Search results for: biology-of-termites-a-modern-synthesis

Biology of Termites a Modern Synthesis

Author : David Edward Bignell
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Biology of Termites, a Modern Synthesis brings together the major advances in termite biology, phylogenetics, social evolution and biogeography. In this new volume, David Bignell, Yves Roisin and Nathan Lo have brought together leading experts on termite taxonomy, behaviour, genetics, caste differentiation, physiology, microbiology, mound architecture, biogeography and control. Very strong evolutionary and developmental themes run through the individual chapters, fed by new data streams from molecular sequencing, and for the first time it is possible to compare the social organisation of termites with that of the social Hymenoptera, focusing on caste determination, population genetics, cooperative behaviour, nest hygiene and symbioses with microorganisms. New chapters have been added on termite pheromones, termites as pests of agriculture and on destructive invasive species.

Biology of Termites a Modern Synthesis

Author : David Edward Bignell
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Biology of Termites, a Modern Synthesis brings together the major advances in termite biology, phylogenetics, social evolution and biogeography. In this new volume, David Bignell, Yves Roisin and Nathan Lo have brought together leading experts on termite taxonomy, behaviour, genetics, caste differentiation, physiology, microbiology, mound architecture, biogeography and control. Very strong evolutionary and developmental themes run through the individual chapters, fed by new data streams from molecular sequencing, and for the first time it is possible to compare the social organisation of termites with that of the social Hymenoptera, focusing on caste determination, population genetics, cooperative behaviour, nest hygiene and symbioses with microorganisms. New chapters have been added on termite pheromones, termites as pests of agriculture and on destructive invasive species.

Biodeterioration of Wooden Cultural Heritage

Author : Anastasia Pournou
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Since prehistoric times and throughout the course of human evolution, wood has been an integral part of all civilizations. Wooden Cultural Heritage can be found worldwide, providing valuable information on the social and economic context of human history. Nonetheless, as a natural cellulosic material, wood shows low resistance to biodeterioration and thus wooden Cultural Heritage often fails to escape decomposition in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. This book provides a comprehensive overview on the biodeterioration of wooden Cultural Heritage and describes the decay mechanisms of key organisms and microorganisms encountered in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Cultural Heritage professionals, researchers and academics may explore within this book the associations between deteriogens, habitats and decay, which will assist them to understand wood biodeterioration and design effective prevention, mitigation and remediation strategies. The book presents case studies around the world to demonstrate the impact of biogenic deterioration on wooden Cultural Heritage and illustrates mechanisms and patterns in order to be a useful handbook of decay diagnosis. Lastly, by adopting a holistic approach to wood decay, basic concepts of wood technology, ecology, and deteriogens' biology are introduced, permitting readers of different scientific backgrounds to easily comprehend wood biodeterioration.

Beneficial Microorganisms in Multicellular Life Forms

Author : Eugene Rosenberg
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All animals and plants form associations with hundreds or thousands of different beneficial microorganisms. These symbiotic microbes play an important role in the development, adaptation, health and evolution of their hosts. This book brings together a group of diverse biologists to discuss microbial interactions with multicellular life forms including insects, corals, plants, and mammals, including humans. The various mechanisms by which microorganisms benefit their hosts are discussed, including providing essential nutrients, preventing disease, inducing the immune system, and combating stress. Since the microbiota can be transferred from parent to offspring, it plays an important role in the origin and evolution of animal and plant species. This book should be of interest to the widest range of biological scientists, merging the studies of host and microbial physiology, symbiosis, and the ecology and evolution of symbiotic partners.

Comparative Social Evolution

Author : Dustin R. Rubenstein
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Darwin famously described special difficulties in explaining social evolution in insects. More than a century later, the evolution of sociality - defined broadly as cooperative group living - remains one of the most intriguing problems in biology. Providing a unique perspective on the study of social evolution, this volume synthesizes the features of animal social life across the principle taxonomic groups in which sociality has evolved. The chapters explore sociality in a range of species, from ants to primates, highlighting key natural and life history data and providing a comparative view across animal societies. In establishing a single framework for a common, trait-based approach towards social synthesis, this volume will enable graduate students and investigators new to the field to systematically compare taxonomic groups and reinvigorate comparative approaches to studying animal social evolution.

