Search results for: cartel-criminality

Cartel Criminality

Author : Christopher Harding
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Anti-competitive business cartels, engaging in practices such as price fixing, market sharing, bid rigging and restrictions on output, are now subject to strong official censure and rigorous legal control in a large number of jurisdictions across the world. The longstanding condemnation under the US Sherman Act of 1890 has been taken up (although in a rather different form) during the last thirty years in the EC/EU and in European national jurisdictions in particular, but also in a range of countries outside North America and Europe. Legal control has not only extended geographically but has intensified, as a number of jurisdictions have moved beyond administrative regulation and penalties to embrace enforcement through civil liability and (most significantly in terms of policy and rhetoric) the methods of criminal law. It is therefore timely to consider critically this development of legal control and assess its achievement to date and its future prospects. But such an exercise requires an understanding of the reasons and need for such regulation, based on a clear appreciation of the nature and extent of the economic and social malaise which is its subject. What, more exactly, are such business cartels, why do they come into existence and persist, why are they regarded as being so bad, and what are the objectives within this increasingly complex and multi-level phenomenon of legal control? By seeking to answer such fundamental questions, this book sets a research agenda for a pathology, aetiology and criminology of business cartels, and probes more accurately their nature, operation, endurance and perceived delinquency.

The Criminalization of European Cartel Enforcement

Author : Peter Whelan
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Cartel activity is prohibited under EU law by virtue of Article 101(1) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union. Firms that violate this provision face severe punishment from those entities responsible for enforcing EU competition law: the European Commission, the national competition authorities, and the national courts. Stiff fines are regularly imposed on firms by these entities; such firm-focused punishment is an established feature of the antitrust enforcement landscape within the EU. In recent years, however, focus has also been placed on the individuals within the firms responsible for the cartel activity. It is increasingly recognized that punishment for cartel activity should be individual-focused as well as firm-focused. Accordingly, a growing tendency to criminalize cartel activity can be observed in the EU Member States. The existence of such criminal sanctions within the EU presents a number of crucial challenges that need to be met if the underlying enforcement objectives are to be achieved in practice without violating prevailing legal norms. For a start, given the severe consequences of a custodial sentence, the employment of criminal antitrust punishment must be justifiable in principle: one must have a robust normative framework rationalizing the existence of criminal cartel sanctions. Second, for it to be legitimate, antitrust criminalization should only occur in a manner that respects the mandatory legalities applicable to the European jurisdiction in question. These include the due process rights of the accused and the principle of legal certainty. Finally, the correct practical measures (such as a criminal leniency policy and a correctly defined criminal cartel offence) need to be in place in order to ensure that the employment of criminal antitrust punishment actually achieves its aims while maintaining its legitimacy. These three particular challenges can be conceptualized respectively as the theoretical, legal, and practical challenges of European antitrust criminalization. This book analyses these three crucial challenges so that the complexity of the process of European antitrust criminalization can be understood more accurately. In doing so, this book acknowledges that the three challenges should not be considered in isolation. In fact there is a dynamic relationship between the theoretical, legal, and practical challenges of European antitrust criminalization and an effective antitrust criminalization policy is one which recognizes and respects this complex interaction.

Cartel Criminality

Author : Christopher Harding
File Size : 22.55 MB
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Anti-competitive business cartels, engaging in practices such as price fixing, market sharing, bid rigging and restrictions on output, are now subject to strong official censure and rigorous legal control in a large number of jurisdictions across the world. The longstanding condemnation under the US Sherman Act of 1890 has been taken up (although in a rather different form) during the last thirty years in the EC/EU and in European national jurisdictions in particular, but also in a range of countries outside North America and Europe. Legal control has not only extended geographically but has intensified, as a number of jurisdictions have moved beyond administrative regulation and penalties to embrace enforcement through civil liability and (most significantly in terms of policy and rhetoric) the methods of criminal law. It is therefore timely to consider critically this development of legal control and assess its achievement to date and its future prospects. But such an exercise requires an understanding of the reasons and need for such regulation, based on a clear appreciation of the nature and extent of the economic and social malaise which is its subject. What, more exactly, are such business cartels, why do they come into existence and persist, why are they regarded as being so bad, and what are the objectives within this increasingly complex and multi-level phenomenon of legal control? By seeking to answer such fundamental questions, this book sets a research agenda for a pathology, aetiology and criminology of business cartels, and probes more accurately their nature, operation, endurance and perceived delinquency.

Challenges in the Field of Economic and Financial Crime in Europe and the US

Author : Katalin Ligeti
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In the past few years, criminal justice systems have faced important global challenges in the field of economic and financial crime. The 2008 financial crisis revealed how strongly financial markets and economies are interconnected and illustrated that misconduct in the economic and financial sectors is often of a systemic nature, with wide-spread consequences for a large number of victims. The prevention, control and punishment of such crimes is thus confronted with a strong globalisation. Moreover, continuous technological evolutions and socio-economic developments make the distinction between socially desirable and undesirable behaviour more problematic. Besides, economic and financial misconduct is notoriously difficult to detect and investigate. In light of these challenges, legislators and law enforcers have been searching for adequate responses to combat economic and financial crime by adapting existing policies, norms and practices and by creating new enforcement mechanisms. The purpose of this volume is to analyse those challenges in the field of economic and financial crime from different perspectives, and to examine which particular solutions criminal justice systems across Europe give to those challenges. The volume has four parts. The first part focuses on a number of key questions with respect to substantive criminal law, whereas the second part will address issues affecting the administration of justice and criminal procedure. Part three then explores particular challenges concerning multi-agency cooperation and multi-disciplinary investigations. Finally, part four will concentrate on issues regarding shared or integrated enforcement models.

