Search Results for "bridges-from-classical-to-nonmonotonic-logic"

Bridges from Classical to Nonmonotonic Logic

Bridges from Classical to Nonmonotonic Logic

  • Author: David Makinson
  • Publisher: College Publications
  • ISBN: 9781904987000
  • Category: Computers
  • Page: 216
  • View: 4098
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Imagine a robot trying to size up a difficult situation, to find a way of responding. Its sensors receive streams of information from which it tries to reach judgements. If it relies on deduction alone, it will not get far, no matter how fast its inference engines; for even the most massive information is still typically incomplete: there are relevant issues that it does not resolve one way or the other. The robot, or human agent for that matter, needs to go beyond these limits. It needs to `go supraclassical', inferring more than is authorised by classical logic alone. But such inferences are inherently uncertain. They are also nonmonotonic, in the sense that the acquisition of further information, even when consistent with the existing stock, may lead us to abondon as well as add conclusions. Nonmonotonic logic is the study of such reasoning and has been the subject of intensive research for more than two decades. But for the newcomer it is still a disconcerting affair, lacking unity with many systems going in different directions. The purpose of this book is to take the mystery out of the subject, giving a clear overall picture of what is going on. It makes the essential ideas and main approaches to nonmonotonic logic accessible, and meaningful, to anyone with a few basic tools of discrete mathematics and a minimal background in classical propositional logic. It is written as a textbook, with detailed explanations, examples, comments, exercises and answers. Students and instructors alike will find it an invaluable guide.

The Many Valued and Nonmonotonic Turn in Logic

The Many Valued and Nonmonotonic Turn in Logic

  • Author: Dov M. Gabbay,John Woods
  • Publisher: Elsevier
  • ISBN: 9780080549392
  • Category: Mathematics
  • Page: 690
  • View: 8153
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The present volume of the Handbook of the History of Logic brings together two of the most important developments in 20th century non-classical logic. These are many-valuedness and non-monotonicity. On the one approach, in deference to vagueness, temporal or quantum indeterminacy or reference-failure, sentences that are classically non-bivalent are allowed as inputs and outputs to consequence relations. Many-valued, dialetheic, fuzzy and quantum logics are, among other things, principled attempts to regulate the flow-through of sentences that are neither true nor false. On the second, or non-monotonic, approach, constraints are placed on inputs (and sometimes on outputs) of a classical consequence relation, with a view to producing a notion of consequence that serves in a more realistic way the requirements of real-life inference. Many-valued logics produce an interesting problem. Non-bivalent inputs produce classically valid consequence statements, for any choice of outputs. A major task of many-valued logics of all stripes is to fashion an appropriately non-classical relation of consequence. The chief preoccupation of non-monotonic (and default) logicians is how to constrain inputs and outputs of the consequence relation. In what is called “left non-monotonicity , it is forbidden to add new sentences to the inputs of true consequence-statements. The restriction takes notice of the fact that new information will sometimes override an antecedently (and reasonably) derived consequence. In what is called “right non-monotonicity , limitations are imposed on outputs of the consequence relation. Most notably, perhaps, is the requirement that the rule of or-introduction not be given free sway on outputs. Also prominent is the effort of paraconsistent logicians, both preservationist and dialetheic, to limit the outputs of inconsistent inputs, which in classical contexts are wholly unconstrained. In some instances, our two themes coincide. Dialetheic logics are a case in point. Dialetheic logics allow certain selected sentences to have, as a third truth value, the classical values of truth and falsity together. So such logics also admit classically inconsistent inputs. A central task is to construct a right non-monotonic consequence relation that allows for these many-valued, and inconsistent, inputs. The Many Valued and Non-Monotonic Turn in Logic is an indispensable research tool for anyone interested in the development of logic, including researchers, graduate and senior undergraduate students in logic, history of logic, mathematics, history of mathematics, computer science, AI, linguistics, cognitive science, argumentation theory, and the history of ideas. Detailed and comprehensive chapters covering the entire range of modal logic. Contains the latest scholarly discoveries and interprative insights that answers many questions in the field of logic.

David Makinson on Classical Methods for Non-Classical Problems

David Makinson on Classical Methods for Non-Classical Problems

  • Author: Sven Ove Hansson
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
  • ISBN: 9400777590
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 433
  • View: 2962
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The volume analyses and develops David Makinson’s efforts to make classical logic useful outside its most obvious application areas. The book contains chapters that analyse, appraise, or reshape Makinson’s work and chapters that develop themes emerging from his contributions. These are grouped into major areas to which Makinsons has made highly influential contributions and the volume in its entirety is divided into four sections, each devoted to a particular area of logic: belief change, uncertain reasoning, normative systems and the resources of classical logic. Among the contributions included in the volume, one chapter focuses on the “inferential preferential method”, i.e. the combined use of classical logic and mechanisms of preference and choice and provides examples from Makinson’s work in non-monotonic and defeasible reasoning and belief revision. One chapter offers a short autobiography by Makinson which details his discovery of modern logic, his travels across continents and reveals his intellectual encounters and inspirations. The chapter also contains an unusually explicit statement on his views on the (limited but important) role of logic in philosophy.

