Search results for: bone-adaptation

Bone Adaptation

Author : Yoshitaka Kameo
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This book focuses on the systems biomechanics of bone remodeling that provide a multiscale platform for bone adaptation, spanning the cellular, tissue, and organ levels. The mathematical model explained in each section provides concrete examples of in silico approaches for bone adaptation. It will be immensely useful for readers interested in bone morphology and metabolism and will serve as an effective bridge connecting mechanics, cellular and molecular biology, and medical sciences. These in silico approaches towards exploring the mechanisms by which the functioning of dynamic living systems is established and maintained have potential for facilitating the efforts of graduate students and young researchers pioneering new frontiers of biomechanics.

Multiscale Mechanobiology of Bone Remodeling and Adaptation

Author : Peter Pivonka
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The book presents state-of-the-art developments in multiscale modeling and latest experimental data on multiscale mechanobiology of bone remodeling and adaptation including fracture healing applications. The multiscale models include musculoskeletal models describing bone-muscle interactions during daily activities such as walking or running, micromechanical models for estimation of bone mechanical properties, bone remodeling and adaptation models, cellular models describing the complex bone-cell interactions taking into account biochemical and biomechanical regulatory factors. Also subcellular processes are covered including arrangement of actin filaments due to mechanical loading and change of receptor configurations.

Cortical Bone Adaptation to Weight Bearing Exercise

Author : Diane Mary Raab
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Trabecular Bone Adaptation to Mechanical Loading on the Rabbit Assessed by Micro computed Tomography and Finite Element Analysis

Author : Timothy Garrett Morgan
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Bone volume fraction, trabecular thickness, and mean intercept length in the direction of applied loading significantly increased with four weeks of in vivo loading compared to contralateral controls. Additionally, finite element analyses of the experimental specimens showed significantly increased apparent modulus in the loading direction for in vivo loaded specimens compared to specimens from control limbs. Tissue-level surface adaptation simulations using strain energy density as the mechanical stimulus captured the differences in histomorphometric parameters and apparent modulus between loaded and control cancellous specimens. Thus, the simulation techniques performed appeared to be appropriate for modeling the in vivo adaptation experiment. The in vivo model and computer simulations from this study will allow further investigations of cancellous bone functional adaptation to controlled mechanical stimuli.

A Bone Adaptation Simulation for the Femur Based on Disuse and Damage Repair

Author : Scott James Hazelwood
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Bone Research in Biomechanics

Author : G. Lowet
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This book focuses on the structure of bone, and its consequences for the mechanical behaviour of the bone structure. The first part of this book focuses on the development of models to predict the adaptation of bone due to changes on the mechanical loading situation (such as provoked by an implant). But far more important than the computer power presently available, the incorporation of knowledge on the biological processes have led to new kinds of models. Next to the development of models itself, the issue of model validation though comparison with clinical data is a main issue addressed in the papers of this symposium. The second part, dealing with the relationship between bone architecture and competence of bone, focuses on the morphology of trabecular bone structure. This work is mainly carried out in the context of research on osteoporosis, and look for the relation between bone structure and fracture risk. The last part is devoted to ultrasound research in bone biomechanics. Several methods have been described for the in vitro and in vivo measurement of ultrasound velocity and attenuation, both on cortical and on trabecular bone. The reader will not only discover the state-of-the-art when reading though this book. This book can give a taste of the fascinating perspectives the research in bone biomechanics still have to offer, even after more than 100 years.

Biomechanics and Biology of Movement

Author : Benno Maurus Nigg
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"A text for upper-level undergraduate and graduate courses in human performance, it uses an integrated scientific approach to explore solutions to problems in human movement. As an interdisciplinary reference volume for biomechanists, exercise physiologists, motor behaviorists, athletic trainers, therapists, kinesiologists, and students, Biomechanics and Biology of Movement offers an in-depth understanding and appreciation of the many factors comprising and affecting human movement. In addition, it will give you the insights and information you require to address and resolve individual performance problems."--BOOK JACKET.

Simulations of bone adaptation to total knee arthroplasty and bisphosphonates through remodeling stimulated by microdamage and disuse

Author : Jeffry Stephen Nyman
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Skeletal Variation and Adaptation in Europeans

