Search results for: contextual-archaeology-of-burial-practice

Contextual Archaeology of Burial Practice

Author : John Pearce
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This study explores the insights into provincial Roman societies that can be gained from the archaeological evidence for burial practice, focused on Britain, drawing on wider work in the archaeology of death. It evaluates the distribution of burial evidence and the factors that condition it, including, it is argued, archaeologically invisible burial continuing from the Iron Age. It reviews the archaeological evidence for cremation rituals and explores how social status was expressed through burial, primarily in case studies from south east England. Funerary ritual was a dynamic arena for asserting social status throughout the Roman period, taking forms that can be read as both traditional' and Roman'. The setting of burial is assessed to establish spatial relationships between living and dead in town and country and the distribution of funerary display across the landscape."

Case Studies in a Contextual Archaeology of Burial Practice in Roman Britain

Author : Richard John Hunter Pearce
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Burial Society and Context in the Roman World

Author : John Pearce
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Although a large number of cemeteries have been explored in Roman Britain they have never been seen as central to the study of the province. This collection of twenty-eight papers, from a symposium held at the University of Durham in 1997, explores different approaches to examine the contribution that cemeteries can make to our wider understanding of Roman society. The papers are grouped under five headings: The reconstruction of mortuary rituals; Burial and social status; The dead in the landscape; Burial and ethnicity and society; Religion and Burial in late Roman Britain and Italy.

The Oxford Handbook of Roman Britain

Author : Martin Millett
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This book provides a twenty-first century perspective on Roman Britain, combining current approaches with the wealth of archaeological material from the province. This volume introduces the history of research into the province and the cultural changes at the beginning and end of the Roman period. The majority of the chapters are thematic, dealing with issues relating to the people of the province, their identities and ways of life. Further chapters consider the characteristics of the province they lived in, such as the economy, and settlement patterns. This Handbook reflects the new approaches being developed in Roman archaeology, and demonstrates why the study of Roman Britain has become one of the most dynamic areas of archaeology. The book will be useful for academics and students interested in Roman Britain.

Ancient Burial Practices in the American Southwest

Author : Douglas R. Mitchell
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Prehistoric burial practices provide an unparalleled opportunity for understanding and reconstructing ancient civilizations and for identifying the influences that helped shape them.

Classical Archaeology in Context

Author : Donald Haggis
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This book compiles a series of case studies derived from archaeological excavation in Greek cultural contexts in the Mediterranean (ca. 800-100 B.C), addressing the current state of the field, the goals and direction of Greek archaeology, and its place in archaeological thought and practice. Overviews of archaeological sites and analyses of assemblages and contexts explore how new forms of data; methods of data recovery and analysis; and sampling strategies have affected the discourse in classical archaeology and the range of research questions and strategies at our disposal. Recent excavations and field practices are steering the way that we approach Greek cultural landscapes and form broader theoretical perspectives, while generating new research questions and interpretive frameworks that in turn affect how we sample sites, collect and study material remains, and ultimately construct the archaeological record. The book confronts the implications of an integrated dialogue between realms of data and interpretive methodologies, addressing how reengagement with the site, assemblage, or artifact, from the excavation context can structure the way that we link archaeological and systemic contexts in classical archaeology.

Community and Identity at the Edges of the Classical World

Author : Aaron W. Irvin
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A timely and academically-significant contribution to scholarship on community, identity, and globalization in the Roman and Hellenistic worlds Community and Identity at the Edges of the Classical World examines the construction of personal and communal identities in the ancient world, exploring how globalism, multi-culturalism, and other macro events influenced micro identities throughout the Hellenistic and Roman empires. This innovative volume discusses where contact and the sharing of ideas was occurring in the time period, and applies modern theories based on networks and communication to historical and archaeological data. A new generation of international scholars challenge traditional views of Classical history and offer original perspectives on the impact globalizing trends had on localized areas—insights that resonate with similar issues today. This singular resource presents a broad, multi-national view rarely found in western collected volumes, including Serbian, Macedonian, and Russian scholarship on the Roman Empire, as well as on Roman and Hellenistic archaeological sites in Eastern Europe. Topics include Egyptian identity in the Hellenistic world, cultural identity in Roman Greece, Romanization in Slovenia, Balkan Latin, the provincial organization of cults in Roman Britain, and Soviet studies of Roman Empire and imperialism. Serving as a synthesis of contemporary scholarship on the wider topic of identity and community, this volume: Provides an expansive materialist approach to the topic of globalization in the Roman world Examines ethnicity in the Roman empire from the viewpoint of minority populations Offers several views of metascholarship, a growing sub-discipline that compares ancient material to modern scholarship Covers a range of themes, time periods, and geographic areas not included in most western publications Community and Identity at the Edges of the Classical World is a valuable resource for academics, researchers, and graduate students examining identity and ethnicity in the ancient world, as well as for those working in multiple fields of study, from Classical, Hellenistic, and Roman historians, to the study of ethnicity, identity, and globalizing trends in time.