Logics in Artificial Intelligence

Logics in Artificial Intelligence

10th European Conference, JELIA 2006, Liverpool, UK, September 13-15, 2006, Proceedings

  • Author: Michael Fisher,Wiebe van der Hoek,Boris Konev,Alexei Lisitsa
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
  • ISBN: 354039625X
  • Category: Computers
  • Page: 516
  • View: 1125
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Logics provide a formal basis, and key descriptive notation, for the study and dev- opment of applications and systems in Arti'cial Intelligence (AI). With the depth and maturity of formalisms, methodologies,and systems today, such logics are increasingly important. The European Conference on Logics in Arti'cial Intelligence (or Journees ́ Europeennes ́ sur la Logique en Intelligence Arti'cielle -- JELIA) began back in 1988, as a workshop, in response to the need for a European forum for the discussion of emerging work in this ?eld. Since then, JELIA has been organised biennially, with - glish as of'cial language, and with proceedings published in Springer's Lecture Notes in Arti'cial Intelligence. Previousmeetingstookplace in Roscoff,France(1988),Ams- ́ terdam,Netherlands(1990),Berlin,Germany(1992),York,UK (1994),Evora,Portugal (1996), Dagstuhl, Germany (1998), Malaga, ́ Spain (2000), Cosenza, Italy (2002), and Lisbon, Portugal (2004). The increasing interest in this forum, its international level with growing parti- pation from researchers outside Europe, and the overall technical quality, has turned JELIA into a major forum for the discussion of logic-based approaches to AI. JELIA 2006constitutedtheTenthInternationalConferenceonLogicsinArti'cial Intelligence, and was held in Liverpool (UK) in September 2006. As with previous JELIA conf- ences, the aim of JELIA 2006 was to bring together active researchers interested in all aspects concerning the use of logics in AI to discuss current research, results, problems and applications of both a theoretical and practical nature. We received a total of 96 submissions, comprising 77 regular papers and 19 tool - scriptions.

The Bulletin of Symbolic Logic

The Bulletin of Symbolic Logic

  • Author: N.A
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category: Logic, Symbolic and mathematical
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 1995
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The Logic of Legal Requirements

The Logic of Legal Requirements

Essays on Defeasibility

  • Author: Jordi Ferrer Beltrán,Giovanni Battista Ratti
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press
  • ISBN: 0199661642
  • Category: Law
  • Page: 421
  • View: 8476
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Does the law contain implicit exceptions to its own rules? If so, what consequence does that have for understanding the relationship between law and morality? This collection gathers leading legal philosophers to analyse the logical structure of legal norms, advancing the understanding of the general philosophy of law.

Handbook of the History of Logic

Handbook of the History of Logic

  • Author: Dov M. Gabbay,John Woods
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category: Logic
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 6961
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Mathematical Reviews

Mathematical Reviews

  • Author: N.A
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category: Mathematics
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 7851
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Handbook of Philosophical Logic

Handbook of Philosophical Logic

  • Author: D.M. Gabbay,Franz Guenthner
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
  • ISBN: 1402030924
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Page: 372
  • View: 9264
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A useful reference work to both students and researchers in formal philosophy, language and logic. This second edition is intended to comprise some 18 volumes and provides in-depth coverage of major topics in philosophical logic and its applications in many cutting-edge fields relating to computer science, language, argumentation, and others.

The Many Sides of Logic

The Many Sides of Logic

  • Author: Walter Carnielli,Marcelo E. Coniglio,Itala M. L. D'Ottaviano
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category: Computers
  • Page: 586
  • View: 5244
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The Many Sides of Logic'' is a volume containing a selection of the papers delivered at three simultaneous events held between 11-17 May 2008 in Paraty, RJ, Brazil, continuing a tradition of three decades of Brazilian and Latin-American meetings and celebrating the 30th anniversary of an institution congenital with the mature interest for logic, epistemology and history of sciences in Brazil: CLE 30 - 30th Anniversary of the Centre for Logic, Epistemology and the History of Science at the State University of Campinas (UNICAMP) XV EBL -15th Brazilian Logic Conference XIV SLALM - 14th Latin-American Symposium on Mathematical Logic Several renowned logicians, philosophers and mathematicians gathered in colonial Paraty, a historic village on the Brazilian coast founded in the 17th Century and surrounded by the luscious Atlantic rain forest to deliver lectures and talks celebrating the many sides of logic: the philosophical, the mathematical, the computational, the historical, and the multiple facets therein. The topics of the joint conferences, well represented here, included philosophical and mathematical Logic and applications with emphasis on model theory and proof theory, set theory, non-classical logics and applications, history and philosophy of logic, philosophy of the formal sciences and issues on the foundations of mathematics. The events have been preceded by a Logic School planned for students and young researchers held at the UNICAMP campus in Campinas, SP.