Author : Christopher B. Ruff
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A comprehensive analysis of changes in body form and skeletal robusticity from the Terminal Pleistocene through the Holocene, leading to the modern European human phenotype. Skeletal Variation and Adaptation in Europeans: Upper Paleolithic to the Twentieth Century brings together for the first time the results of an unprecedented large-scale investigation of European skeletal remains. The study was conducted over ten years by an international research team, and includes more than 2,000 skeletons spanning most of the European continent over the past 30,000 years, from the Early Upper Paleolithic to the 20th century. This time span includes environmental transitions from foraging to food production, small-scale to large-scale urban settlements, increasing social stratification and mechanization of labor, and climatic changes. Alterations in body form and behavior in response to these transitions are reconstructed through osteometric and biomechanical analyses. Divided into four sections, the book includes an introduction to the project and comprehensive descriptions of the methods used; general continent-wide syntheses of major trends in body size, shape, and skeletal robusticity; detailed regional analyses; and a summary of results. It also offers a full data set on an external website. Brings together data from an unprecedented large-scale study of human skeletal and anatomical variations Includes appendix of specific information from each research site Synthesizes data from spatial, temporal, regional, and geographical perspectives Skeletal Variation and Adaptation in Europeans will be a valuable resource for bioarchaeologists, palaeoanthropologists, forensic anthropologists, medical historians, and archaeologists at both the graduate and post-graduate level.

Basic and Applied Bone Biology

Author : David B. Burr
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Basic and Applied Bone Biology, Second Edition, provides an overview of skeletal biology, from the molecular level, to the organ level, including cellular control, interaction and response, adaptive responses to various external stimuli, and the interaction of the skeletal system with other metabolic processes in the body. The book includes chapters that address how the skeleton can be evaluated through the use of various imaging technologies, biomechanical testing, histomorphometric analysis, and the use of genetically-modified animal models. Each chapter delves deep into the important details of topics covered to provide a solid understanding of the basics of bone biology. Bone biology researchers who also train undergraduate and graduate students in the lab will use this book constantly to orient new students on the basics of the field and as a background reference for many of the technical aspects of qualification in bone biology (e.g., mechanics, histomorphometry, genetic modification, biochemistry, etc.). Presents an in-depth overview of skeletal biology, from molecular to organ level Offers refresher level content for clinicians or researchers outside their areas of expertise Includes updated and complete references Incorporates expanded study questions at the end of each chapter for further exploration Covers topics relevant to a modern course in skeletal biology

Tissue Mechanics

Author : Stephen C. Cowin
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The structures of living tissues are continually changing due to growth and response to the tissue environment, including the mechanical environment. Tissue Mechanics is an in-depth look at the mechanics of tissues. Tissue Mechanics describes the nature of the composite components of a tissue, the cellular processes that produce these constituents, the assembly of the constituents into a hierarchical structure, and the behavior of the tissue’s composite structure in the adaptation to its mechanical environment. Organized as a textbook for the student needing to acquire the core competencies, Tissue Mechanics will meet the demands of advanced undergraduate or graduate coursework in Biomedical Engineering, as well as, Chemical, Civil, and Mechanical Engineering. Key features: Detailed Illustrations Example problems, including problems at the end of sections A separate solutions manual available for course instructors A website (http://tissue-mechanics.com/) that has been established to provide supplemental material for the book, including downloadable additional chapters on specific tissues, downloadable PowerPoint presentations of all the book's chapters, and additional exercises and examples for the existing chapters. About the Authors: Stephen C. Cowin is a City University of New York Distinguished Professor, Departments of Biomedical and Mechanical Engineering, City College of the City University of New York and also an Adjunct Professor of Orthopaedics, at the Mt. Sinai School of Medicine in New York, New York. In 1985 he received the Society of Tulane Engineers and Lee H. Johnson Award for Teaching Excellence and a recipient of the European Society of Biomechanics Research Award in 1994. In 1999 he received the H. R. Lissner medal of the ASME for contributions to biomedical engineering. In 2004 he was elected to the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) and he also received the Maurice A. Biot medal of the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). Stephen B. Doty is a Senior Scientist at Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, New York and Adjunct Professor, School of Dental and Oral Surgery, Columbia University, New York, NY. He has over 100 publications in the field of anatomy, developmental biology, and the physiology of skeletal and connective tissues. His honors include several commendations for participation in the Russian/NASA spaceflights, the Spacelab Life Science NASA spaceflights, and numerous Shuttle missions that studied the influence of spaceflight on skeletal physiology. He presently is on the scientific advisory board of the National Space Biomedical Research Institute, Houston, Texas.

0704 Do Mechanical Strain Magnitude And Rate Drive Bone Adaptation In Adult Women A 12 Month Prospective Study

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INTRODUCTION: Exercise-based interventions have long been considered a viable option for preserving and enhancing bone strength because bone adapts to best resist its habitual mechanical loading environment. However, it is not clear what specific mechanical factors govern the response. Animal in vivo loading models have demonstrated that mechanical signals related to strain magnitude and strain rate regulate bone adaptation. Despite extensive animal literature, the degree to which mechanical strain magnitude and rate govern bone adaptation in humans has never been prospectively tested. tOne major challenge is that bone strain is difficult to measure noninvasively. Our previously validated upper extremity loading model uses subject-specific finite element (FE) models and a well-controlled compressive load to generate known bone strains. In this model, an individual produces a voluntary compressive force through the radius by leaning onto the palm of the hand to achieve a target force. Feedback is given using a load cell, and individuals are given sound cues to assist in achieving a regular and consistent load/unload cycle. Instructions can manipulate loading rate.tHere, our purpose is to quantify the degree to which bone strain influences bone adaptation in the upper extremity of healthy adult women during a twelve month prospective study period. We hypothesized that (1) bone accrual is proportional to strain magnitude and strain rate, and (2) structural changes include increased cortical diameter and thickness, and increased trabecular bone mass near the endosteal surface.METHODS: One hundred and two healthy women age 21-40 were randomized to one of two experiments. Experiment 1: low (n=21) and high (n=24) strain magnitude. Experiment 2: low (n=21) and high (n=20) strain rate. Control group (n=16): no intervention. Potential subjects were screened for exclusion factors including oligomenorrhea (9 cycles/year), 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum

