Search results for: cognition-information-processing-and-psychophysics

Cognition Information Processing and Psychophysics

Author : Hans-Georg Geissler
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First Published in 1992. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

Cognition Information Processing and Psychophysics

Author : Hans-Georg Geissler
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The plan for this volume emerged during the international Leipzig conference commemorating the centenary of the death of Gustav Fechner. The contributors suggested that while many features of modern psychological theory were anticipated by Fechner, many new theoretical approaches owe much more to him than often is realized. As such, they decided to honor Fechner by evaluating his own contribution to the founding of psychology and psychoanalysis, by deepening the foundations of psychological theories of consciousness, perception, and choice, and by using the analysis of time to create a new appreciation of constraints that bind mental processes together. Thus, this volume spans an extraordinary range of psychological topics, from hermeneutics to the time-quantum basis for mental processes, in a way that would both amaze and delight Fechner. Moreover, the international reach of his pioneering ideas can be seen from the current locations of the contributors. The span from Japan to the United States to Holland to Germany and to Israel provides a global measure of Fechner's scientific legacy.

Handbook of Learning and Cognitive Processes Volume 5

Author : William K. Estes
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Originally published in 1978 Volume 5 of this Handbook reflects a single theoretical orientation, that characterized by the term human information processing in the literature at the time, but which ranges over a very broad spectrum of cognitive activities. The first two chapters give some overall picture of the background, goals, method, and limitations of the information-processing approach. The remaining chapters treat in detail some principal areas of application – visual processing, mental chronometry, representation of spatial information in memory, problem solving, and the theory of instruction. The first three volumes of the Handbook presented an overview of the field, followed by treatments of conditioning, behavior theory, and human learning and retention. With the fourth volume, the focus of attention shifted from the domain of learning theory to that of cognitive psychology.

Psychophysics Beyond Sensation

Author : Christian Kaernbach
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This volume presents a series of studies that expand laws, invariants, and principles of psychophysics beyond its classical domain of sensation. This book's goal is to demonstrate the extent of the domain of psychophysics, ranging from sensory processes, through sensory memory and short-term memory issues, to the interaction between sensation and action. The dynamics and timing of human performance are a further important issue within this extended framework of psychophysics: Given the similarity of the various cortical areas in terms of their neuroanatomical structure, it is an important question whether this similarity is paralleled by a similarity of processes. These issues are addressed by the contributions in the present volume using state-of-the-art research methods in behavioral research, psychophysiology, and mathematical modeling. The book is divided into four sections. Part I presents contributions concerning the classical domain of psychophysical judgment. The next two parts are concerned with elementary and higher-order processes and the concluding section deals with psychophysical models. The sections are introduced by guest editorials contributed by independent authors. These editorials present the authors' personals view on the respective section, providing an integrated account of the various contributions or highlighting their focus of interest among them. While also voicing their own and sometimes different point of view, they contribute to the process of discussion that makes science so exciting. This volume should be of great interest to advanced students in neuroscience, cognitive science, psychology, neuropsychology, and related areas who seek to evaluate the range and power of psychological work today. Established scientists in those fields will also appreciate the variety of issues addressed within the same methodological framework and their multiple interconnections and stimulating "cross-talk."

Invariances in Human Information Processing

Author : Thomas Lachmann
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Invariances in Human Information Processing examines and identifies processing universals and how they are implemented in elementary judgemental processes. This edited collection offers evidence that these universals can be extracted and identified from observing law-like principles in perception, cognition, and action. Addressing memory operations, development, and conceptual learning, this book considers basic and complex meso- and makro-stages of information processing. Chapter authors provide theoretical accounts of cognitive processing that may offer tools for identification of functional components in brain activity in cognitive neuroscience

Psychophysical Approaches to Cognition

Author : D. Algom
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Our lives are informed by perceptual and cognitive processes at all levels, from instrumental learning to metaphorical discourse to memorial representation. Yet, historically, these two branches of experimental psychology, perception and cognition, have developed separately using independent methods of experimentation and analysis. This volume is motivated by the assumption that a fundamental integration of the two fields is fruitful methodologically and indispensable theoretically. It explores how the notion of psychophysics aligned with cognitive processes shapes the study of perception and cognition, and illuminates a variety of contemporary research issues from a novel theoretical perspective. The papers raise conceptual and metatheoretical issues against the background of relevant empirical data. The authors provide a virtually narrative account of the most recent developments in their respective fields of expertise in psychophysics and cognitive psychology. Hence, this volume gives the interested reader an opportunity to reflect critically upon some of the current issues defining the two domains and their conjunction. Topics discussed include the psychology and psychophysics of similarity, the psychophysics of visual memory and cognitive factors in judgment. The emerging notion of cognitive psychophysics may well warrant the attention of experts in the field.

Information Processing Channels in the Tactile Sensory System

Author : George A. Gescheider
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Information-Processing Channels in the Tactile Sensory System addresses the fundamental question of whether sensory channels, similar to those known to operate in vision and audition, also operate in the sense of touch. Based on the results of psychophysical and neurophysiological experimentation the authors make a powerful case that channels operate in the processing of mechanical stimulation of the highly sensitive glabrous skin of the hand. According to the multichannel model presented in this monograph, each channel, with its specific type of mechanoreceptor and afferent nerve fiber, responds optiimally to particular aspects of the tactile stimulus. It is further proposed that the tactile perception of objects results from the combined activity of the individual tactile channels. This work is important because it provides researchers and students in the field of sensory neuroscience with a comprehensive model that enhances our understanding of tactile perception.

The Psychophysics of Learning

Author : John N. Moye Ph.D.
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The Psychophysics of Learning presents a learning system design approach that is formulated by the strategies and techniques the brain uses to process external information and make sense of that information to the learning ecology of all learners.

Visual Psychophysics

Author : Zhong-Lin Lu
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A comprehensive treatment of the skills and techniques needed for visual psychophysics, from basic tools to sophisticated data analysis. Vision is one of the most active areas in biomedical research, and visual psychophysical techniques are a foundational methodology for this research enterprise. Visual psychophysics, which studies the relationship between the physical world and human behavior, is a classical field of study that has widespread applications in modern vision science. Bridging the gap between theory and practice, this textbook provides a comprehensive treatment of visual psychophysics, teaching not only basic techniques but also sophisticated data analysis methodologies and theoretical approaches. It begins with practical information about setting up a vision lab and goes on to discuss the creation, manipulation, and display of visual images; timing and integration of displays with measurements of brain activities and other relevant techniques; experimental designs; estimation of behavioral functions; and examples of psychophysics in applied and clinical settings. The book's treatment of experimental designs presents the most commonly used psychophysical paradigms, theory-driven psychophysical experiments, and the analysis of these procedures in a signal-detection theory framework. The book discusses the theoretical underpinnings of data analysis and scientific interpretation, presenting data analysis techniques that include model fitting, model comparison, and a general framework for optimized adaptive testing methods. It includes many sample programs in Matlab with functions from Psychtoolbox, a free toolbox for real-time experimental control. Once students and researchers have mastered the material in this book, they will have the skills to apply visual psychophysics to cutting-edge vision science.

The Measurement of Sensation

Author : Donald Richard John Laming
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S. S. Stevens' famous paper On the Psychophysical Law, published in 1957, ignited a controversy that continues to this day--how to accurately measure sensation. For example, how can the perception of sensation diverge so sharply from the magnitude of the stimulus? How should it be measured? This book offers a concise but detailed introduction to the issues arising from this controversy. It presents the most important arguments in the field, plus a comprehensive survey of the data to allow readers to form their own opinions on the debate.