The Chinese Neolithic

Author : Li Liu
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This book studies the formation of complex societies in prehistoric China during the Neolithic and early state periods, c. 7000–1500 BC. Archaeological materials are interpreted through anthropological perspectives, using systematic analytic methods in settlement and burial patterns. Both agency and process are considered in the development of chiefdoms and in the emergence of early states in the Yellow River region. Interrelationships between factors such as mortuary practice, craft specialization, ritual activities, warfare, exchange of elite goods, climatic fluctuations, and environmental changes are emphasized. This study offers a critical evaluation of current archaeological data from Chinese sources, and argues that, although some general tendencies are noted, social changes were affected by multiple factors in no pre-determined sequence. In this most comprehensive study to date, Li Liu attempts to reconstruct developmental trajectories toward early states in Chinese civilization and discusses theoretical implications of Chinese archaeology for the understanding of social evolution.

The Evolution and Role of Burial Practice in Roman Wales

Author : K. J. Pollock
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The established view of burials in Wales during the Roman period has been that, with a few exceptions, they would conform to Roman types. Dr. Pollock's detailed examination of the available evidence shows that on the contrary native burial types and influences can be found during the Roman period, even in heavily 'Romanized' areas. An analysis of the data is provided chronologically, geogrpahically and in terms of the function of the surrounding settlement (urban, rural, military etc).

The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of Death and Burial

Author : Sarah Tarlow
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This Handbook reviews the state of mortuary archaeology and its practice with forty-four chapters focusing on the history of the discipline and its current scientific techniques and methods. Written by leading scholars in the field, it derives its examples and case studies from a wide range of time periods and geographical areas.

Commemorating the Dead

Author : Laurie Brink
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Commemorating the Dead analyzes and interprets the material remains of Roman period burials in light of ancient texts. Is the move from columbaria to catacombs the result of evolving religious identities or simply a matter of a change in fashions? What Greco-Roman and Jewish funerary images were “baptized” as Christian ones? In Commemorating the Dead, archaeologists, Roman historians, and scholars of Judaism and Early Christianity engage in a cross-disciplinary conversation on the impact of Roman and Jewish burial customs on the creation of early Christian memorial practices.

Roman Tombs and the Art of Commemoration

Author : Barbara E. Borg
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Explores four key questions around Roman funerary customs that change our view of the society and its values.

Theory and Practice in Archaeology

Author : Ian Hodder
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In this latest collection of his articles, of which seven are written especially for this volume, Ian Hodder captures and continues the lively controversy of the 1980s over symbolic and structural approaches to archaeology. The book acts as an overview of the developments in the discipline over the last decade; yet Hodder's brief is far wider. His aim is to break down the division between the intellectual and the "dirt" archaeologist to demonstrate that in this discipline more than any other, theory must be related to practice to save effectively our rapidly diminishing heritage.

Gender and the Archaeology of Death

Author : Bettina Arnold
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Edited volume on what archaeological mortuary analysis can tell researchers about gender relations in the ancient world.

TRAC 2006

Author : Roman Roth
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The sixteenth Theoretical Roman Archaeology Conference was held in Cambridge in March 2006. Sixty papers were given during the two-day conference and covered the breadth and length of the Roman world. The issues of identity, its expression and recognition, were at the forefront of consideration. Sessions also looked at public and private religion, 'Romanisation' from a zooarchaeological perspective, how theoretical archaeology works in the field and the ways in which all of this (and more) is presented to the public. This volume contains a selection of the papers from all of the sessions that ran during the course of the conference.

The Funeral Kit

Author : Jill L Baker
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Studies of mortuary archaeology tend to focus on difference—how the researcher can identify age, gender, status, and ethnicity from the contents of a burial. Jill L. Baker’s innovative approach begins from the opposite point: how can you recognize the commonalities of a culture from the “funeral kit” that occurs in all burials, irrespective of status differences? And what do those commonalities have to say about the world view and religious beliefs of that culture? Baker begins with the Middle and Late Bronze Age tombs in the southern Levant, then expands her scope in ever widening circles to create a general model of the funeral kit of use to archaeologists in a wide variety of cultures and settings. The volume will be of equal value to specialists in Near Eastern archaeology and those who study mortuary remains in ancient cultures worldwide.

