Search results for: dna-methyltransferases-role-and-function

DNA Methyltransferases Role and Function

Author : Albert Jeltsch
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DNA methyltransferases are important enzymes in a broad range of organisms. Dysfunction of DNA methyltransferases in humans leads to many severe diseases, including cancer. This book focuses on the biochemical properties of these enzymes, describing their structures and mechanisms in bacteria, humans and other species, including plants, and also explains the biological processes of reading of DNA methylation and DNA demethylation. It covers many emerging aspects of the biological roles of DNA methylation functioning as an essential epigenetic mark and describes the role of DNA methylation in diseases. Moreover, the book explains modern technologies, like targeted rewriting of DNA methylation by designed DNA methyltransferases, as well as technological applications of DNA methyltransferases in DNA labelling. Finally, the book summarizes recent methods for the analysis of DNA methylation in human DNA. Overall, this book represents a comprehensive state-of-the-art- work and is a must-have for advanced researchers in the field of DNA methylation and epigenetics.

Role of DNA Methyltransferases in the Epigenome

Author : Albert Jeltsch
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DNA methylation, a modification found in most species, regulates chromatin functions in conjunction with other epigenome modifications, such as histone post-translational modifications and non-coding RNAs. In mammals, DNA methylation has an essential role in development by orchestrating the generation and maintenance of the phenotypic diversity of human cell types. Recent years have brought spectacular advances in our understanding of the mechanism, function and regulation of DNA methyltransferases through their interaction with other epigenome modifications, chromatin factors and post-translational modifications, which are described in this Special Issue of Genes. Manuscripts are specifically addressing describing the targeting and regulation of DNA methyltransferases by interacting factors and their roles in cellular differentiation and the development of diseases. Prof. Dr. Albert Jeltsch and Prof. Dr. Humaira Gowher, Guest Editors

The Role of DNA Methyltransferases in Development and Function of the Central Nervous System

Author : Jian Feng
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Role of DNA Methyltransferases in the Epigenome

Author : Albert Jeltsch
File Size : 61.36 MB
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DNA methylation, a modification found in most species, regulates chromatin functions in conjunction with other epigenome modifications, such as histone post-translational modifications and non-coding RNAs. In mammals, DNA methylation has an essential role in development by orchestrating the generation and maintenance of the phenotypic diversity of human cell types. Recent years have brought spectacular advances in our understanding of the mechanism, function and regulation of DNA methyltransferases through their interaction with other epigenome modifications, chromatin factors and post-translational modifications, which are described in this Special Issue of Genes. Manuscripts are specifically addressing describing the targeting and regulation of DNA methyltransferases by interacting factors and their roles in cellular differentiation and the development of diseases. Prof. Dr. Albert Jeltsch and Prof. Dr. Humaira Gowher, Guest Editors.

S Adenosylmethionine Dependent Methyltransferases

Author : Xiaodong Cheng
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This invaluable volume, written by an international group of scientists, presents an overview of the AdoMet-dependent methyltransferases, with special emphasis on structure-function relationships. S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet) is the second most commonly used enzyme cofactor after ATP. The AdoMet-dependent methyltransferases act on a wide variety of target molecules, including DNA, RNA, protein, polysaccharides, lipids and a range of small molecules. The well-conserved architecture of these enzymes, and the implications of this conservation for their evolutionary history, are major themes of this book. The thirteen chapters describe in detail the structures, enzyme kinetics and biological roles of the AdoMet-dependent methyltransferases from a wide range of cell types: plant, animal, bacterial and archaeal. Contents: Structure and Evolution of AdoMet-Dependent Methyltransferases (E B Fauman et al.)The Black Sheep of the Family: AdoMet-Dependent Methyltransferases that do not Fit the Consensus Structural Fold (M M Dixon et al.)Catechol O-Methyltransferase (J Vidgren et al.)Glycine N-Methyltransferase, A Tetrameric Enzyme (F Takusagawa et al.)A Protein Carboxyl Methyltransferase that Recognizes Age-Damaged Peptides and Proteins and Participates in Their Repair (S Clarke)Protein Methyltransferases Involved in Signal Transduction (S Djordjevic et al.)tRNA Methyltransferases (W M Holmes)rRNA Methyltransferases (ErmC' and ErmAm) and Antibiotic Resistance (C Abad-Zapatero et al.)Nucleoside Methylation in Eukaryotic mRNA: HeLa mRNA (N6-Adenosine)-Methyltransferase (J A Bokar & F M Rottman)VP39 — An mRNA Cap-Specific 2'-O-Methyltransferase (A E Hodel et al.)Bacterial DNA Methyltransferases (D T F Dryden)Eukaryotic DNA Methyltransferases (P M Vertino)Mechanisms of DNA Demethylation in Vertebrates (J-P Jost et al.) Readership: Students and researchers in biochemistry, enzymology, catalytic mechanisms, protein structure and enzyme evolution. Keywords:S-Adenosylmethionine;SAM;AdoMet;Methyltransferase;Methylase;Methylation;Protein Structure;Evolution;Structure-Function;Catalysis

