Search results for: crime-and-disorder-in-community-context

Crime and Disorder in Community Context

Author : Rebecca Wickes
File Size : 26.63 MB
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Drawing on unique longitudinal community-level data in Brisbane, this book entwines current ecological theories of crime with key debates on the relevance of ‘community’ in contemporary urban life to examine the spatial and temporal relationships between community structure, community social capital, informal social control and the occurrence of crime and disorder. Crime and Disorder in Community Context extends what is known about the concentration of crime in particular types of places, presenting a broad reaching explication of how community structural characteristics, community regulatory processes and crime influence each other over time. It looks at how growing levels of ethnic diversity, income inequality and increasing immigrant concentrations at the community level influence processes necessary for the regulation of crime; the crime control processes for various crime problems in different types of communities; the extent that exogenous shocks, like the 2011 Brisbane flood disaster and the global financial crisis impact on crime, crime prevention and crime control; and engages readers with the methodological complexities associated with the longitudinal study of crime and disorder in contemporary urban communities. An accessible and compelling read, this will appeal to students and scholars of criminology, sociology, geography, cultural studies and all those interested in the relationship between crime and community.

Crime Disorder and Community Safety

Author : Roger Matthews
File Size : 67.74 MB
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This book provides an analytic overview and assessment of the changing nature of crime prevention, disorder and community safety in contemporary society. Bringing together nine original articles from leading national and international authorities on these issues, the book examines recent developments in relation to a number of specific groups - the disadvantaged, the socially excluded, youth, women and ethnic minorities. Topics covered include: * the increase in local authority responsibility for crime control and community safety * the development of inter-agency alliances * the changing nature of policing * the passing of the Crime and Disorder Act 1998.

Crime Control and Community

Author : Gordon Hughes
File Size : 54.60 MB
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Community-based crime control has become one of the principal policy responses to crime and disorder across western societies, and is regarded now as one of the keys to successful crime prevention and reduction. The aim of this book is to bring together findings from case studies of community-based crime control in England as a means of examining the prospects for this approach, its evolving relationship with criminal justice and social policies, and to assess the lessons internationally that can be drawn from this in the theory, research methods, politics and practice of crime control. At the same time the book advances an important new conceptual framework for understanding community-based crime control, focusing on an understanding of the diversity of control and preventative strategies, the locally particular conditions in which they are conducted, and the degree of choices open to local political actors involved in their conduct. Understanding diversity in this way is central to drawing lessons about the transferability of crime control theory and practice from one social context to another, avoiding the naïve emulation of practices in different contexts.

The Community Justice Ideal

Author : Todd R Clear
File Size : 72.4 MB
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Over the past quarter-century, U.S. politicians have responded to the public's fear of crime by devoting ever more resources to building and strengthening the criminal justice apparatus, which as a result has grown tremendously in size and cost. Policymakers have also taken steps to toughen procedures for dealing with suspects and criminals, and broaden legal definitions of what constitutes crime, which has led to the incarceration, under harsher-than-ever conditions, of a record-high percentage of the U.S. population. Yet public confidence in the criminal justice apparatus is, if anything, lower than ever before, and fear of crime continues to be high.In recent years, some activists, scholars, criminal-justice officials, and politicians have begun to call for a reexamination of "get-tough" crime policies. A more sensible approach to crime, they argue, would focus on "community justice"--that is, on building healthy communities in which criminality cannot take root, and on making citizens and criminal-justice into partners rather than adversaries. In this thought-provoking study, Todd Clear and David Karp provide both a broad theoretical analysis of this ideal, and a close examination of a range of attempts to put it into practice in communities throughout the country. They conclude that by making the criminal justice system and the public into partners rather than adversaries, community-justice strategies for dealing with crime are both more effective and more resource-efficient than the failed "get-tough" approach.

Encyclopedia of Criminological Theory

Author : Francis T. Cullen
File Size : 67.61 MB
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For a free 30-day online trial to this title, visit This two-volume set is designed to serve as a reference source for anyone interested in the roots of contemporary criminological theory. Drawing together a team of international scholars, it examines the global landscape of all the key theories and the theorists behind them, presenting them in a context needed to understand their strengths and weaknesses. The work provides essays on cutting-edge research as well as concise, to-the-point definitions of key concepts, ideas, schools, and figures. Topics include contexts and concepts in criminological theory, the social construction of crime, policy implications of theory, diversity and intercultural contexts, conflict theory, rational choice theories, conservative criminology, feminist theory, and more. Key ThemesThe Classical School of CriminologyThe Positivist School of CriminologyEarly American Theories of CrimeBiological and Biosocial Theories of CrimePsychological Theories of CrimeThe Chicago School of CriminologyCultural and Learning Theories of CrimeAnomie and Strain Theories of Crime and DevianceControl Theories of CrimeLabeling and Interactionist Theories of CrimeTheories of the Criminal SanctionConflict, Radical, and Critical Theories of CrimeFeminist and Gender-Specific Theories of CrimeChoice and Opportunity Theories of CrimeMacro-Level/ Community Theories of CrimeLife-Course and Developmental Theories of CrimeIntegrated Theories of CrimeTheories of White-Collar and Corporate CrimeContemporary Gang TheoriesTheories of Prison Behavior and InsurgencyTheories of Fear and Concern About Crime