The Materiality of Death

Author : European Association of Archaeologists. Meeting
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16 papers presented from an EAA session held at Krakow in 2006, exploring various aspects of the archaeology of death. Contents: Chapter 1. The Materiality of Death: Bodies, Burials, Beliefs (Fredrik Fahlander & Terje Oestigaard); Chapter 2. More than Metaphor: Approaching the Human Cadaver in Archaeology (Liv Nilsson Stutz); Chapter 3. A Piece of the Mesolithic. Horizontal Stratigraphy and Bodily Manipulations at Skateholm (Fredrik Fahlander); Chapter 4. Excavating the KingsAe Bones: The Materiality of Death in Practice and Ethics Today 9Anders Kaliff & Terje Oestigaard); Chapter 5. From Corpse to Ancestor: The Role of Tombside Dining in the Transformation of the Body in Ancient Rome (Regina Gee); Chapter 6. Cremations, Conjecture and Contextual Taphonomies: Material Strategies during the 4th to 2nd Millennia BC in Scotland (Paul R J Duffy and Gavin MacGregor); Chapter 7. Ritual and Remembrance at Archaic Crustumerium. The Transformations of Past and Modern Materialities in the Cemetery of Cisterna Grande (Rome, Italy) (Ulla Rajala); Chapter 8. Reuse in Finnish Cremation Cemeteries under Level Ground - Examples of Collective Memory (Anna Wickholm); Chapter 9. Life and Death in the Bronze Age of the NW of Iberian Peninsula (Ana M. S. Bettencourt); Chapter 10. Norwegian Face-Urns: Local Context and Interregional Contacts (Malin Aasbe); Chapter 11. The Use of Ochre in Stone Age Burials of the East Baltic (Ilga Zagorska); Chapter 12. oDeath Mythso: Performing of Rituals and Variation in Corpse Treatment during the Migration Period in Norway (Siv Kristoffersen and Terje Oestigaard); Chapter 13. Reproduction and Relocation of Death in Iron Age Scandinavia (Terje Gansum); Chapter 14. A Road for the VikingAes Soul (Ake Johansson); Chapter 15. A Road to the Other Side (Camilla Gr); Chapter 16. Stones and Bones: The Myth of Ymer and Mortuary Practises with an Example from the Migration Period in Uppland, Central Sweden (Christina Lindgren).

Art and the Early Greek State

Author : Michael Shanks
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A contribution to recent debates on emerging Greek city states in the first millennium BC.

The Later Iron Age in Britain and Beyond

Author : Colin Haselgrove
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The nature and causes of the transformation in settlement, social structure, and material culture that occurred in Britain during the Later Iron Age (c. 400-300 BC to the Roman conquest) have long been a focus of research. In the past, however, there was a tendency for attention to be directed mostly to southern England and the increased manifestations of Gaulish and Roman influence apparent there towards the end of this period. For the most part, developments in other regions were assumed to be secondary in character and of relatively little significance. Thanks to new work, this viewpoint can no longer be sustained. Throughout Britain, the extent and vitality of the social changes taking place during the later first millennium BC is becoming more apparent, as is the long-term character of many of the processes involved. The time is ripe therefore for new narratives of the Later Iron Age to be created, drawing on the burgeoning material from developer-funded archaeology and the Portable Antiquities Scheme, as well as on new methodological and theoretical approaches. The thirty-one papers collected here seek to re-conceptualise our visions of Later Iron Age societies in Britain by examining regions and topics that have received less attention in the past and by breaking down the artificial barriers often erected between artefact analysis and landscape studies. Themes considered include the expansion and enclosure of settlement, production and exchange, agricultural and social complexity, treatment of the dead, material culture and identity, at scales ranging from the household to the supra-regional. At the same time, the inclusion of papers on Ireland, northern France, the Low Countries, Denmark, and Germany allows insular Later Iron Age developments to be placed in a wider geographical context, ensuring that Britain is no longer studied in isolation.

Deviant Burial in the Archaeological Record

Author : Eileen M. Murphy
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This edited volume contains twelve papers that present evidence on non-normative burial practices from the Neolithic through to Post-Medieval periods and includes case studies from some ten countries. It has long been recognised by archaeologists that certain individuals in a variety of archaeological cultures from diverse periods and locations have been accorded differential treatment in burial relative to other members of their society. These individuals can include criminals, women who died during childbirth, unbaptised infants, people with disabilities, and supposed revenants, to name but a few. Such burials can be identifiable in the archaeological record from an examination of the location and external characteristics of the grave site. Furthermore, the position of the body in addition to its association with unusual grave goods can be a further feature of atypical burials. The motivation behind such non-normative burial practices is also diverse and can be related to a wide variety of social and religious beliefs. It is envisaged that the volume will make a significant contribution towards our understanding of the complexities involved when dealing with non-normative burials in the archaeological record.