DNA Methylation Profiling Reveals Novel Biomarkers and Important Roles for DNA Methyltransferases in Prostate Cancer

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Candidate gene based studies have identified a handful of aberrant CpG DNA methylation events in prostate cancer (Brooks et al. 1998; Yegnasubramanian et al. 2004). However, large scale DNA methylation profiles have not been examined for normal prostates or prostate tumors. Additionally, the mechanisms behind these DNA methylation alterations are unknown. In this thesis, I describe the results of my efforts to better understand these previously unexplored areas of biology. For the study presented in this thesis, I quantitatively profiled 95 primary prostate tumors and 86 healthy prostate tissue samples for their DNA methylation levels at 26,333 CpGs representing 14,104 gene promoters by using the Illumina HumanMethylation27 platform. When the profiles of the prostate tissue samples were compared, I observed a substantial number of tumor-specific DNA methylation alterations. A 2-class Significance Analysis of this dataset revealed 5,912 CpG sites with increased DNA methylation and 2,151 CpG sites with decreased DNA methylation in tumors (FDR

Structure Function and Regulation of Mammalian DNA Methyltransferase

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Stem Cells in Development and Disease

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This volume of Current Topics in Developmental Biology showcases the research and therapeutic value of stem cells, and is proof of the increasing maturation of the fields of regenerative and molecular medicine. Reviews include: * Therapeutic cloning and tissue engineering to produce functional replacement tissues. * The role of the protein a-synuclein in a host of neurodegenerative diseases, which may be the first to benefit from stem cell therapy. * The curious array of functions in eukaryotic DNA methyltransferase, crucial for normal development and at the core of epigenetics regulation. * Influencing stem cell differentiation with mechanical stress, another example of genes versus the environment. * The process of mammalian hematopoeisis, and inducing it in model organisms with embryonic stem cells. * The regulation of differential parental germline genetic imprinting, central for epigenetics. * The molecular function and regulation of the cystic fibrosis gene, critical for understanding the complete molecular mechanism of this devastating disorder, which might soon be treatable with stem cells. This volume comprehensively describes some of the most current issues in stem cell biology, and is an exciting preview of therapies that may soon be applied in the clinic. It is essential reading for researchers, clinicians, and trainees alike. * Therapeutic Cloning and Tissue Engineering * Structure and function of eukaryotic DNA methyltransferases * Mechanical Signals as Regulators of Stem Cell Fate * Molecular basis for the Chloride Channel Activity of CFTR and the Consequences of Disease Causing Mutations

The DNA RNA and Histone Methylomes

Author : Stefan Jurga
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This book reviews the chemical, regulatory, and physiological mechanisms of protein arginine and lysine methyltransferases, as well as nucleic acid methylations and methylating enzymes. Protein and nucleic acid methylation play key and diverse roles in cellular signalling and regulating macromolecular cell functions. Protein arginine and lysine methyltransferases are the predominant enzymes that catalyse S-adenosylmethionine (SAM)-dependent methylation of protein substrates. These enzymes catalyse a nucleophilic substitution of a methyl group to an arginine or lysine side chain nitrogen (N) atom. Cells also have additional protein methyltransferases, which target other amino acids in peptidyl side chains or N-termini and C-termini, such as glutamate, glutamine, and histidine. All these protein methyltransferases use a similar mechanism. In contrast, nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) are substrates for methylating enzymes, which employ various chemical mechanisms to methylate nucleosides at nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), and carbon (C) atoms. This book illustrates how, thanks to there ability to expand their repertoire of functions to the modified substrates, protein and nucleic acid methylation processes play a key role in cells.

Modifications of Nuclear DNA and Its Regulatory Proteins

Author : Xiaodong Cheng
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DNA methylation is essential for the normal development and functioning of organisms. This volume discusses the latest developments in this very active field of research. It presents the evolution of DNA methylation, mammalian DNA methyltransferases, DNA methylation and demethlyation, DNA methylation and silencing and the role it plays in medicine including cancer. * Discusses new discoveries, approaches, and ideas * Contributions from leading scholars and industry experts * Reference guide for researchers involved in molecular biology and related fields