Search results for: dna-replication-and-the-cell-cycle

DNA Replication and the Cell Cycle

Author : Ellen Fanning
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Provided here is an easily accessible introduction to the mechanisms of DNA replication, regulation and the biochemistry of cell cycle control. An overview of this rapidly developing field is presented to orient the reader, followed by a series of contributions by leading researchers summarizing recent results on selected topics, such as protein phosporylation, tumor suppressor genes, and signal transduction in prokaryotic and eucaryotic systems. The reader will gain an overview of our current understanding of DNA replication and the cell cycle, and a selection of useful recent references for further reading.

Connecting the Initiation of DNA Replication to the Cell Cycle

Author : Lee Zou
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DNA Replication

Author : Hisao Masai
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This book reviews the latest trends and future directions of DNA replication research. The contents reflect upon the principles that have been established through the genetic and enzymatic studies of bacterial, viral, and cellular replication during the past decades. The book begins with a historical overview of the studies on eukaryotic DNA replication by Professor Thomas Kelly, a pioneer of the field. The following chapters include genome-wide studies of replication origins and initiation factor binding, as well as the timing of DNA replications, mechanisms of initiation, DNA chain elongation and termination of DNA replication, the structural basis of functions of protein complexes responsible for execution of DNA replication, cell cycle-dependent regulation of DNA replication, the nature of replication stress and cells’ strategy to deal with the stress, and finally how all these phenomena are interconnected to genome instability and development of various diseases. By reviewing the existing concepts ranging from the old principles to the newest ideas, the book gives readers an opportunity to learn how the classical replication principles are now being modified and new concepts are being generated to explain how genome DNA replication is achieved with such high adaptability and plasticity. With the development of new methods including cryoelectron microscopy analyses of huge protein complexes, single molecular analyses of initiation and elongation of DNA replication, and total reconstitution of eukaryotic DNA replication with purified factors, the field is enjoying one of its most exciting moments, and this highly timely book conveys that excitement to all interested readers.

The Effect of Thymine Limitation on DNA Replication and the Cell Cycle in Proteus Mirabilis

Author : Marjorie Haxton Barnes
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DNA Replication Control in Microbial Cell Factories

Author : Monika Glinkowska
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This work describes the current knowledge of biochemical mechanisms regulating initiation of DNA replication in Escherichia coli, which focuses on the control of activity of the DnaA protein. Examples of direct linkages between DNA replication and other cellular processes are provided. In addition, similarities of the mechanisms of regulation of DNA replication operating in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells are identified, and implications for understanding more complex processes, like carcinogenesis are suggested. Studies of recent years provided evidence that regulation of DNA replication in bacteria is more complex than previously anticipated. Multiple layers of control seem to ensure coordination of this process with the increase of cellular mass and the division cycle. Metabolic processes and membrane composition may serve as points where integration of genome replication with growth conditions occurs. It is also likely that coupling of DNA synthesis with cellular metabolism may involve interactions of replication proteins with other macromolecular complexes, responsible for various cellular processes. Thus, the exact set of factors participating in triggering the replication initiation may differ depending on growth conditions. Therefore, understanding the regulation of DNA duplication requires placing this process in the context of the current knowledge on bacterial metabolism, as well as cellular and chromosomal structure. Moreover, in both Escherichia coli and eukaryotic cells, replication initiator proteins were shown to play other roles in addition to driving the assembly of replication complexes, which constitutes another, yet not sufficiently understood, layer of coordinating DNA replication with the cell cycle.

DNA Replication and the Cell Cycle

Author : Ellen Fanning
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Provided here is an easily accessible introduction to the mechanisms of DNA replication, regulation and the biochemistry of cell cycle control. An overview of this rapidly developing field is presented to orient the reader, followed by a series of contributions by leading researchers summarizing recent results on selected topics, such as protein phosporylation, tumor suppressor genes, and signal transduction in prokaryotic and eucaryotic systems. The reader will gain an overview of our current understanding of DNA replication and the cell cycle, and a selection of useful recent references for further reading.

