent or alleviate the potential damage, and policy makers more realistically formulate the necessary controls on a sound scientific foundation.

An Introduction to Air Chemistry

Author : Samuel Butcher
File Size : 61.8 MB
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An Introduction to Air Chemistry serves as a textbook on air chemistry and covers topics such as chemical principles, sampling and collection, treatment of data, and special methods of analysis. The atmospheric chemistry of sulfur compounds is also discussed, together with nitrogen compounds and ozone, aerosols, and carbon compounds. This book is comprised of nine chapters and begins with a review of the relevant chemical and meteorological principles. The general methods for obtaining and handling air chemical data are then described, followed by a discussion on three classes of chemical compounds that are important in any consideration of trace constituents of the atmosphere, namely, sulfur compounds, carbon compounds, and nitrogen compounds and ozone. Significant atmospheric reactions, the global budgets, and selected methods of analysis for these compounds are considered. The final chapter examines some of the physical characteristics of aerosols. This monograph will be a valuable resource for upper-level undergraduate and graduate-level students of analytical chemistry, meteorology, oceanography, and civil engineering, as well as for laboratory chemists, meteorologists, physical scientists, and technicians.

Global Aspects of Atmospheric Chemistry

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Atmospheric Chemistry has been a rapidly growing field with a recent focus on the major aspects of global environmental change, including stratospheric ozone depletion, UV-B change, and global warming. This book describes recent developments in our understanding of the global aspects of the chemistry in the main parts of the atmosphere, troposphere, and stratosphere, as obtained from field observations, laboratory investigations, and modeling studies. Although this chemistry is largely driven by reactions between gas phase species, recent progress made in the understanding of chemical reactions occuring in clouds and on the surface of aerosols is also reported.

Atmospheric Pollution

Author : Mark Z. Jacobson
File Size : 72.67 MB
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Atmospheric Chemistry

Author : Julian Heicklen
File Size : 68.49 MB
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Fundamentals and Processes

Author : Detlev Möller
File Size : 46.88 MB
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Climate change is a major challenge facing modern society. The chemistry of air and its influence on the climate system forms the main focus of this book. Vol. 1 of Chemistry of the Climate System provides the reader with a physicochemical understanding of atmospheric processes. The chemical substances and reactions found in the Earth's atmosphere are presented along with their influence on the global climate system.

Atmospheric Chemistry

Author : Barbara J. Finlayson-Pitts
File Size : 37.34 MB
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Provides comprehensive coverage of the new and emerging discipline of atmospheric chemistry. Starting with the fundamentals of kinetics and photochemistry, it shows how the experimental techniques in these areas are applied to the study and control of chemical reactions in the troposphere. Gives detailed analysis of such major societal issues as smog, acid rain and volatile toxic organics, and treats the seven criteria pollutants considered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to be hazardous, as well as a variety of trace non-criteria pollutants, such as those cited in the Clean Air Act of 1977. Also included is a comprehensive bibliography and over 340 illustrations.