Search results for: effective-peer-learning

Effective Peer Learning

Author : Keith Topping
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Peer learning allows a positive use of differences between pupils, turning them into learning opportunities. Yet education professionals often remain unfamiliar with the principles necessary to guarantee its effectiveness. The aim of this book is to help practitioners establish well-structured and effective peer learning projects using a variety of methods. It introduces and defines cooperative learning (mutual peer interaction) and peer tutoring (directional peer interaction) – outlining general organisational principles that will help practitioners implement peer learning in either of these forms. The authors consider how to prepare and train learners to undertake their roles effectively, and how to organise and monitor the process of interaction as it is happening. They then look at how these systems actually operate in the classroom, exploring how the organisational principles work in practice and giving many practical examples. Subsequently three successive chapters consider how to structure peer interactions in cooperative learning, same-age peer tutoring and cross-age peer tutoring. Finally, the advantages and problems, and the potential and challenges, of peer learning are examined. The book should be read in stages, with each part being able to be read on its own – thus providing time for reflection. Within each part, readers can choose to focus on cooperative learning or peer tutoring. The successive focuses on definitions, general principles of implementation and practical issues of implementation should help practitioners build their skills and confidence. Many choices between methods are described, and when teachers are confident in one method they may then consider trying a new method. It is the authors' hope that the book will become a model for peer learning by sharing with readers the skills of other practitioners, and thereby helping all children to develop to their full potential.

Peer Learning in Higher Education

Author : Boud, David
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While peer learning is often used informally by students - and for many can form an essential part of their HE experience - this book discusses methods of developing more effective learning through the systematic implementation of peer learning approaches.

The Power of Peer Learning

Author : Jean-H. Guilmette
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An ancient Chinese proverb tells us OC Give a man a fish and you feed him for a day. Teach a man to fish and you feed him for a lifetime.OCO The same can be said for development assistance. Solutions provided by outside OC expertsOCO are often rejected or politely shelved. However, solutions based on the principle of OC self-helpOCO are far more likely to take root. This book explores the self-help, peer learning approach of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), comparing it with that of IDRC. It focuses on the importance of networks to development and growth, and demonstrates that network management is fundamentally different from the management of companies, organizations, or other bodies that fall under a single authority. The book will be of interest to planners, policymakers, and researchers in the industrialized and developing worlds, and particularly in the new and emerging democracies of Eastern Europe."

Cognitive Perspectives on Peer Learning

Author : Angela M. O'Donnell
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The contribution of this volume to the literature on peer learning is its focus on approaches that reflect a common concern with cognitive processes based in developmental, information processing, or more generally, constructivist perspectives on peer learning. Although the clear importance of the social context of peer learning is not ignored, the volume's emphasis is on the cognitive growth that occurs within the learning environment. Any discussion of peer learning involves consideration of who is learning, how the role of peers with whom one works can be conceptualized, what it is that peers learn together, what changes as a result of the interaction, and how we can know what occurs in groups or what has been learned. The chapters in this book speak to these questions. The key question underlying many of these others is why we should worry about the intricacies of peer interaction. Both the practical and theoretical reasons for doing so are delineated. The developmental theory presented in the Introduction lays the foundation for the later descriptions of specific techniques, though many of the techniques reflect a range of other influences as well. Part I presents the implications of the work of two major theorists in cognitive development, Piaget (Ch. 1) and Vygotsky (Ch. 2). In Part II, six chapters describe a variety of peer learning techniques or models of collaboration, many of which are influenced by the work of Piaget and Vygotsky. The chapters in Part III consider the role of the teacher and the skills needed when using peer learning as an instructional strategy. The Conclusion points to areas in which further research is needed. This volume is based on original papers presented by the contributing authors in November 1996 at the Rutgers Invitational Symposium on Education on Cognitive Skills and Learning With Peers.

