Search Results for "biosocial-criminology-challenging-environmentalism-s-supremacy"

Evolution and Crime

Evolution and Crime

  • Author: Jason Roach,Ken Pease
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1136233717
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 130
  • View: 3298
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Human physique and behaviour has been shaped by the pressures of natural selection. This is received wisdom in all scientifically informed circles. Currently, the topic of crime is rarely touched upon in textbooks on evolution and the topic of evolution rarely even mentioned in criminology textbooks. This book for the first time explores how an evolution informed criminology has clear implications for enhancing our understanding of the criminal law, crime and criminal behaviour. This book is directed more towards students of criminology than students of evolution. It is suggested that there is scope for more collaborative work, with criminologists and crime scientists exposed to Darwinian thought having much to gain. What is suggested is simply that such thinking provides a fresh perspective. If that perspective yields only a fraction of the understanding when applied to crime as it has elsewhere in science, the effort will have been worthwhile. The authors attempt to provide a modest appraisal of the potential contribution that a more welcoming approach to the evolutionary perspective would make to criminology; both theoretically (by expanding understanding of the complexity of the origins of behaviour labelled criminal) and practically (where the evolutionary approach can be utilised to inform crime control policy and practice). An evolutionary lens is applied to diverse criminological topics such as the origins of criminal law, female crime, violence, and environmental factors involved in crime causation.

Biosocial Criminology

Biosocial Criminology

Challenging Environmentalism's Supremacy

  • Author: Anthony Walsh,Lee Ellis
  • Publisher: Nova Science Pub Incorporated
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 267
  • View: 2892
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In criminology, environmentalism is the assumption that variations in criminal behaviour result only from variations in environmental factors, especially social environmental factors. The biosocial perspective is quite different. It assumes that biological and environmental factors interact to affect criminal behaviour. Social environmental explanations have dominated the field of criminology for at least the past century. Supporters of this perspective argue that because criminal is an ever-changing legal designation, it makes no sense to believe that crimes are the result of biology. Biosocial theorists concede that criminality is a legal concept, but argue that at the core of the concept are acts that are recognised as unacceptable in all societies. The theme of this book is simple: Biology matters when trying to understand criminal behaviour. This is not to exclude social factors but to maintain that social and biological factors interact to affect our varying tendencies to violate criminal statutes. Despite the conceptual simplicity of the biosocial perspective, the evidence that supports it is often complex and rests upon a number of biological principles that many criminologists do not understand. This book conveys some of the excitement that those working from a biosocial perspective are experiencing as they make new discoveries about how biological and social factors interact to affect criminal behaviour.

The Myth of Culture

The Myth of Culture

Why We Need a Genuine Natural Science of Societies

  • Author: Nigel Barber
  • Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category: Education
  • Page: 310
  • View: 5661
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Before oxygen's discovery, scientists invoked a mysterious inner principle of fire to account for burning. Today, scholars appeal to an analogously unscientific inner principle, known as culture, to account for human actions. So what is wrong with culture?! It extends from the contents of Petrie dishes to art galleries and is far too imprecise for scientific use. Science aims to separate causes from effects but social scientists use "culture" indiscriminately as both cause and effect making scientific progress impossible. Finally, culture is a smokescreen distracting us from the quest for objective influences on human behavior. (Polygamy is more about parasites than religion, for instance). This book is both a critique of culture-centered social sciences and the manifesto for a new approach - evolutionary social science - that synthesizes evolution and sociology. The author demonstrates that a natural-science approach to human societies helps us to understand social problems such as health inequality and violent crime. Written in a more high-spirited and accessible style than is customary for academic works, The Myth of Culture is a full-throttle indictment of ivory-tower social scientists whose arcane lore does more to feather their nests than to advance knowledge, or solve human problems. It should have broad appeal among college-educated people around the world.

Introduction to Criminology

Introduction to Criminology

A Text/Reader

  • Author: Anthony Walsh,Craig Hemmens
  • Publisher: SAGE
  • ISBN: 1412956838
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 596
  • View: 3864
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This uniquely comprehensive book provides instructors and students the best of both worlds – a text with carefully selected accompanying readings. Each Section has a 15p. introduction (a "mini-chapter) that contains vignettes, photos, tables and graphs, end of chapter questions and Web-exercises and is followed by 3-4 supporting readings. The theory Section introductions will end with a concluding sub-section that focuses on policy and crime prevention. The theory Sections contain a unique table that compares and contrasts the theories presented in that Section. A "How to Read a Research Article" guide for students appears after the book's Introduction in Section 1, prior to the first reading. The guide refers students to portions of the first reading to illustrate key aspects of a research article. The readings are carefully selected, edited journal articles appropriate for an undergraduate audience. Additional readings will be found on the accompanying Study Site. Full ancillary package with IR CD for instructors and a comprehensive study site for students.