DNA Replication Damage from Environmental Carcinogens

Author : Huidong Zhang
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This book reviews the main concepts concerning DNA damage due to environmental carcinogens, the effects of DNA damage on DNA replication using a single DNA polymerase or DNA replisome, and the effects of carcinogens on various cell activities. It also introduces the detailed protocols for bypassing DNA damage. As we know, various environmental carcinogens are produced as a result of industry, agriculture, chemical engineering and vehicle exhaust in our daily life. It has been reported that the environmental carcinogens can be connected to tumors and cancer, directly threatening human health. In this regard, DNA replication is highly susceptible to damage. This book provides graduate students and researchers with an overview of the effects of environmental carcinogens on DNA replication and biological activities in cells. It offers important information for research in the areas of biochemistry, cell biology, medicine, toxicology and public health.

Cell Cycle Control of DNA Replication

Author : Gennaro D'Urso
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The Bacterial Cell Coupling between Growth Nucleoid Replication Cell Division and Shape Volume 2

Author : Ariel Amir
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The 1st volume of our Research Topic "The Bacterial Cell: Coupling between Growth, Nucleoid Replication, Cell Division and Shape” was published as an eBook in May 2016 (see: http://journal.frontiersin.org/researchtopic/2905/the-bacterial-cell-coupling-between-growth-nucleoid-replication-cell-division-and-shape). As a sign of growing interest to the topic, two workshops followed the same year: "Stochasticity in the Cell Cycle" in Jerusalem (Israel) by the Hebrew University’s Institute of Advanced Studies and EMBO's "Cell Size Regulation" in Joachimsthal (Germany). From the time of launching the first edition, several new groups have entered the field, and many established groups have made significant advances using state-of-the-art microscopy and microfluidics. Combining these approaches with the techniques pioneered by quantitative microbiologists decades ago, these approaches have provided remarkable amounts of numerical data. Most of these data needed yet to be put into a broader theoretical perspective. Moreover, the molecular mechanisms governing coordination and progression of the main bacterial cell cycle processes have remained largely unknown. These outstanding fundamental questions and the growing interest to the field motivated us to launch the next volume titled “The Bacterial Cell: Coupling between Growth, Nucleoid Replication, Cell Division, and Shape, Volume 2” shortly after completion of the first edition in October 2016. The issue contains 17 contributions from a diverse array of scientists whose field of study spans microbiology, biochemistry, genetics, experimental and theoretical biophysics. The specific questions addressed in the issue include: What triggers initiation of chromosome replication? How is cell division coordinated with replication both spatially and temporally? How is cell size controlled and linked to the rate of mass growth? What role plays physical organization of the chromosomes in their segregation and in regulation of cell division? The publications covering these questions are divided into three topical areas: 1) Cell Cycle Regulation, 2) Growth and Division, and 3) Nucleoid Structure and Replication. New ideas and techniques put forward in these articles bring us closer to understand these fundamental cellular processes, but the quest to resolve them is far from being complete. Plans for the next edition are under way along with further meetings and workshops, e.g., an EMBO Workshop on Bacterial cell biophysics: DNA replication, growth, division, size and shape in Ein Gedi (Israel), May 2020. We hope that via such interdisciplinary exchange of ideas we will come closer to answering the above-mentioned complex and multifaceted questions.

DNA Replication The Regulatory Mechanisms

Author : Patrick Hughes
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DNA replication is a key event in the cell cycle. Although our knowledge is far from complete and many elusive regulatory mechanisms still remain beyondour grasp, many enzymes and a multiplicity of biochemical mechanisms involved have been discovered. Recent findings in E. coli have confirmed and yet surpassed the original hypothesis of F. Jacob. In yeast and higher eucaryotes, the apparent redundancy in putative origins and initiators has made an estimation of the importance of each identified element difficult to access. In spite of well established methodologies - which are also described in the book - the origin identification in mammalian chromosomes is still a controversial subject. On the other hand, considerable advances have been made in our understanding of virus DNA replication and this continues to deepen and broaden our understanding of the controls of cellular DNA replication.

DNA Replication and the Cell Cycle

Author : Ellen Fanning
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Eukaryotic DNA Replication

Author : Thomas J. Kelly
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Understanding the mechanism and regulation of eukaryotic DNA replication remains a fundamental area of modern biological research. Replication of the cell s genome is one of the critical, regulated events that occur during cell proliferation and cell cycle progression. This volume presents important advances in this field that were discussed at the Cold Spring Harbor Cancer Cells meeting on Eukaryotic DNA Replication. The papers cover topics as diverse as viral DNA replication, genome amplification, cell cycle and developmental control of DNA replication, replication proteins, and the replication and function of centromeres and telomeres. This volume is a valuable resource for researchers and students.