Peer assisted Learning

Author : Keith Topping
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Peer Assisted Learning (PAL) involves children in school consciously assisting others to learn, and in so doing learning more effectively themselves. It encompasses peer tutoring, peer modeling, peer education, peer counseling, peer monitoring, and peer assessment, which are differentiated from other more general "co-operative learning" methods. PAL is not diluted or surrogate "teaching"; it complements and supplements (but never replaces) professional teaching--capitalizing on the unique qualities and richness of peer interaction and helping students become empowered democratically to take more responsibility for their own learning. In this book, PAL is presented as a set of dynamic, robust, effective, and flexible approaches to teaching and learning, which can be used in a range of different settings. The chapters provide descriptions of good practice blended with research findings on effectiveness. They describe procedures that can be applied to all areas of the school curriculum, and can be used with learners of all levels of ability, including gifted students, students with disabilities, and second-language learners. Among the distinguished contributors, many are from North America, while others are from Europe and Australia. The applicability of the methods they present is worldwide. Peer-Assisted Learning is designed to be accessible and useful to teachers and to those who employ, train, support, consult with, and evaluate them. Many chapters will be helpful to teachers aiming to replicate in their own school environments the cost-effective procedures described. A practical resources guide is included. This volume will also be of interest to faculty and researchers in the fields of education and psychology, to community educators who want to learn about the implications of Peer Assisted Learning beyond school contexts, and to employers and others involved in post-school training.

The Power of Peers in the Classroom

Author : Karen R. Harris
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Peer support and social relationships have a tremendous influence on development, motivation, and achievement for all students, including struggling learners and those with disabilities. This highly practical book is one of the few resources available to guide classroom teachers and special educators in the application of peer-assisted instructional strategies in grades K-12. Expert contributors describe evidence-based approaches for building students' skills in reading, writing, math, and other content areas, as well as social competence and executive functioning. Sample lessons and more than a dozen reproducible tools are provided. Purchasers get access to a Web page where they can download and print the reproducible materials.

Learning by Teaching

Author : David Duran
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This book provides an essential overview of "learning by teaching", unpacking the underpinning theory, research evidence and practical implications of peer learning in a variety of classroom contexts. It aims to offer practical guidance for practitioners in structuring effective peer learning – between professionals and between students alike. It locates this phenomenon in current conceptions of learning and teaching, far removed from traditional ideas of one-way transmission of knowledge. Exactly what happens to promote learning by teaching is explored. Examples of learning by teaching are discussed and it is noted that this happens in school, university and the workplace, as well as through the Internet. Learning by teaching within the student body is then explored, and many different methods described. The organizational features needed to improve learning by teaching consciously and deliberately are investigated. These can be before teaching, during teaching or after teaching. Evidence-based practical guidance is given. Of course teachers can deploy learning by teaching for themselves, but what if they also organize their students to teach each other, thereby giving many more opportunities to discuss, practise, explain and question? This takes pedagogical advantage of the differences between students – turning classrooms into communities of learners where students learn both from their teacher and from their peers.

Postsecondary Peer Cooperative Learning Programs

Author : David R. Arendale (Comp)
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Purpose: This 2016 annotated bibliography reviews seven postsecondary peer cooperative learning programs that have been implemented nationally to increase student achievement. Methodology: An extensive literature search was conducted of published journal articles, newspaper accounts, book chapters, books, ERIC documents, thesis and dissertations, online documents, and unpublished reports. Peer learning programs in this bibliography meet the following characteristics: (a) program must have been implemented at the postsecondary or tertiary level, (b) program has a clear set of systematic procedures for its implementation at an institution, (c) program evaluation studies have been conducted and are available for review, (d) program intentionally embeds learning strategy practice along with review of the academic content material, (e) program outcomes include both increased content knowledge with higher persistence rates, and (f) program has been replicated at another institution with similar positive student outcomes. Results: From a review of the professional literature, more than 1,100 citations emerged concerning seven programs that met the previously mentioned selection criteria: "Accelerated Learning Groups" (ALGs), "Emerging Scholars Program" (ESP), "Peer Assisted Learning" (PAL), "Peer-Led Team Learning" (PLTL), "Structured Learning Assistance" (SLA), "Supplemental Instruction" (SI), and "Video-based Supplemental Instruction" (VSI). Nearly one fourth of the entries in this bibliography are from authors and researchers outside of United States. Conclusions: The professional literature of peer learning programs has grown significantly in recent years. The literature reports not only positive outcomes for the student participants of such programs, but now includes outcomes for the student peer leaders of these academic support programs such as skill improvement with leadership, public speaking, and other employment skills along with an impact of their future vocational choices including a career in teaching at the secondary or postsecondary level. Recommendations: Educators need to investigate these peer learning programs to discover effective learning practices that can be adapted and adopted for use in supporting higher student achievement for students of diverse backgrounds. [This annotated bibliography is a revised version of ED545639.].

