Search results for: concepts-in-spin-electronics

Concepts in Spin Electronics

Author : Sadamichi Maekawa
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Recently, a new branch of physics and nanotechnology called spin electronics has emerged, which aims at simultaneously exploiting the charge and spin of electrons in the same device. The aim of this book is to present new directions in the development of spin electronics in both the basic physics and the technology which will become the foundation of future electronics.

Molecular Spintronics

Author : Marta Galbiati
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This thesis targets molecular or organic spintronics and more particularly the spin polarization tailoring opportunities that arise from the ferromagnetic metal/molecule hybridization at interfaces: the new concept of spinterface. Molecular or organic spintronics is an emerging research field at the frontier between organic chemistry and spintronics. The manuscript is divided into three parts, the first of which introduces the basic concepts of spintronics and advantages that molecules can bring to this field. The state of the art on organic and molecular spintronics is also presented, with a special emphasis on the physics and experimental evidence for spinterfaces. The book’s second and third parts are dedicated to the two main experimental topics investigated in the thesis: Self-Assembled Monolayers (SAMs) and Organic Semiconductors (OSCs). The study of SAMs-based magnetic tunnel nanojunctions reveals the potential to modulate the properties of such devices “at will,” since each part of the molecule can be tuned independently like a “LEGO” building block. The study of Alq3-based spin valves reveals magnetoresistance effects at room temperature and is aimed at understanding the respective roles played by the two interfaces. Through the development of these systems, we demonstrate their potential for spintronics and provide a solid foundation for spin polarization engineering at the molecular level.

Spintronics for Next Generation Innovative Devices

Author : Katsuaki Sato
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Spintronics (short for spin electronics, or spin transport electronics) exploits both the intrinsic spin of the electron and its associated magnetic moment, in addition to its fundamental electronic charge, in solid-state devices. Controlling the spin of electrons within a device can produce surprising and substantial changes in its properties. Drawing from many cutting edge fields, including physics, materials science, and electronics device technology, spintronics has provided the key concepts for many next generation information processing and transmitting technologies. This book discusses all aspects of spintronics from basic science to applications and covers: • magnetic semiconductors • topological insulators • spin current science • spin caloritronics • ultrafast magnetization reversal • magneto-resistance effects and devices • spin transistors • quantum information devices This book provides a comprehensive introduction to Spintronics for researchers and students in academia and industry.

Recent Advances in Magnetic Insulators From Spintronics to Microwave Applications

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This volume of Solid State Physics provides a broad review on recent advances in the field of magnetic insulators, ranging from new spin effects to thin film growth and high-frequency applications. It covers both theoretical and experimental progress. The topics include the use of magnetic insulators to produce and transfer spin currents, the excitation of spin waves in magnetic insulators by spin transfer torque, interplay between the spin and heat transports in magnetic insulator/normal metal heterostructures, nonlinear spin waves in thin films, development of high-quality nanometer thick films, and applications of magnetic insulators in rf, microwave, and terahertz devices, among others. The volume not only presents introductions and tutorials for those just entering the field, but also provides comprehensive yet timely summaries to specialists in the field. Solid-state physics is the branch of physics primarily devoted to the study of matter in its solid phase, especially at the atomic level. This prestigious series presents timely and state-of-the-art reviews pertaining to all aspects of solid-state physics. Contributions from leading authorities Informs and updates on all the latest developments in the field

New Frontiers in Nanochemistry Concepts Theories and Trends

Author : Mihai V. Putz
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New Frontiers in Nanochemistry: Concepts, Theories, and Trends, Volume 1: Structural Nanochemistry is the first volume of the new three-volume set that explains and explores the important concepts from various areas within the nanosciences. This first volume focuses on structural nanochemistry and encompasses the general fundamental aspects of nanochemistry while simultaneously incorporating crucial material from other fields, in particular mathematic and natural sciences, with specific attention to multidisciplinary chemistry. Under the broad expertise of the editor, the volume contains 50 concise yet comprehensive entries from world-renowned scholars, alphabetically organizing a multitude of essential basic and advanced concepts, ranging from algebraic chemistry to new energy technology, from the bondonic theory of chemistry to spintronics, and from fractal dimension and kinetics to quantum dots and tight binding—and much more. The entries contain definitions, short characterizations, uses and usefulness, limitations, references, and more.

Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Spintronics

Author : Vladimir Litvinov
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This book is focused on the spintronic properties of III–V nitride semiconductors. Particular attention is paid to the comparison between zinc blende GaAs- and wurtzite GaN-based structures, where the Rashba spin–orbit interaction plays a crucial role in voltage-controlled spin engineering. The book also deals with topological insulators, a new class of materials that could deliver sizable Rashba spin splitting in the surface electron spectrum. Electrically driven zero-magnetic-field spin splitting of surface electrons is discussed with respect to the specifics of electron-localized spin interaction and voltage-controlled ferromagnetism. The book covers generic topics in spintronics without entering into device specifics, since the overall goal of the enterprise is to provide theoretical background for most common concepts of spin-electron physics and give instructions to be used in solving problems of a general and specific nature. The book is intended for graduate students and may serve as an introductory course in this specific field of solid-state theory and applications.

Nanomagnetism and Spintronics

Author : André Thiaville
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Spin-transfer torque manifests itself in two main geometries, either submicrometer diameter pillars composed of magnetic multilayers, flooded by a current perpendicular to plane (CPP), or nanowires with current flowing in their plane (CIP). The first situation can be described rather well, from the magnetic point of view, in the framework of the macrospin model (see by Y. Suzuki). In the latter case, the typical situation is that of a magnetic domain wall under CIP current, with many internal degrees of freedom. In by H. Kohno and G. Tatara, a simplest model of the domain wall, called collective coordinates model, has been introduced to study this question. In this chapter, we will address the entire manifold of the degrees of freedom in the domain wall by micromagnetic numerical simulations, and apply this to the physics of CIP spin transfer in magnetic domain walls. We will consider soft magnetic materials only, where domain wall structures and dynamics are controlled by magnetostatics. This corresponds to the largest part of experiments that have been performed up to now, soft magnetic materials having generally lower coercive forces and domain wall propagation fields. The experimental counterpart to this chapter can be found in , by T. Ono and T. Shinjo. After briefly introducing micromagnetics and the typology of domain walls in samples shaped into nanostrips, we start by reviewing the field-driven dynamics in such samples. This situation was indeed considered first, historically, and led to the introduction of several useful concepts. Prominent among them are the separation between steady-state and precessional regimes, and the existence of a maximum velocity for a domain wall. The spin-transfer torque-induced domain wall dynamics will then be addressed, considering first the implementation of the CIP spin transfer torque in micromagnetics, with several components as introduced by theory. Comparison will be made to the field-driven case, with similarities and differences highlighted. In the nascent field of nanomagnetism and spintronics, micromagnetics can be considered to play the role of a translator. There are on one side experiments and on the other side theories about interaction between magnetization and spin-polarized electrical currents. Micromagnetics is a tool that translates the equations of the latter into quantitative predictions that can be compared to the former. Considering the present state of the subject of this book, with rapidly advancing experiments and theories, keeping in touch those two aspects of research is very important for its sound development. This is the objective of this chapter.

Nanomagnetism and Spintronics

Author : Hiroshi Kohno
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Current-driven domain-wall motion and related phenomena are reviewed from a theoretical point of view. In the first part, the dynamics of a rigid domain wall is described based on the collective-coordinate method. After an elementary introduction, the equations of motion are derived for a wall under current, whose effects enter as a spin-transfer effect and a momentum-transfer effect (force). The wall motion is studied in detail, and several depinning mechanisms are found. In the second part, a microscopic derivation of spin torques is described for slowly varying magnetic texture. In addition to the well-established spin-transfer torque, two new torques are shown to arise from the spin-relaxation process and the nonadiabatic process (reflection) of conduction electrons. These new torques act as forces on a rigid wall. Some related topics are described in the third part, which includes current-driven dynamics of magnetic vortices and the current-induced spin-wave instability and domain-wall nucleation.