Economic Crime

Author : Mark Button
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This book is the first attempt to establish 'economic crime' as a new sub-discipline within criminology. Fraud, corruption, bribery, money laundering, price-fixing cartels and intellectual property crimes pursued typically for financial and professional gain, have devastating consequences for the prosperity of economic life. While most police forces in the UK and the USA have an ‘economic crime’ department, and many European bodies such as Europol use the term and develop strategies and structures to deal with it, it is yet to grain traction as a widely used term in the academic community. Economic Crime: From Conception to Response aims to change that and covers: definitions of the key premises of economic crime as the academic sub-discipline within criminology; an overview of the key research on each of the crimes associated with economic crime; public, private and global responses to economic crime across its different forms and sectors of the economy, both within the UK and globally. This book is an essential resource for students, academics and practitioners engaged with aspects of economic crime, as well as the related areas of financial crime, white-collar crime and crimes of the powerful.

Criminal and Quasi criminal Enforcement Mechanisms in Europe

Author : Vanessa Franssen
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This book looks at the interplay between criminal and other branches of public law pursuing similar objectives (referred to as 'quasi-criminal law'). The need for clarifying the concepts and the interlink between criminal and quasi-criminal enforcement is a topic attracting a lot of discussion and debate both in academia and practice across Europe (and beyond). This volume adds to this debate by bringing to light the substantive and procedural problems stemming from the current parallel or dual use of the different enforcement systems. The collection draws on expertise from academia, practice and policy; its high-quality analysis will appeal to scholars, practitioners and policymakers alike.

The Cambridge Handbook of Competition Law Sanctions

Author : Tihamer Tóth
File Size : 79.90 MB
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This handbook brings together an international roster of competition law scholars and practitioners to address the issue of sanctions in competition law from all angles. Covering nineteen jurisdictions around the world, the book analyzes the theoretical foundations and practice of sanctioning competition law infringements and, most importantly, cartels. Contributors include a range of experts drawing on criminal law, company law, labor law, human rights, and law and economics, to determine what sanctions are available as a matter of positive law against corporations and individuals, including fines and other criminal, administrative, and civil law sanctions; whether law enforcers are using these sanctions effectively; and if new sanctions – including individual sanctions – should be introduced.

Criminalising Cartels

Author : Caron Beaton-Wells
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This book is inspired by the international movement towards the criminalisation of cartel conduct over the last decade. Led by US enforcers, criminalisation has been supported by a growing number of regulators and governments. It derives its support from the simple yet forceful proposition that criminal sanctions, particularly jail time, are the most effective deterrent to such activity. However, criminalisation is much more complex than that basic proposition suggests. There is complexity both in terms of the various forces that are driving and shaping the movement (economic, political and social) and in the effects on the various actors involved in it (government, enforcement agencies, the business community, judiciary, legal profession and general public). Featuring contributions from authors who have been at the forefront of the debate around the world, this substantial 19-chapter volume captures the richness of the criminalisation phenomenon and considers its implications for building an effective criminal cartel regime, particularly outside of the US. It adopts a range of approaches, including general theoretical perspectives (from criminal theory, economics, political science, regulation and criminology) and case-studies of the experience with the design and enforcement of existing or contemplated criminal cartel regimes in various jurisdictions (including in Australia, Canada, EU, Germany, Ireland and the UK). The book also explores the international dimensions of criminalisation - its specific practical consequences (such as increased potential for extradition) as well as its more general implications for trends of harmonisation or convergence in competition law and enforcement.

Criminalization of Competition Law Enforcement

Author : K. J. Cseres
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This timely book brings together contributions from prominent scholars and practitioners to the ongoing debate on the criminalization of competition law enforcement. Recognizing that existing remedies and sanctions may be insufficient to deter breaches of competition law, several EU Member States have followed the US example and introduced pecuniary penalties for executives, professional disqualification orders, and even jail sentences. Addressing issues such as unsolved legal puzzles, standard of proof, leniency programs and internal cartel stability, this book is a marker for future policy debate. With perspectives from an international cast of contributors, Criminalization of Competition Law Enforcement will be of great interest to academics and policy makers as well as students and practitioners in law.

The Criminalization of European Cartel Enforcement

Author : Peter Whelan
File Size : 24.86 MB
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The challenges facing the criminalisation of cartel activity in the European Union are threefold: theoretical, legal, and practical. This book analyses these crucial challenges so that the complexity of the process of European antitrust criminalisation can be accurately understood.