Search results for: depth-perception-in-frogs-and-toads

Depth Perception in Frogs and Toads

Author : Donald House
File Size : 26.10 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Docs
Download : 972
Read : 437
Download »
Depth Perception in Frogs and Toads provides a comprehensive exploration of the phenomenon of depth perception in frogs and toads, as seen from a neuro-computational point of view. Perhaps the most important feature of the book is the development and presentation of two neurally realizable depth perception algorithms that utilize both monocular and binocular depth cues in a cooperative fashion. One of these algorithms is specialized for computation of depth maps for navigation, and the other for the selection and localization of a single prey for prey catching. The book is also unique in that it thoroughly reviews the known neuroanatomical, neurophysiological and behavioral data, and then synthesizes, organizes and interprets that information to explain a complex sensory-motor task. The book will be of special interest to that segment of the neural computing community interested in understanding natural neurocomputational structures, particularly to those working in perception and sensory-motor coordination. It will also be of interest to neuroscientists interested in exploring the complex interactions between the neural substrates that underly perception and behavior.

Neural Models of Depth Perception in Frogs and Toads

Author : Donald H. House
File Size : 83.10 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Docs
Download : 646
Read : 1074
Download »

Perceiving in Depth Volume 3 Other Mechanisms of Depth Perception

Author : Ian P. Howard
File Size : 39.11 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Docs
Download : 265
Read : 1083
Download »
The three-volume work Perceiving in Depth is a sequel to Binocular Vision and Stereopsis and to Seeing in Depth, both by Ian P. Howard and Brian J. Rogers. This work is much broader in scope than the previous books and includes mechanisms of depth perception by all senses, including aural, electrosensory organs, and the somatosensory system. Volume 1 reviews sensory coding, psychophysical and analytic procedures, and basic visual mechanisms. Volume 2 reviews stereoscopic vision. Volume 3 reviews all mechanisms of depth perception other than stereoscopic vision. The three volumes are extensively illustrated and referenced and provide the most detailed review of all aspects of perceiving the three-dimensional world. Volume 3 addresses all depth-perception mechanisms other than stereopsis. The book starts with an account of monocular cues to depth, including accommodation, vergence eye movements, perspective, interposition, shading, and motion parallax. A chapter on constancies in depth perception, such as the ability to perceive the sizes and shapes of objects as they move or rotate in depth, is followed by a chapter on the ways in which depth cues interact. The next chapter reviews sources of information, such as changing disparity, image looming, and vergence eye movements, used in the perception of objects moving in depth. Various pathologies of depth perception, including visual neglect, stereoanomalies, and albanism are reviewed. Visual depth-perception mechanisms through the animal kingdom are described, starting with insects and progressing through crustaceans, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. The chapter includes a discussion of how stereoscopic vision may have evolved. The next chapter describes how visual depth perception is used to guide reaching movements of the hand, avoiding obstacles, and walking to a distant object. The next three chapters review non-visual mechanisms of depth perception. Auditory mechanisms include auditory localization, echolocation in bats and marine mammals, and the lateral-line system of fish. Some fish emit electric discharges and then use electric sense organs to detect distortions of the electric field produced by nearby objects. Some beetles and snakes use heat-sensitive sense organs to detect sources of heat. The volume ends with a discussion of mechanisms used by animals to navigate to a distant site. Ants find their way back to the nest by using landmarks and by integrating their walking movements. Several animals navigate by the stars or by polarized sunlight. It seems that animals in several phyla navigate by detecting the Earths magnetic field.