Osteoporosis

Author : Sarah H. Gueldner, DSN, RN, FAAN, FGSA, FNAP, FAGHE
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Osteoporosis is a preventable disease. But each year some 500,000 people are hospitalized from osteoporosis fractures, and another 180,000 people are placed into nursing homes from injuries due to osteoporosis. What can nurses, clinicians, medical researchers, physiologists, health care policy experts, and other providers do to diminish, if not eradicate, the disease from local to global scales? What are the best methods for care and treatment? Osteoporosis addresses these questions, and more. Designed as a complete reference, Osteoporosis presents vivid explanations plus illustrations of specific surgical procedures to guide in the preparation and post-operative rehabilitation of the patient for surgical repairs of fractures. Chapters also discuss leading components of a patient's recovery, from dietary requirements and exercise, to fall prevention, quality of life and independence issues. The authors highlight disease prevention strategies and various models of community outreach that have proven effective in educating target populations about osteoporosis, encouraging proper lifestyle choices, and helping children to achieve their maximum bone potential at a young age. Osteoporosis can be prevented. Here is the book to help you, and your health care institution, do just that.

Numerical Simulation of Bone Adaptation to Mechanical Loading

Author : Christopher Rae Jacobs
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Structure Function and Adaptation of Compact Bone

Author : R. Bruce Martin
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The Mechanical Adaptations of Bones

Author : John D. Currey
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This book relates the mechanical and structural properties of bone to its function in man and other vertebrates. John Currey, one of the pioneers of modern bone research, reviews existing information in the field and particularly emphasizes the correlation of the structure of bone with its various uses. Originally published in 1984. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

Bone Formation

Author : Felix Bronner
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Bone research in recent years has generated much new knowledge, in large measure because of the broad public health implications of osteoporosis and related bone disorders. Bone Formation, the first in a series entitled Topics in Bone Biology, evaluates this new information and formulates novel insights and hypotheses within the broad framework of current knowledge. An easy-to handle and to read work, with concise reviews that are extensively referenced, the chapters in this book are written by internationally known authorities. Particular emphasis is on osteoporosis and related disorders of diminished bone formation. Among the general topics treated is a chapter on biomechanical aspects of bone formation, not often considered in relation to diseases of bone formation. The book constitutes essential reading for those entering the field of bone biology and those who wish to become familiar with up-to-date information in a particular area of bone research.

Bone Histology

Author : Christian Crowder
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A broad understanding of bone and tooth microstructure is necessary for constructing the biological profile of an individual or individuals within a population. Bone Histology: An Anthropological Perspective brings together authors with extensive experience and expertise in various aspects of hard tissue histology to provide a comprehensive discussion of the application of methods, current theories, and future directions in hard tissue research related to anthropological questions. Topics discussed include: The biology underlying skeletal growth and development leading to adult skeletal morphology Current research in understanding in bone modeling Histological features of dental hard tissues and their utility in biological anthropology Histological analysis as a means to differentiate human from nonhuman bone and for the purpose of age estimation The biomechanics of cortical bone Histotaphonomy and how postmortem microstructural change can be used for taphonomic inquiry The application of light microscopy in paleopathology to classify pathological conditions The histological study of bone tissue of archaeological origin Researchers’ access to collections of bone samples with known demographic information Technological aspects of hard tissue histology, including laboratory requirements and high-resolution imaging In most cases, the physical remains of humans available to bioarchaeologists, paleopathologists, and paleontologists are limited to skeletal material. Fortunately, these hard tissues are a storehouse of information about biological processes experienced during the life of an individual. This volume provides an overview of the current state of research and potential applications in anthropology and other fields that employ a histological approach to the study of hard tissues.

Mechanical Adaptation of Trabecular Bone Formation in Vivo

Author : Robert Erling Guldberg
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Issues in Biomedical Engineering Research and Application 2011 Edition

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Issues in Biomedical Engineering Research and Application: 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Biomedical Engineering Research and Application. The editors have built Issues in Biomedical Engineering Research and Application: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Biomedical Engineering Research and Application in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Issues in Biomedical Engineering Research and Application: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.