DNA Replication and Related Cellular Processes

Author : Jelena Kusic-Tisma
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Since the discovery of the DNA structure researchers have been highly interested in the molecular basis of genome inheritance. This book covers a wide range of aspects and issues related to the field of DNA replication. The association between genome replication, repair and recombination is also addressed, as well as summaries of recent work of the replication cycles of prokaryotic and eukaryotic viruses. The reader will gain an overview of our current understanding of DNA replication and related cellular processes, and useful resources for further reading.

The Time of DNA Replication in the Cell Cycle in Relation to RNA Synthesis and Cell Determination in Frog Embryos

Author : John Alvah Remington
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Studies on DNA Replication and the Cell Cycle in the Root Meristem of Fifteen Monocotyledonous Angiosperms of Heterogeneous DNA C Values

Author : A. D. Kidd
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Eukaryotic DNA Replication

Author : J. Julian Blow
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A cell's ability to control replication of its DNA is fundamental to its normal development or transformation into a cancerous state. DNA replication is also a crucial step in the cell cycle, and recent improvements in our understanding of cell cycle control have promoted a fresh surge ofinterest in the subject.This book begins with reviews of the molecular and genetic components of the replication machinery, and builds up a picture of how the replication process is regulated within the cell division cycle.

DNA Replication in the Yeast Cell Cycle

Author : Carol Jane Rivin
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Investigation of Cell cycle Entry and DNA Replication Termination Using Single cell Microscopy

Author : Yilin Fan (Researcher in chemical and systems biology)
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The cell cycle is a highly orchestrated series of cellular events that results in the duplication of DNA and division into two daughter cells. As a critical process during tissue development and homeostasis, the cell cycle is tightly regulated at the cellular, tissue, and organismal levels. In this thesis, we study two cellular processes that are key to cell-cycle regulation: the decision to enter the cell cycle in response to extracellular signals, and the multi-step process that replicates DNA. In the first study, we find that the decision of a newborn cell to proliferate or become quiescent is controlled by the memory of local cell density that is inherited from its mother cell. This memory regulates the expression of the cell-cycle activator cyclin D1 and inhibitor p27. Cyclin D1 and p27 form an activator-inhibitor balance in newborn cells that regulates the proliferation-quiescence decision in a sharp, ultrasensitive manner. We further show that competing cell density and mitogen signals are funneled into the cyclin D1-p27 balance through ERK signaling. We propose that memory of cell density, coupled to tight regulation of proliferation by the activator- inhibitor balance, may contribute to robust control of cell density and tissue homeostasis. In the second study, we demonstrate that replisome disassembly, a final step during DNA replication that is generally thought to be functionally downstream of nascent DNA synthesis, is continuously required for efficient DNA synthesis. Failure to disassemble replisomes traps essential replisome components on chromatin, which prevents their recycling into the soluble pool and blocks replication initiation. Cells with defects in replisome disassembly experience slow and incomplete DNA replication, G2/M checkpoint activation, and cell-cycle arrest. We also show that LRR1, which encodes a key component of the E3 ligase CRL2-LRR1 that initiates replisome disassembly, is an essential gene in actively dividing human cells. Thus we propose that inhibiting CRL2-LRR1 activity may be a potential target for cancer therapy, which acts by blocking the recycling of key replication factors that are in high demand in cancer cells due to the higher replicative activity in many cancers.

DNA Replication Controls Volume 1

Author : Eishi Noguchi
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This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue "DNA Replication Controls" that was published in Genes

The Cell Division Cycle in Plants Volume 26 The Cell Division Cycle in Plants

Author : Society for experimental biology. Symposium
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Control points within the cell cycle. The organization of replicons. Enzymic controls of DNA replication. DNA replication in relation to DNA C values. Chromatin structure, gene espression and the cell cycle. Changes in chromatin structure during the cell cycle. The cytoskeleton and the cell cycle. Growth substances, calcium and the regulation of cell division. Regulation of the cell division cycle in cultured plant cells. Genetic and epigenetic control of the plant cell cycle. The control of the cell cycle in relation to floral induction. The DNA endoredduplication cycles. The chloroplast division cycle and its relationship to the cell division cycle.