Visuomotor Coordination

Author : Jorg Peter Ewert
File Size : 64.94 MB
Format : PDF
Download : 254
Read : 1295
Download »
Various brain areas of mammals can phyletically be traced back to homologous structures in amphibians. The amphibian brain may thus be regarded as a kind of "microcosm" of the highly complex primate brain, as far as certain homologous structures, sensory functions, and assigned ballistic (pre-planned and pre-pro grammed) motor and behavioral processes are concerned. A variety of fundamental operations that underlie perception, cognition, sensorimotor transformation and its modulation appear to proceed in primate's brain in a way understandable in terms of basic principles which can be investigated more easily by experiments in amphibians. We have learned that progress in the quantitative description and evaluation of these principles can be obtained with guidance from theory. Modeling - supported by simulation - is a process of transforming abstract theory derived from data into testable structures. Where empirical data are lacking or are difficult to obtain because of structural constraints, the modeler makes assumptions and approximations that, by themselves, are a source of hypotheses. If a neural model is then tied to empirical data, it can be used to predict results and hence again to become subject to experimental tests whose resulting data in tum will lead to further improvements of the model. By means of our present models of visuomotor coordination and its modulation by state-dependent inputs, we are just beginning to simulate and analyze how external information is represented within different brain structures and how these structures use these operations to control adaptive behavior.

From Animals to Animats 2

Author : Jean-Arcady Meyer
File Size : 87.91 MB
Format : PDF, Kindle
Download : 709
Read : 712
Download »
More than sixty contributions in From Animals to Animats 2 byresearchers in ethology, ecology, cybernetics, artificial intelligence, robotics, and related fieldsinvestigate behaviors and the underlying mechanisms that allow animals and, potentially, robots toadapt and survive in uncertain environments. Jean-Arcady Meyer is Director of Research, CNRS, Paris.Herbert L. Roitblat is Professor of Psychology at the University of Hawaii at Manoa. Stewart W.Wilson is a scientist at The Rowland Institute for Science, Cambridge,Massachusetts. Topics covered: The Animat Approach to Adaptive Behavior,Perception and Motor Control, Action Selection and Behavioral Sequences, Cognitive Maps and InternalWorld Models, Learning, Evolution, Collective Behavior.

Vision Brain and Behavior in Birds

Author : Harris Philip Zeigler
File Size : 47.74 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Docs
Download : 644
Read : 277
Download »
This book provides the first comprehensive and current review of considerable progress made over the past decade in analyzing neural and behavioral mechanisms mediating visually guided behavior in birds.The visual capacities of birds rival even those of primates, and their visual system probably reflects the operation of a ground plan common to all vertebrates. This book provides the first comprehensive and current review of considerable progress made over the past decade in analyzing neural and behavioral mechanisms mediating visually guided behavior in birds.The book's five major sections deal with the visual world of birds, the organization of avian visual systems, the development and plasticity of visual structure and function, visuomotor control mechanisms, and cognitive processes. The introduction to each section discusses the nature and significance of the problem areas, providing a context for the chapters to follow, which review the current status of research on a specific problem. The contributors are an international assemblage of researchers, representing a wide variety of disciplines, ranging from ornithology to neurophysiology and including ethology, experimental psychology, anatomy, and developmental neurobiology. For the ethologist, avian behavior is the source of a wide variety of species-typical fixed action patterns; for the experimental psychologist, birds are the subject of choice for studies of conditioning, learning, and cognitive processes; for the neurobiologist they provide model systems for studying developmental processes, sensory mechanisms, orientation, and motor control. For these reasons, research on the avian brain and behavior occupies an increasingly important place in contemporary behavioral biology.