Communities of Practice

Author : Noriko Hara
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1.1 Introduction Each year corporations spend millions of dollars training and educating their - ployees. On average, these corporations spend approximately one thousand dollars 1 per employee each year. As businesses struggle to stay on the cutting-edge and to keep their employees educated and up-to-speed with professional trends as well as ever-changing information needs, it is easy to see why corporations are investing more time and money than ever in their efforts to support their employees’ prof- sional development. During the Industrial Age, companies strove to control natural resources. The more resources they controlled, the greater their competitive edge in the mark- place. Senge (1993) refers to this kind of organization as resource-based. In the Information Age, companies must create, disseminate, and effectively use kno- edge within their organization in order to maintain their market share. Senge - scribes this kind of organization as knowledge-based. Given that knowledge-based organizations willcontinuetobeadrivingforcebehindtheeconomy, itisimperative that corporations support the knowledge and information needs of their workers.

Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning

Author : Norbert M. Seel
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Over the past century, educational psychologists and researchers have posited many theories to explain how individuals learn, i.e. how they acquire, organize and deploy knowledge and skills. The 20th century can be considered the century of psychology on learning and related fields of interest (such as motivation, cognition, metacognition etc.) and it is fascinating to see the various mainstreams of learning, remembered and forgotten over the 20th century and note that basic assumptions of early theories survived several paradigm shifts of psychology and epistemology. Beyond folk psychology and its naïve theories of learning, psychological learning theories can be grouped into some basic categories, such as behaviorist learning theories, connectionist learning theories, cognitive learning theories, constructivist learning theories, and social learning theories. Learning theories are not limited to psychology and related fields of interest but rather we can find the topic of learning in various disciplines, such as philosophy and epistemology, education, information science, biology, and – as a result of the emergence of computer technologies – especially also in the field of computer sciences and artificial intelligence. As a consequence, machine learning struck a chord in the 1980s and became an important field of the learning sciences in general. As the learning sciences became more specialized and complex, the various fields of interest were widely spread and separated from each other; as a consequence, even presently, there is no comprehensive overview of the sciences of learning or the central theoretical concepts and vocabulary on which researchers rely. The Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning provides an up-to-date, broad and authoritative coverage of the specific terms mostly used in the sciences of learning and its related fields, including relevant areas of instruction, pedagogy, cognitive sciences, and especially machine learning and knowledge engineering. This modern compendium will be an indispensable source of information for scientists, educators, engineers, and technical staff active in all fields of learning. More specifically, the Encyclopedia provides fast access to the most relevant theoretical terms provides up-to-date, broad and authoritative coverage of the most important theories within the various fields of the learning sciences and adjacent sciences and communication technologies; supplies clear and precise explanations of the theoretical terms, cross-references to related entries and up-to-date references to important research and publications. The Encyclopedia also contains biographical entries of individuals who have substantially contributed to the sciences of learning; the entries are written by a distinguished panel of researchers in the various fields of the learning sciences.

Using Peer Assessment to Inspire Reflection and Learning

Author : Keith Topping
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There is increasingly strong evidence that K-12 learners who assess each other’s work and then engage in related reflections, discussions, and negotiations benefit mutually from the process. In this practical volume, Keith J. Topping provides suggestions for implementing effective peer assessment across many classroom contexts and subjects. Using Peer Assessment to Inspire Reflection and Learning offers pre- and in-service teachers a variety of teaching strategies to best fit their particular students and school environments along with straightforward tools to evaluate peer assessment’s impact on their classrooms.