Spin Electronics

Author : Michael Ziese
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For 50 years conventional electronics has ignored the electron spin. The manipulation and utilisation of the electron spin heralds an exciting and rapidly changing era in electronics, combining the disciplines of magnetism and traditional electronics. The first generation of "spintronic" devices (such as read heads based on giant magnetoresistance or non-volatile magnetic random access memories) have already gained dominant positions in the market place. This volume, the first of its kind on spin electronics describes all the essential topics for new researchers entering the field. It covers magnetism and semiconductor basics, micromagnetism, experimental techniques, materials science, device fabrication and new developments in spin-dependent processes. At the end of most chapters are a number of exercises and worked problems to aid the reader in understanding this fascinating new field.

Mesoscopic Electronics in Solid State Nanostructures

Author : Thomas Heinzel
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This text treats electronic transport in the regime where conventional textbook models are no longer applicable, including the effect of electronic phase coherence, energy quantization and single-electron charging. This second edition is completely updated and expanded, and now comprises new chapters on spin electronics and quantum information processing, transport in inhomogeneous magnetic fields, organic/molecular electronics, and applications of field effect transistors. The book also provides an overview of semiconductor processing technologies and experimental techniques. With a number of examples and problems with solutions, this is an ideal introduction for students and beginning researchers in the field. "This book is a useful tool, too, for the experienced researcher to get a summary of recent developments in solid state nanostructures. I applaud the author for a marvellous contribution to the scientific community of mesoscopic electronics." Prof. K. Ensslin, Solid State Physics Laboratory, ETH Zurich

Electron Nuclear Spin Dynamics in Semiconductor Nanostructures

Author : M. M. Glazov
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In recent years, the physics community has experienced a revival of interest in spin effects in solid state systems. On one hand, the solid state systems, particularly, semiconductors and semiconductor nanosystems, allow us to perform benchtop studies of quantum and relativistic phenomena. On the other hand, this interest is supported by the prospects of realizing spin-based electronics, where the electron or nuclear spins may play a role of quantum or classical information carriers. This book looks in detail at the physics of interacting systems of electron and nuclear spins in semiconductors, with particular emphasis on low-dimensional structures. These two spin systems naturally appear in practically all widespread semiconductor compounds. The hyperfine interaction of the charge carriers and nuclear spins is particularly prominent in nanosystems due to the localization of the charge carriers, and gives rise to spin exchange between these two systems and a whole range of beautiful and complex physics of manybody and nonlinear systems. As a result, understanding of the intertwined spin systems of electrons and nuclei is crucial for in-depth studying and controlling the spin phenomena in semiconductors. The book addresses a number of the most prominent effects taking place in semiconductor nanosystems including hyperfine interaction, nuclear magnetic resonance, dynamical nuclear polarization, spin-Faraday and spin-Kerr effects, processes of electron spin decoherence and relaxation, effects of electron spin precession mode-locking and frequency focussing, as well as fluctuations of electron and nuclear spins.

Physical and Chemical Aspects of Organic Electronics

Author : Christof Wöll
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Organic molecules are currently being investigated with regard to their application as active components in semiconductor devices. Whereas devices containing organic molecules for the generation of light - organic light emitting diodes (OLED) - have already reached the market (they e.g. display information on mobile phones), transistors where organic molecules are used to actively control currents and voltages are still in the development stage. In this book the principle problems related to using organic materials as semiconductors and to construct functioning devices will be addressed. A particular emphasis will be put on the difference between inorganic semiconductors such as Si, Ge and GaAs and organic semiconductors (OSC). The special properties of such soft matter require particular approaches for processing characterization and device implementation, which are quite different from the approach used for conventional semiconductors.