The Canadian Criminal Justice System

Author : Nick Larsen
File Size : 63.99 MB
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The administration of justice is an area of social policy that defies attempts to achieve a balance between order and the protection of the public and respect for individual rights. The media contain daily accounts of the failure of the criminal justice system to repress crime. It is within this social and legal context that this work is situated. In addition to including a range of articles in the standard areas of policing, courts, and corrections, recent articles deal with such controversial issues as aboriginal justice, the recruitment of visible minorities by Canadian police forces, and the role of women in the Canadian criminal justice system. The collection concludes with a critical assessment of the retributive model that currently serves as the philosophical underpinnings of the Canadian criminal justice system.

Measures for Community and Neighborhood Research

Author : Mary L. Ohmer
File Size : 34.75 MB
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Measures for Community and Neighborhood Research is the first book of its kind to compile measures focused on communities and neighborhoods in one accessible resource. Organized into two main sections, the first provides the rationale, structure and purpose, and analysis of methodological issues, along with a conceptual and theoretical framework; the second section contains 10 chapters that synthesize, analyze, and describe measures for community and neighborhood research, with tables that summarize highlighted measures. The book will get readers thinking about which aspects of the neighborhood may be most important to measure in different research designs and also help researchers, practitioners, funders, and others more closely examine the impact of their work in communities and neighborhoods.

Causes of Conduct Disorder and Juvenile Delinquency

Author : Benjamin B. Lahey
File Size : 34.10 MB
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A great deal has been learned about serious child and adolescent conduct problems, but their causes are still not well understood. This book brings together an international group of leading authorities to advance specific, testable hypotheses about the causes of conduct disorder and juvenile delinquency. Four general causal models are delineated: the social learning model, the developmental pathways model, an integrative antisocial propensity model, and an integrative ecological/developmental model. Also provided are models focusing on specific aspects of the origins of conduct problems, including contextual, psychological, and biological influences. The authors present significant, original theoretical work and map out the kinds of further studies needed to confirm or disconfirm their new or revised hypotheses.

The Social History of Crime and Punishment in America A De

Author : Wilbur R. Miller
File Size : 78.55 MB
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Several encyclopedias overview the contemporary system of criminal justice in America, but full understanding of current social problems and contemporary strategies to deal with them can come only with clear appreciation of the historical underpinnings of those problems. Thus, this four-volume work surveys the history and philosophy of crime, punishment, and criminal justice institutions in America from colonial times to the present. It covers the whole of the criminal justice system, from crimes, law enforcement and policing, to courts, corrections and human services. Among other things, this encyclopedia will: explicate philosophical foundations underpinning our system of justice; chart changing patterns in criminal activity and subsequent effects on legal responses; identify major periods in the development of our system of criminal justice; and explore evolving debates and conflicts on how best to address issues of crime and punishment. Its signed entries provide the historical context for students to better understand contemporary criminological debates and the contemporary shape of the U.S. system of law and justice.

Youth Violence in Context

Author : Eileen M. Ahlin
File Size : 54.27 MB
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This book places youth violence within a Routine Activity Ecological Framework. Youth violence, specifically youth exposure to community violence and youth perpetration of violent behaviors, occur within various contexts. Ahlin and Antunes situate their discussion of youth violence within an ecological framework, identifying how it is nested within four mesosystem layers: community, family, peers and schools, and youth characteristics. Contextualized using an ecological framework, the Routine Activity Theory and Lifestyles perspective (RAT/LS) are well suited to guide an examination of youth violence risk and protective factors across the four layers. Drawing on scholarship that explores predictors and consequences of youth violence, the authors apply RAT/LS theory to explain how community, family, peers, schools, and youth characteristics influence youth behavior. Each layer of the ecological framework unfolds to reveal the latest scholarship and contextualizes how concepts of RAT/LS, specifically the motivated offender, target suitability, and guardianship, can be applied at each level. This book also highlights the mechanisms and processes that contribute to youth exposure to and involvement in violence by exploring factors examined in the literature as protective and risk factors of youth violence. Youth violence occurs in context, and, as such, the understanding of multilevel predictors and preventive measures against it can be situated within an RAT/LS ecological framework. This work links theory to extant research. Ahlin and Antunes demonstrate how knowledge of youth violence can be used to develop a robust theoretical foundation that can inform policy to improve neighborhoods and youth experiences within their communities, families, and peers and within their schools while acknowledging the importance of individual characteristics. This monograph is essential reading for those interested in youth violence, juvenile delinquency, and juvenile justice research and anyone dedicated to preventing crime among youths.