Dynamic Interactions in Neural Networks Models and Data

Author : Michael A. Arbib
File Size : 56.99 MB
Format : PDF, Kindle
Download : 337
Read : 1297
Download »
This is an exciting time. The study of neural networks is enjoying a great renaissance, both in computational neuroscience - the development of information processing models of living brains - and in neural computing - the use of neurally inspired concepts in the construction of "intelligent" machines. Thus the title of this volume, Dynamic Interactions in Neural Networks: Models and Data can be given two interpretations. We present models and data on the dynamic interactions occurring in the brain, and we also exhibit the dynamic interactions between research in computational neuroscience and in neural computing, as scientists seek to find common principles that may guide us in the understanding of our own brains and in the design of artificial neural networks. In fact, the book title has yet a third interpretation. It is based on the U. S. -Japan Seminar on "Competition and Cooperation in Neural Nets" which we organized at the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, May 18-22, 1987, and is thus the record of interaction of scientists on both sides of the Pacific in advancing the frontiers of this dynamic, re-born field. The book focuses on three major aspects of neural network function: learning, perception, and action. More specifically, the chapters are grouped under three headings: "Development and Learning in Adaptive Networks," "Visual Function", and "Motor Control and the Cerebellum.

From Animals to Animats 11

Author : Stephane Doncieux
File Size : 45.25 MB
Format : PDF, Mobi
Download : 866
Read : 562
Download »
This volume constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Simulation and Adaptive Behavior, SAB 2010, held in Paris and Clos Lucé, France, in August 2010. The articles cover all main areas in animat research, including perception and motor control, action selection, motivation and emotion, internal models and representation, collective behavior, language evolution, evolution and learning. The authors focus on well-defined models, computer simulations or robotic models, that help to characterize and compare various organizational principles, architectures, and adaptation processes capable of inducing adaptive behavior in real animals or synthetic agents, the animats.

Dynamic Neural Field Theory for Motion Perception

Author : Martin A. Giese
File Size : 49.36 MB
Format : PDF, Kindle
Download : 261
Read : 1287
Download »
Dynamic Neural Field Theory for Motion Perception provides a new theoretical framework that permits a systematic analysis of the dynamic properties of motion perception. This framework uses dynamic neural fields as a key mathematical concept. The author demonstrates how neural fields can be applied for the analysis of perceptual phenomena and its underlying neural processes. Also, similar principles form a basis for the design of computer vision systems as well as the design of artificially behaving systems. The book discusses in detail the application of this theoretical approach to motion perception and will be of great interest to researchers in vision science, psychophysics, and biological visual systems.

When Brains Meet Buildings

Author : Michael A. Arbib
File Size : 77.84 MB
Format : PDF, Kindle
Download : 841
Read : 437
Download »
"Each brain enlivens a body in interaction with the social and physical environment. Peter Zumthor's Therme at Vals exemplifies the interplay of interior with surroundings, and ways the actions of users fuse with their multi-modal experience. The action-perception cycle includes both practical and contemplative actions. We analyze what Louis Sullivan meant by "form ever follows function" but will more often talk of aesthetics and utility. Not only are action, perception and emotion intertwined, but so are remembering and imagination. Architectural design leads to the physical construction of buildings - but much of what our brains achieve can be seen as a form of mental construction. A first look at neuroscience offers schema theory as a bridge from cognitive processes to neural circuitry. Some architects fear that neuroscience will strip the architect of any creativity. In counterpoint, two-way reduction explores how neuroscience can "dissect" phenomenology by showing how first-person experiences arise from melding diverse subconscious processes. This raises the possibility that neuroscience can extend the effectiveness of architectural design by showing how different aspects of a building may affect human experience in ways that are not apparent to self-reflection"--

Neural Organization

Author : Michael A. Arbib
File Size : 67.38 MB
Format : PDF, Docs
Download : 307
Read : 156
Download »
In Neural Organization, Arbib, Erdi, and Szentagothai integrate structural, functional, and dynamical approaches to the interaction of brain models and neurobiologcal experiments. Both structure-based "bottom-up" and function- based "top-down" models offer coherent concepts by which to evaluate the experimental data. The goal of this book is to point out the advantages of a multidisciplinary, multistrategied approach to the brain.Part I of Neural Organization provides a detailed introduction to each of the three areas of structure, function, and dynamics. Structure refers to the anatomical aspects of the brain and the relations between different brain regions. Function refers to skills and behaviors, which are explained by means of functional schemas and biologically based neural networks. Dynamics refers to the use of a mathematical framework to analyze the temporal change of neural activities and synaptic connectivities that underlie brain development and plasticity--in terms of both detailed single-cell models and large-scale network models.In part II, the authors show how their systematic approach can be used to analyze specific parts of the nervous system--the olfactory system, hippocampus, thalamus, cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and basal ganglia--as well as to integrate data from the study of brain regions, functional models, and the dynamics of neural networks. In conclusion, they offer a plan for the use of their methods in the development of cognitive neuroscience."