Mechanical Properties of Complex Intermetallics

Author : Esther Belin-Ferr‚
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This book will be the last one in a series of 4 books issued yearly as a deliverable of the research school established within the European Network of Excellence CMA (for Complex Metallic Alloys). It is written by reputed experts in the fields of metal physics, surface physics and chemistry, metallurgy and process engineering, combining expertise found inside as well as outside the network. The CMA network focuses on the huge group of largely unknown multinary alloys and compounds formed with crystal structures based on giant unit cells containing clusters, with many tens up to more than thousand atoms per unit cell. In these phases, for many phenomena, the physical length scales are substantially smaller than the unit-cell dimension. Hence, these materials offer unique combinations of properties, which are mutually excluded in conventional materials: metallic electric conductivity combined with low thermal conductivity, combination of good light absorption with high-temperature stability, combination of high metallic hardness with reduced wetting by liquids, electrical and thermal resistance tuneable by composition variation, excellent resistance to corrosion, reduced cold-welding and adhesion, enhanced hydrogen storage capacity and light absorption, etc. The series of books will concentrate on: development of fundamental knowledge with the aim of understanding materials phenomena, technologies associated with the production, transformation and processing of knowledge-based multifunctional materials, surface engineering, support for new materials development and new knowledge-based higher performance materials for macro-scale applications.

Spin Electronics

Author : David D. Awschalom
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The history of scientific research and technological development is replete with examples of breakthroughs that have advanced the frontiers of knowledge, but seldom does it record events that constitute paradigm shifts in broad areas of intellectual pursuit. One notable exception, however, is that of spin electronics (also called spintronics, magnetoelectronics or magnetronics), wherein information is carried by electron spin in addition to, or in place of, electron charge. It is now well established in scientific and engineering communities that Moore's Law, having been an excellent predictor of integrated circuit density and computer performance since the 1970s, now faces great challenges as the scale of electronic devices has been reduced to the level where quantum effects become significant factors in device operation. Electron spin is one such effect that offers the opportunity to continue the gains predicted by Moore's Law, by taking advantage of the confluence of magnetics and semiconductor electronics in the newly emerging discipline of spin electronics. From a fundamental viewpoine, spin-polarization transport in a material occurs when there is an imbalance of spin populations at the Fermi energy. In ferromagnetic metals this imbalance results from a shift in the energy states available to spin-up and spin-down electrons. In practical applications, a ferromagnetic metal may be used as a source of spin-polarized electronics to be injected into a semiconductor, a superconductor or a normal metal, or to tunnel through an insulating barrier.

Semiconductor Spintronics and Quantum Computation

Author : D.D. Awschalom
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The past few decades of research and development in solid-state semicon ductor physics and electronics have witnessed a rapid growth in the drive to exploit quantum mechanics in the design and function of semiconductor devices. This has been fueled for instance by the remarkable advances in our ability to fabricate nanostructures such as quantum wells, quantum wires and quantum dots. Despite this contemporary focus on semiconductor "quantum devices," a principal quantum mechanical aspect of the electron - its spin has it accounts for an added quan largely been ignored (except in as much as tum mechanical degeneracy). In recent years, however, a new paradigm of electronics based on the spin degree of freedom of the electron has begun to emerge. This field of semiconductor "spintronics" (spin transport electron ics or spin-based electronics) places electron spin rather than charge at the very center of interest. The underlying basis for this new electronics is the intimate connection between the charge and spin degrees of freedom of the electron via the Pauli principle. A crucial implication of this relationship is that spin effects can often be accessed through the orbital properties of the electron in the solid state. Examples for this are optical measurements of the spin state based on the Faraday effect and spin-dependent transport measure ments such as giant magneto-resistance (GMR). In this manner, information can be encoded in not only the electron's charge but also in its spin state, i. e.

Spin Current

Author : Sadamichi Maekawa
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Since the discovery of the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect in magnetic multilayers in 1988, a new branch of physics and technology, called spin-electronics or spintronics, has emerged, where the flow of electrical charge as well as the flow of electron spin, the so-called "spin current", are manipulated and controlled together. Recent progress in the physics of magnetism and the application of spin current has progressed in tandem with the nanofabrication technology of magnets and the engineering of interfaces and thin films. This book is intended to provide an introduction and guide to the new physics and applications of spin current. The emphasis is placed on the interaction between spin and charge currents in magnetic nanostructures.