Saproxylic Insects

Author : Michael D. Ulyshen
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This volume offers extensive information on insect life in dying and dead wood. Written and reviewed by leading experts from around the world, the twenty-five chapters included here provide the most global coverage possible and specifically address less-studied taxa and topics. An overarching goal of this work is to unite literature that has become fragmented along taxonomic and geographic lines. A particular effort was made to recognize the dominant roles that social insects (e.g., termites, ants and passalid beetles) play in saproxylic assemblages in many parts of the world without overlooking the non-social members of these communities. The book is divided into four parts: · Part I “Diversity” includes chapters addressing the major orders of saproxylic insects (Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera, Hemiptera, Lepidoptera and Blattodea), broadly organized in decreasing order of estimated global saproxylic diversity. In addition to order-level treatments, some chapters in this part discuss groups of particular interest, including pollinators, hymenopteran parasitoids, ants, stag and passalid beetles, and wood-feeding termites. · Part II “Ecology” discusses insect-fungal and insect-insect interactions, nutritional ecology, dispersal, seasonality, and vertical stratification. · Part III “Conservation” focuses on the importance of primary forests for saproxylic insects, offers recommendations for conserving these organisms in managed forests, discusses the relationships between saproxylic insects and fire, and addresses the value of tree hollows and highly-decomposed wood for saproxylic insects. Utilization of non-native wood by saproxylic insects and the suitability of urban environments for these organisms are also covered. · Lastly, Part IV “Methodological Advancements” highlights molecular tools for assessing saproxylic diversity. The book offers an accessible and insightful resource for natural historians of all kinds and will especially appeal to entomologists, ecologists, conservationists and foresters.

Termites and Sustainable Management

Author : Md. Aslam Khan
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This Volume comprises 12 chapters in an attempt to bring available information on biology, social behavour and economic importance of termites. Chapters in this book dealing with termites identification provide a review on most updated information of their systematics. Ecologically, termites interact with living and non-living surroundings and deliver a wide range of behaviors. In a separate chapter termites ecology is examined and explored. Termites depend on their gut microbes for digestion of complex polysaccharides of wood into simpler molecules. Information provided on termite gut microbiome and lignocellulose degradation constitutes an important contribution. Termite biology and social behaviour have been addressed comprehensively. Trail pheromones are responsible for the orientation and recruitment of nestmates to the food sources. Once arriving at a potential food source, termites assess its quality using a different set of cues. A separate chapter on trail pheromones, cues used during foraging and food assessment, with preferences for foraging sites, contributes a wealth of information. Emphasis has been given on reviewing ecological benefits of termites in other chapters. The information with respect to termite species as an edible insect and the overall role it plays in food and nutrition security in Africa is quite informative. A separate chapter dealing with importance of termites and termitaria in mineral exploration constitutes a significant step in addressing the economic importance of this insect group.

Rhythms of Insect Evolution

Author : Dong Ren
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Documents morphology, taxonomy, phylogeny, evolutionary changes, and interactions of 23 orders of insects from the Middle Jurassic and Early Cretaceous faunas in Northern China This book showcases 23 different orders of insect fossils from the Mid Mesozoic period (165 to 125 Ma) that were discovered in Northeastern China. It covers not only their taxonomy and morphology, but also their potential implications on natural sciences, such as phylogeny, function, interaction, evolution, and ecology. It covers fossil sites; paleogeology; co-existing animals and plants in well-balanced eco-systems; insects in the spotlight; morphological evolution and functional development; and interactions of insects with co-existing plants, vertebrates, and other insects. The book also includes many elegant and beautiful photographs, line drawings, and 3-D reconstructions of fossilized and extant insects. Rhythms of Insect Evolution: Evidence from the Jurassic and Cretaceous in Northern China features chapter coverage of such insects as the: Ephemeroptera; Odonata; Blattaria; Isoptera; Orthoptera; Notoptera; Dermaptera; Chresmodidae; Phasmatodea; Plecoptera; Psocoptera; Homoptera; Heteroptera; Megaloptera; Raphidioptera; Neuroptera; Coleoptera; Hymenoptera Diptera; Mecoptera; Siphonaptera; Trichoptera and Lepidoptera. Combines academic natural science, popular science, and artistic presentation to illustrate rhythms of evolution for fossil insects from the Mid Mesozoic of Northern China Documents morphology, taxonomy, phylogeny, and evolutionary changes of 23 orders of insects from the Middle Jurassic and Early Cretaceous faunas in Northern China Presents interactions of insects with plants, vertebrates, and other insects based on well-preserved fossil evidence Uses photos of extant insects and plants, fossil and amber specimens, line drawings, and 3-D computer-generated reconstruction artworks to give readers clear and enjoyable impressions of the scientific findings Introduces insect-related stories from western and Chinese culture in text or sidebars to give global readers broader exposures Rhythms of Insect Evolution: Evidence from the Jurassic and Cretaceous in Northern China will appeal to entomologists, evolutionists, paleontologists, paleoecologists, and natural scientists.