Neural Networks in Robotics

Author : George A. Bekey
File Size : 52.35 MB
Format : PDF, Docs
Download : 982
Read : 1294
Download »
Neural Networks in Robotics is the first book to present an integrated view of both the application of artificial neural networks to robot control and the neuromuscular models from which robots were created. The behavior of biological systems provides both the inspiration and the challenge for robotics. The goal is to build robots which can emulate the ability of living organisms to integrate perceptual inputs smoothly with motor responses, even in the presence of novel stimuli and changes in the environment. The ability of living systems to learn and to adapt provides the standard against which robotic systems are judged. In order to emulate these abilities, a number of investigators have attempted to create robot controllers which are modelled on known processes in the brain and musculo-skeletal system. Several of these models are described in this book. On the other hand, connectionist (artificial neural network) formulations are attractive for the computation of inverse kinematics and dynamics of robots, because they can be trained for this purpose without explicit programming. Some of the computational advantages and problems of this approach are also presented. For any serious student of robotics, Neural Networks in Robotics provides an indispensable reference to the work of major researchers in the field. Similarly, since robotics is an outstanding application area for artificial neural networks, Neural Networks in Robotics is equally important to workers in connectionism and to students for sensormonitor control in living systems.

National Library of Medicine Current Catalog

Author : National Library of Medicine (U.S.)
File Size : 37.1 MB
Format : PDF, Mobi
Download : 778
Read : 209
Download »

Visual Attention and Cognition

Author : W.H. Zangemeister
File Size : 53.12 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Docs
Download : 975
Read : 1220
Download »
The goal of this book is to put together some of the main interdisciplinary aspects that play a role in visual attention and cognition. The book is aimed at researchers and students with interdisciplinary interest. In the first chapter a general discussion of the influential scanpath theory and its implications for human and robot vision is presented. Subsequently, four characteristic aspects of the general theme are dealt with in topical chapters, each of which presents some of the different viewpoints of the various disciplines involved. They cover neuropsychology, clinical neuroscience, modeling, and applications. Each of the chapters opens with a synopsis tying together the individual contributions.

Data Fusion for Sensory Information Processing Systems

Author : James J. Clark
File Size : 76.11 MB
Format : PDF, Kindle
Download : 323
Read : 710
Download »
The science associated with the development of artificial sen sory systems is occupied primarily with determining how information about the world can be extracted from sensory data. For example, computational vision is, for the most part, concerned with the de velopment of algorithms for distilling information about the world and recognition of various objects in the environ (e. g. localization ment) from visual images (e. g. photographs or video frames). There are often a multitude of ways in which a specific piece of informa tion about the world can be obtained from sensory data. A subarea of research into sensory systems has arisen which is concerned with methods for combining these various information sources. This field is known as data fusion, or sensor fusion. The literature on data fusion is extensive, indicating the intense interest in this topic, but is quite chaotic. There are no accepted approaches, save for a few special cases, and many of the best methods are ad hoc. This book represents our attempt at providing a mathematical foundation upon which data fusion algorithms can be constructed and analyzed. The methodology that we present in this text is mo tivated by a strong belief in the importance of constraints in sensory information processing systems. In our view, data fusion is best un derstood as the embedding of multiple constraints on the solution to a sensory information processing problem into the solution pro cess.