Author : Puja Dey
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This book highlights the overview of Spintronics, including What is Spintronics ?; Why Do We Need Spintronics ?; Comparative merit-demerit of Spintronics and Electronics ; Research Efforts put on Spintronics ; Quantum Mechanics of Spin; Dynamics of magnetic moments : Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert Equation; Spin-Dependent Band Gap in Ferromagnetic Materials; Functionality of ‘Spin’ in Spintronics; Different Branches of Spintronics etc. Some important notions on basic elements of Spintronics are discussed here, such as – Spin Polarization, Spin Filter Effect, Spin Generation and Injection, Spin Accumulation, Different kinds of Spin Relaxation Phenomena, Spin Valve, Spin Extraction, Spin Hall Effect, Spin Seebeck Effect, Spin Current Measurement Mechanism, Magnetoresistance and its different kinds etc. Concept of Giant Magnetoresistance (GMR), different types of GMR, qualitative and quantitative explanation of GMR employing Resistor Network Theory are presented here. Tunnelling Magnetoresistance (TMR), Magnetic Junctions, Effect of various parameters on TMR, Measurement of spin relaxation length and time in the spacer layer are covered here. This book highlights the concept of Spin Transfer Torque (STT), STT in Ferromagnetic Layer Structures, STT driven Magnetization Dynamics, STT in Magnetic Multilayer Nanopillar etc. This book also sheds light on Magnetic Domain Wall (MDW) Motion, Ratchet Effect in MDW motion, MDW motion velocity measurements, Current-driven MDW motion, etc. The book deals with the emerging field of spintronics, i.e., Opto-spintronics. Special emphasis is given on ultrafast optical controlling of magnetic states of antiferromagnet, Spin-photon interaction, Faraday Effect, Inverse Faraday Effect and outline of different all-optical spintronic switching. One more promising branch i.e., Terahertz Spintronics is also covered. Principle of operation of spintronic terahertz emitter, choice of materials, terahertz writing of an antiferromagnetic magnetic memory device is discussed. Brief introduction of Semiconductor spintronics is presented that includes dilute magnetic semiconductor, feromagnetic semiconductor, spin polarized semiconductor devices, three terminal spintronic devices, Spin transistor, Spin-LED, and Spin-Laser. This book also emphasizes on several modern spintronics devices that includes GMR Read Head of Modern Hard Disk Drive, MRAM, Position Sensor, Biosensor, Magnetic Field sensor, Three Terminal Magnetic Memory Devices, Spin FET, Race Track Memory and Quantum Computing.

Magnetism and Magnetic Materials

Author : J. M. D. Coey
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An essential textbook for graduate courses on magnetism and an important source of practical reference data.

Future Trends in Microelectronics

Author : Serge Luryi
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In this book leading profesionals in the semiconductor microelectronics field discuss the future evolution of their profession. The following are some of the questions discussed: Does CMOS technology have a real problem? Do transistors have to be smaller or just better and made of better materials? What is to come after semiconductors? Superconductors or molecular conductors? Is bottom-up self-assembling the answer to the limitation of top-down lithography? Is it time for Optics to become a force in computer evolution? Quantum Computing, Spintronics? Where is the printable plastic electronics proposed 10 years ago? Are carbon nanotube transistors the CMOS of the future?

Nano sized Multifunctional Materials

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Nano-sized Multifunctional Materials: Synthesis, Properties and Applications explores how materials can be down-scaled to nanometer-size in order to tailor and control properties. These advanced, low-dimensional materials, ranging from quantum dots and nanoparticles, to ultra-thin films develop multifunctional properties. As well as demonstrating how down-scaling to nano-size can make materials multifunctional, chapters also show how this technology can be applied in electronics, medicine, energy and in the environment. This fresh approach in materials research will provide a valuable resource for materials scientists, materials engineers, chemists, physicists and bioengineers who want to learn more on the special properties of nano-sized materials. Outlines the major synthesis chemical process and problems of advanced nanomaterials Shows how multifunctional nanomaterials can be practically used in biomedical area, nanomedicine, and in the treatment of pollutants Demonstrates how the properties of a variety of materials can be engineered by downscaling them to nano size