Advances in Genomics and Epigenomics of Social Insects

Author : Greg J. Hunt
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Social insects are among the most successful and ecologically important animals on earth. The lifestyle of these insects has fascinated humans since prehistoric times. These species evolved a caste of workers that in most cases have no progeny. Some social insects have worker sub-castes that are morphologically specialized for discrete tasks. The organization of the social insect colony has been compared to the metazoan body. Males in the order Hymenoptera (bees, ants and wasps) are haploid, a situation which results in higher relatedness between female siblings. Sociality evolved many times within the Hymenoptera, perhaps spurred in part by increased relatedness that increases inclusive fitness benefits to workers cooperating to raise their sisters and brothers rather than reproducing themselves. But epigenetic processes may also have contributed to the evolution of sociality. The Hymenoptera provide opportunities for comparative study of species ranging from solitary to highly social. A more ancient clade of social insects, the termites (infraorder Isoptera) provide an opportunity to study alternative mechanisms of caste determination and lifestyles that are aided by an array of endosymbionts. This research topic explores the use of genome sequence data and genomic techniques to help us explore how sociality evolved in insects, how epigenetic processes enable phenotypic plasticity, and the mechanisms behind whether a female will become a queen or a worker.

Measuring Arthropod Biodiversity

Author : Jean Carlos Santos
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This book brings together a wide range of sampling methods for investigating different arthropod groups. Each chapter is organised to describe and evaluate the main sampling methods (field methods, materials and supplies, sampling protocols, effort needed, and limitations); in addition, some chapters describe the specimen preparation and conservation, species identification, data collection and management (treatment, statistical analysis, interpretation), and ecological/conservation implications of arthropod communities. The book aims to be a reference for zoologists, entomologists, arachnologists, ecologists, students, researchers, and for those interested in arthropod science and biodiversity. We hope the book will contribute to advance knowledge on field assessments and conservation strategies. Arthropods represent the most speciose group of organisms on Earth, with a remarkable number of species and interactions still to be described. These invertebrates are recognized for playing key ecological roles in terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems. Because of the increasing and relentless threats arthropods are facing lately due to a multitude of human induced drivers, this book represents an important contribution to assess their biodiversity and role in ecosystem functioning and generation of ecosystem services worldwide.

Polyphagous Pests of Crops

Author : Omkar
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Microbial Drivers of Sociality from Multicellularity to Animal Societies

Author : Dino McMahon
File Size : 47.97 MB
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Biological Concerstion of Biomass for Fuels and Chemicals

Author : Jianzhong Sun
File Size : 75.36 MB
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This book covers biomass modification to facilitate the industrial degradation processing and other characteristics of feedstocks and new technologies for the conversion of lignocelluloses into biofuels and other products.

Microbial Diversity and Ecology in Hotspots

Author : Aparna Gunjal
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Microbial Diversity in Hotspots provides an introduction to microbial diversity and microbes in different hotspots and threatened areas. The book gives insights on extremophiles, phyllosphere and rhizosphere, covers fungal diversity, conservation and microbial association, focuses on biodiversity acts and policies, and includes cases studies. Microbes explored are from the coldest to the hottest areas of the world. Although hotspots are zones with extremely high microbiology activities, the knowledge of microbial diversity from these areas is very limited, hence this is a welcome addition to existing resources. Provides an introduction to microbial biotechnology Addresses novel approaches to the study of microbial diversity in hotspots Provides the basics, along with advanced information on microbial diversity Discusses the techniques used to examine microbial diversity with their applications and respective pros and cons for sustainability Explores the importance of microbial genomes studies in commercial applications

Genomics Physiology and Behaviour of Social Insects

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Physiology, Behavior, Genomics of Social Insects provides comprehensive information on the social insect groups described, including new and unique reviews on emerging model social organisms. The book's interdisciplinary approach integrates behavior, genomics, and physiology, providing readers with great insights into the present state of a rapidly expanding area of research. It also discusses areas where new research tools will bring hope to longstanding problems. Provides the latest research on the genomics, behavior and physiology of social insects Presents diverse and authoritative syntheses on the relationship between genomics, physiology, and the fascinating behavior of social insects Takes an in-depth look of the current state of social insect research and its future path

