Search results for: computational-logic-volume-9

Martin Davis on Computability Computational Logic and Mathematical Foundations

Author : Eugenio G. Omodeo
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This book presents a set of historical recollections on the work of Martin Davis and his role in advancing our understanding of the connections between logic, computing, and unsolvability. The individual contributions touch on most of the core aspects of Davis’ work and set it in a contemporary context. They analyse, discuss and develop many of the ideas and concepts that Davis put forward, including such issues as contemporary satisfiability solvers, essential unification, quantum computing and generalisations of Hilbert’s tenth problem. The book starts out with a scientific autobiography by Davis, and ends with his responses to comments included in the contributions. In addition, it includes two previously unpublished original historical papers in which Davis and Putnam investigate the decidable and the undecidable side of Logic, as well as a full bibliography of Davis’ work. As a whole, this book shows how Davis’ scientific work lies at the intersection of computability, theoretical computer science, foundations of mathematics, and philosophy, and draws its unifying vision from his deep involvement in Logic.

Computational Logic

Author : Dov M. Gabbay
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Handbook of the History of Logic brings to the development of logic the best in modern techniques of historical and interpretative scholarship. Computational logic was born in the twentieth century and evolved in close symbiosis with the advent of the first electronic computers and the growing importance of computer science, informatics and artificial intelligence. With more than ten thousand people working in research and development of logic and logic-related methods, with several dozen international conferences and several times as many workshops addressing the growing richness and diversity of the field, and with the foundational role and importance these methods now assume in mathematics, computer science, artificial intelligence, cognitive science, linguistics, law and many engineering fields where logic-related techniques are used inter alia to state and settle correctness issues, the field has diversified in ways that even the pure logicians working in the early decades of the twentieth century could have hardly anticipated. Logical calculi, which capture an important aspect of human thought, are now amenable to investigation with mathematical rigour and computational support and fertilized the early dreams of mechanised reasoning: “Calculemus . The Dartmouth Conference in 1956 – generally considered as the birthplace of artificial intelligence – raised explicitly the hopes for the new possibilities that the advent of electronic computing machinery offered: logical statements could now be executed on a machine with all the far-reaching consequences that ultimately led to logic programming, deduction systems for mathematics and engineering, logical design and verification of computer software and hardware, deductive databases and software synthesis as well as logical techniques for analysis in the field of mechanical engineering. This volume covers some of the main subareas of computational logic and its applications. Chapters by leading authorities in the field Provides a forum where philosophers and scientists interact Comprehensive reference source on the history of logic

Computational Methods for Understanding Complexity The Use of Formal Methods in Biology

Author : David A. Rosenblueth,
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The complexity of living organisms surpasses our unaided habilities of analysis. Hence, computational and mathematical methods are necessary for increasing our understanding of biological systems. At the same time, there has been a phenomenal recent progress allowing the application of novel formal methods to new domains. This progress has spurred a conspicuous optimism in computational biology. This optimism, in turn, has promoted a rapid increase in collaboration between specialists of biology with specialists of computer science. Through sheer complexity, however, many important biological problems are at present intractable, and it is not clear whether we will ever be able to solve such problems. We are in the process of learning what kind of model and what kind of analysis and synthesis techniques to use for a particular problem. Some existing formalisms have been readily used in biological problems, others have been adapted to biological needs, and still others have been especially developed for biological systems. This Research Topic has examples of cases (1) employing existing methods, (2) adapting methods to biology, and (3) developing new methods. We can also see discrete and Boolean models, and the use of both simulators and model checkers. Synthesis is exemplified by manual and by machine-learning methods. We hope that the articles collected in this Research Topic will stimulate new research.

Computational Logic

Author : Ulrich Berger
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Recent developments in computer science clearly show the need for a better theoretical foundation for some central issues. Methods and results from mathematical logic, in particular proof theory and model theory, are of great help here and will be used much more in future than previously. This book provides an excellent introduction to the interplay of mathematical logic and computer science. It contains extensively reworked versions of the lectures given at the 1997 Marktoberdorf Summer School by leading researchers in the field. Topics covered include: proof theory and specification of computation (J.-Y. Girard, D. Miller), complexity of proofs and programs (S. R. Buss, S. S. Wainer), computational content of proofs (H. Schwichtenberg), constructive type theory (P. Aczel, H. Barendregt, R. L. Constable), computational mathematics, (U. Martin), rewriting logic (J. Meseguer), and game semantics (S. Abramski).