Visual Structures and Integrated Functions

Author : Michael A. Arbib
File Size : 39.52 MB
Format : PDF, Kindle
Download : 470
Read : 701
Download »
This volume integrates theory and experiment to place the study of vision within the context of the action systems which use visual information. This theme is developed by stressing: (a) The importance of situating anyone part of the brain in the context of its interactions with other parts of the brain in subserving animal behavior. The title of this volume emphasizes that visual function is to be be viewed in the context of the integrated functions of the organism. (b) Both the intrinsic interest of frog and toad as animals in which to study the neural mechanisms of visuomotor coordination, and the importance of comparative studies with other organisms so that we may learn from an analysis of both similarities and differences. The present volume thus supplements our studies of frog and toad with papers on salamander, bird and reptile, turtle, rat, gerbil, rabbit, and monkey. (c) Perhaps most distinctively, the interaction between theory and experiment.

Amphibian Biology Sensory perception

Author : Harold Heatwole
File Size : 73.50 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download : 484
Read : 894
Download »

Trees and Hierarchical Structures

Author : Andreas Dress
File Size : 40.20 MB
Format : PDF, Kindle
Download : 812
Read : 1110
Download »
The "raison d'etre" of hierarchical dustering theory stems from one basic phe nomenon: This is the notorious non-transitivity of similarity relations. In spite of the fact that very often two objects may be quite similar to a third without being that similar to each other, one still wants to dassify objects according to their similarity. This should be achieved by grouping them into a hierarchy of non-overlapping dusters such that any two objects in ~ne duster appear to be more related to each other than they are to objects outside this duster. In everyday life, as well as in essentially every field of scientific investigation, there is an urge to reduce complexity by recognizing and establishing reasonable das sification schemes. Unfortunately, this is counterbalanced by the experience of seemingly unavoidable deadlocks caused by the existence of sequences of objects, each comparatively similar to the next, but the last rather different from the first.

Acanthaster and the Coral Reef A Theoretical Perspective

Author : Roger H. Bradbury
File Size : 67.53 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Docs
Download : 621
Read : 1209
Download »
In August 1988. the Sixth International Coral Reef Symposium was held in Townsville resulting in an influx of most of the world's coral reef sCientists to the city. We seized this opportunity at the Australian Institute of Marine Science to run a small workshop immediately before the symposium on the outbreaks of the crown-of-thorns starfish. Aeanthaster planei. We invited that small band of mathematicians who had been modelling the phenomenon, (and who may not have normally attended an international meeting so thoroughly dedicated to natural science) to meet with those SCientists who had been been actively working on the phenomenon in the field. John Casti notes in his delightful new book Alternate Realities (Wiley, 1989): 'If the natural role of the experimenter is to generate new observables by which we know the processes of Nature, and the natural role of the mathematician is to generate new formal structures by which we can represent these processes. then the system SCientist finds his niche by serving as a broker between the two. ' I think our book shows the fruits of that brokerage through the wide range of models explored within its pages. the high level of collaboration and interaction across disciplines evident in the individual papers, and in the emerging synthesis that reflects a far deeper understanding of this complex phenomenon than was possible even a few years ago.

Scientific Visualization of Physical Phenomena

Author : Nicholas M. Patrikalakis
File Size : 76.23 MB
Format : PDF, Kindle
Download : 679
Read : 177
Download »
Scientific Visualization of Physical Phenomena reflects the special emphasis of the Computer Graphics Society's Ninth International Conference, held at the MIT in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA in June, 1991. This volume contains the proceedings of the conference, which, since its foundation in 1983, continues to attract high quality research articles in all aspects of Computer Graphics and its applications. Visualization in science and engineering is rapidly developing into a vital area because of its potential for significantly contributing to the understanding of physical processes and the design automation of man-made systems. With the increasing emphasis in handling complicated physical and artificial processes and systems and with continuing advances in specialized graphics hardware and processing software and algorithms, visualization is expected to play an increasingly dominant role in the foreseeable future.