The Atlantic Forest

Author : Marcia C. M. Marques
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The Atlantic Forest is one of the 36 hotspots for biodiversity conservation worldwide. It is a unique, large biome (more than 3000 km in latitude; 2500 in longitude), marked by high biodiversity, high degree of endemic species and, at the same time, extremely threatened. Approximately 70% of the Brazilian population lives in the area of this biome, which makes the conflict between biodiversity conservation and the sustainability of the human population a relevant issue. This book aims to cover: 1) the historical characterization and geographic variation of the biome; 2) the distribution of the diversity of some relevant taxa; 3) the main threats to biodiversity, and 4) possible opportunities to ensure the biodiversity conservation, and the economic and social sustainability. Also, it is hoped that this book can be useful for those involved in the development of public policies aimed at the conservation of this important global biome.

Microbiome Interplay and Control

Author : Christine Moissl-Eichinger
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In complex systems, such as our body or a plant, the host is living together with thousands of microbes, which support the entire system in function and health. The stability of a microbiome is influenced by environmental changes, introduction of microbes and microbial communities, or other factors. As learned in the past, microbial diversity is the key and low-diverse microbiomes often mirror out-of-control situations or disease. It is now our task to understand the molecular principles behind the complex interaction of microbes in, on and around us in order to optimize and control the function of the microbial community – by changing the environment or the addition of the right microorganisms. This Research Topic focuses on studies (including e.g. original research, perspectives, mini reviews, and opinion papers) that investigate and discuss: 1) The role of the microbiome for the host/environmental system 2) The exchange and change of microbes and microbial communities (interplay) 3) The influence of external factors toward the stability of a microbiome 4) Methods, possibilities and approaches to change and control a system’s microbiome (e.g. in human or plant disease) 5) Experimental systems and approaches in microbiome research. The articles span the areas: human health and disease, animal and plant microbiomes, microbial interplay and control, methodology and the built environment microbiome.

Biocommunication of Animals

Author : Guenther Witzany
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Every coordination within or between animals depends on communication processes. Although the signaling molecules, vocal and tactile signs, gestures and its combinations differ throughout all species according their evolutionary origins and variety of adaptation processes, certain levels of biocommunication can be found in all animal species: (a) Abiotic environmental indices such as temperature, light, water, etc. that affect the local ecosphere of an organism and are sensed, interpreted. (b) Trans-specific communication with non-related organisms. (c) Species-specific communication between same or related species. (d) Intraorganismic communication, i.e., sign-mediated coordination within the body of the organism. This book gives an overview of the manifold levels of animal communication exemplified by a variety of species and thereby broadens the understanding of these organisms.

Social Recognition in Invertebrates

Author : Laura Aquiloni
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This book uses a wide range of case studies from different invertebrate taxa to describe the numerous forms of social recognition occurring in this large group of animals and traces the evolution of this cognitive ability. The authors provide several examples of direct (i.e. the target of recognition is a conspecific) and indirect recognition (i.e. recognition of a reliable proxy rather than an individual, such as a den or a substrate) and discuss cases of familiar recognition (i.e. an animal remembers a conspecific but cannot tell what class it comes from or recognize its identity). Class-level recognition (i.e. an animal assigns a conspecific to an appropriate class of animals), and true individual recognition (i.e. an animal both identifies and recognizes a conspecific on an individual basis) are also addressed.

Biotremology Studying Vibrational Behavior

Author : Peggy S. M. Hill
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This volume is a self-contained companion piece to Studying Vibrational Communication, published in 2014 within the same series. The field has expanded considerably since then, and has even acquired a name of its own: biotremology. In this context, the book reports on new concepts in this fascinating discipline, and features chapters on state-of-the art methods for studying behavior tied to substrate-borne vibrations, as well as an entire section on applied biotremology. Also included are a historical contribution by pioneers in the field and several chapters reviewing the advances that have been made regarding specific animal taxa. Other new topics covered are vibrational communication in vertebrates, multimodal communication, and biotremology in the classroom, as well as in art and music. Given its scope, the book will appeal to all those interested in communication and vibrational behavior, but also to those seeking to learn about an ancient mode of communication.