The Road to Universal Logic

Author : Arnold Koslow
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This second volume of a collection of papers offers new perspectives and challenges in the study of logic. It is presented in honor of the fiftieth birthday of Jean-Yves Béziau. The papers touch upon a wide range of topics including paraconsistent logic, quantum logic, geometry of oppositions, categorical logic, computational logic, fundamental logic notions (identity, rule, quantification) and history of logic (Leibniz, Peirce, Hilbert). The volume gathers personal recollections about Jean-Yves Béziau and an autobiography, followed by 25 papers written by internationally distinguished logicians, mathematicians, computer scientists, linguists and philosophers, including Irving Anellis, Dov Gabbay, Ivor Grattan-Guinness, Istvan Németi, Henri Prade. These essays will be of interest to all students and researchers interested in the nature and future of logic.

Proceedings of Sixth International Congress on Information and Communication Technology

Author : Xin-She Yang
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This book gathers selected high-quality research papers presented at the Sixth International Congress on Information and Communication Technology, held at Brunel University, London, on February 25–26, 2021. It discusses emerging topics pertaining to information and communication technology (ICT) for managerial applications, e-governance, e-agriculture, e-education and computing technologies, the Internet of things (IoT) and e-mining. Written by respected experts and researchers working on ICT, the book offers a valuable asset for young researchers involved in advanced studies. The book is presented in four volumes.

Case Based Reasoning Research and Development

Author : Antonio A. Sánchez-Ruiz
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This book constitutes the proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Case-Based Reasoning, ICCBR 2021, which took place in Salamanca, Spain, during September 13-16, 2021. The 21 papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 85 submissions. They deal with AI and related research focusing on comparison and integration of CBR with other AI methods such as deep learning architectures, reinforcement learning, lifelong learning, and eXplainable AI (XAI).

Logic for Problem Solving Revisited

Author : Robert Kowalski
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This seminal book of Computer Science is the most cited reference on the subject of programming in logic. Originally published in 1979, this now classic text was the first comprehensive attempt to define the scope of logic for problem solving. In this extended edition, Robert Kowalski revisits his classic text in the light of subsequent developments in a substantial commentary of fifty pages. This work investigates the application of logic to problem-solving and computer programming. It assumes no previous knowledge of these fields, and may be appropriate therefore as an introduction to logic, the theory of problem-solving, and computer programming. At the focal point is Computational Logic. It centers around the famous slogan: Algorithm = Logic + Control, which was coined by the author and is explained in this book. According to this view, an algorithm consists of a problem description (the logic part) and a strategy to perform useful computations on this description (the control part). This separation of concerns ideally leads to declarative programs that are simple to develop, clear to understand and easy to maintain.

A Guided Tour of Artificial Intelligence Research

Author : Pierre Marquis
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The purpose of this book is to provide an overview of AI research, ranging from basic work to interfaces and applications, with as much emphasis on results as on current issues. It is aimed at an audience of master students and Ph.D. students, and can be of interest as well for researchers and engineers who want to know more about AI. The book is split into three volumes: - the first volume brings together twenty-three chapters dealing with the foundations of knowledge representation and the formalization of reasoning and learning (Volume 1. Knowledge representation, reasoning and learning) - the second volume offers a view of AI, in fourteen chapters, from the side of the algorithms (Volume 2. AI Algorithms) - the third volume, composed of sixteen chapters, describes the main interfaces and applications of AI (Volume 3. Interfaces and applications of AI). Implementing reasoning or decision making processes requires an appropriate representation of the pieces of information to be exploited. This first volume starts with a historical chapter sketching the slow emergence of building blocks of AI along centuries. Then the volume provides an organized overview of different logical, numerical, or graphical representation formalisms able to handle incomplete information, rules having exceptions, probabilistic and possibilistic uncertainty (and beyond), as well as taxonomies, time, space, preferences, norms, causality, and even trust and emotions among agents. Different types of reasoning, beyond classical deduction, are surveyed including nonmonotonic reasoning, belief revision, updating, information fusion, reasoning based on similarity (case-based, interpolative, or analogical), as well as reasoning about actions, reasoning about ontologies (description logics), argumentation, and negotiation or persuasion between agents. Three chapters deal with decision making, be it multiple criteria, collective, or under uncertainty. Two chapters cover statistical computational learning and reinforcement learning (other machine learning topics are covered in Volume 2). Chapters on diagnosis and supervision, validation and explanation, and knowledge base acquisition complete the volume.

KI 2020 Advances in Artificial Intelligence

Author : Ute Schmid
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This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 43rd German Conference on Artificial Intelligence, KI 2020, held in Bamberg, Germany, in September 2020. The 16 full and 12 short papers presented together with 6 extended abstracts in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 62 submissions. As well-established annual conference series KI is dedicated to research on theory and applications across all methods and topic areas of AI research. KI 2020 had a special focus on human-centered AI with highlights on AI and education and explainable machine learning. Due to the Corona pandemic KI 2020 was held as a virtual event.