The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology: C

The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology: C

  • Author: George Ritzer
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category: Encyclopedias and dictionaries, Azerbaijani
  • Page: 5650
  • View: 4543
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Evolutionary Forensic Psychology

Evolutionary Forensic Psychology

  • Author: Joshua Duntley,Todd K. Shackelford
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press
  • ISBN: 019029597X
  • Category: Psychology
  • Page: 328
  • View: 5071
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The field of forensic psychology explores the intersection of psychology and the law. The purpose of this book is to examine topics in the field using the powerful, multidisciplinary, conceptually integrated approach that the natural sciences have embraced for decades with great success. Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection is the meta-theoretical framework that unifies the field of biology. It unites research and understanding of the development, control, and organization of behavior. The study of humans, which includes all of the social sciences, is part of the field of biology. Darwin's theory provides a powerful meta-theoretical framework that can unify and energize forensic psychology, just as it has the biological sciences. Evolutionary processes undoubtedly shaped physiological characteristics to help solve problems of survival and reproduction. The lungs, for example, with their vast surface area and moist membranes are marvelous adaptions for extracting oxygen and releasing carbon dioxide. Natural selection is the only known process capable of shaping complex functional mechanisms. Just as it shaped physiological adaptations with specific problem-solving functions, it also shaped our thoughts and emotions to guide behaviors toward solving recurrent problems of survival and reproduction. With this logic, we can use knowledge of ancestral problems to guide our understanding of how the mind works. Evolutionary Forensic Psychology is a necessary step toward a unified and complete understanding of psychology and the law. It recognizes that crimes such as murder, non-lethal violence, rape, and theft are manifestations of evolutionarily recurrent selection when they gave individuals an advantage in competition for resources. Each of the chapters that comprise this volume has been selected to provide the first unified examination of important research contributions and future directions of Evolutionary Forensic Psychology.

Criminological Theory

Criminological Theory

Context and Consequences

  • Author: J. Robert Lilly,Francis T. Cullen,Richard A. Ball
  • Publisher: SAGE Publications
  • ISBN: 1483321878
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 568
  • View: 6148
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Offering a rich introduction to how scholars analyze crime, Criminological Theory: Context and Consequences moves readers beyond a commonsense knowledge of crime to a deeper understanding of the importance of theory in shaping crime control policies. The Sixth Edition of the authors’ clear, accessible, and thoroughly revised text covers traditional and contemporary theory within a larger sociological and historical context. J. Robert Lilly, Francis T. Cullen, and Richard A. Ball include new sources that assess the empirical status of the major theories, as well as updated coverage of crime control policies and their connection to criminological theory.

Corrections: A Text/Reader

Corrections: A Text/Reader

  • Author: Mary K. Stohr,Anthony Walsh,Craig Hemmens
  • Publisher: SAGE Publications
  • ISBN: 1452289921
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 728
  • View: 6900
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Corrections: A Text/Reader, Second Edition is designed for undergraduate and/or graduate corrections courses. Organized like a traditional corrections text, it offers brief authored introductions in a mini-chapter format for each key Section, followed by carefully selected and edited original articles by leading scholars. This hybrid format – ensuring coverage of important material while emphasizing the significance of contemporary research - offers an excellent alternative which recognizes the impact and importance of new directions and policy in this field, and how these advances are determined by research.

Law, Justice, and Society

Law, Justice, and Society

A Sociolegal Introduction

  • Author: Anthony Walsh,Craig Hemmens
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
  • ISBN: 9780195334081
  • Category: Law
  • Page: 404
  • View: 1780
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Law, Justice, and Society: A Sociolegal Introduction incorporates a number of distinctive and innovative substantive features, which are not provided much attention in other textbooks for this course. These include: a discussion of how law comes into existence, the history and development of the American legal system, the sociology of law, court structure, and the difference between civil and criminal law. Also included are chapters on juvenile law/justice and gender and the law. It has many pedagogical features, including photographs, tables, an extensive bibliography for each chapter, a glossary of terms (with definitions), chapter summaries, lists of key terms and concepts, lists of key cases, and discussion questions. In addition, this text is engaging and easy to read and use, unlike many of the existing books for this course, which are very difficult for students because of extensive legal jargon, and/or lack sufficient teaching aids.

Bibliographic Index

Bibliographic Index

  • Author: N.A
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category: Bibliographical literature
  • Page: 26
  • View: 3015
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