The Teacher s Role in Implementing Cooperative Learning in the Classroom

Author : Robyn M. Gillies
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Cooperative learning is widely endorsed as a pedagogical practice that promotes student learning. Recently, the research focus has moved to the role of teachers’ discourse during cooperative learning and its effects on the quality of group discussions and the learning achieved. However, although the benefits of cooperative learning are well documented, implementing this pedagogical practice in classrooms is a challenge that many teachers have difficulties accomplishing. Difficulties may occur because teachers often do not have a clear understanding of the basic tenets of cooperative learning and the research and theoretical perspectives that have informed this practice and how they translate into practical applications that can be used in their classrooms. In effect, what do teachers need to do to affect the benefits widely documented in research? A reluctance to embrace cooperative learning may also be due to the challenge it poses to teachers’ control of the learning process, the demands it places on classroom organisational changes, and the personal commitments teachers need to make to sustain their efforts. Moreover, a lack of understanding of the key role teachers need to play in embedding cooperative learning into the curricula to foster open communication and engagement among teachers and students, promote cooperative investigation and problem-solving, and provide students with emotionally and intellectually stimulating learning environments may be another contributing factor. The Teacher's Role in Implementing Cooperative Learning in the Classroom provides readers with a comprehensive overview of these issues with clear guidelines on how teachers can embed cooperative learning into their classroom curricula to obtain the benefits widely attributed to this pedagogical practice. It does so by using language that is appropriate for both novice and experienced educators. The volume provides: an overview of the major research and theoretical perspectives that underpin the development of cooperative learning pedagogy; outlines how specific small group experiences can promote thinking and learning; discusses the key role teachers play in promoting student discourse; and, demonstrates how interaction style among students and teachers is crucial in facilitating discussion and learning. The collection of chapters includes many practical illustrations, drawn from the contributors’ own research of how teachers can use cooperative learning pedagogy to facilitate thinking and learning among students across different educational settings.

Cooperative Learning in Higher Education

Author : Barbara Millis
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Research has identified cooperative learning as one of the ten High Impact Practices that improve student learning. If you’ve been interested in cooperative learning, but wondered how it would work in your discipline, this book provides the necessary theory, and a wide range of concrete examples. Experienced users of cooperative learning demonstrate how they use it in settings as varied as a developmental mathematics course at a community college, and graduate courses in history and the sciences, and how it works in small and large classes, as well as in hybrid and online environments. The authors describe the application of cooperative learning in biology, economics, educational psychology, financial accounting, general chemistry, and literature at remedial, introductory, and graduate levels. The chapters showcase cooperative learning in action, at the same time introducing the reader to major principles such as individual accountability, positive interdependence, heterogeneous teams, group processing, and social or leadership skills. The authors build upon, and cross-reference, each others’ chapters, describing particular methods and activities in detail. They explain how and why they may differ about specific practices while exemplifying reflective approaches to teaching that never fail to address important assessment issues.

Teaching Cooperative Learning

Author : Elizabeth G. Cohen
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Explores cooperative learning practices.

Cooperative Learning

Author : Robert E. Slavin
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Theory, research and practice.

Cooperative Learning for Higher Education Faculty

Author : Barbara J. Millis
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This practical, how-to book on co-operative learning is designed to serve as a resource for faculty members at colleges and universities. It offers an overview of the co-operative learning process, including its rationale, its research base, its value, and its practical implementation. The authors also describe a variety of approaches to co-operative learning drawn from complementary movements such as classroom research, writing across-the-curriculum, computer technology and critical thinking. They begin with a basic structure for implementing a co-operative learning programme, then move progressively through more complex activities. Numerous examples of actual co-operative learning programmes are included which span a wide variety of disciplines. These examples underscore how a successful programme can bolster student achievement, increase self-esteem, and foster the spirit of teamwork. This book should appeal to those new to the cooperative learning process, as well as to established practitioners in the field.

Cooperative Learning

Author : Adrian Ashman
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This book recognizes the importance of cooperative learning, in contrast to the traditional classroom, as an effective approach to learning. Its coverage of the subject ranges across the educational spectrum, from pre-school years to university, and offers a fresh perspective on a topic that has gained increasing interest worldwide. With contributions from an international panel of leading experts in the field, this engaging text succeeds in providing key insights, linking the theories that underpin the study of group dynamics to their practical application in the classroom. It presents a comprehensive overview of this alternative educative approach, illustrating how cooperative learning experiences can promote socialisation and friendships, and facilitate learning. The editors assemble a range of well-researched essays, covering such aspects as: * The importance of teacher and student interaction * Small group, virtual and non-virtual teaching environments * Assessment practices for measuring the outcomes of individual and group progress * The effect of cooperative learning on relationships amongst students with diverse cultural, social and learning needs. Illustrated with practical examples throughout, this book will be a crucial read for teacher educators, educational psychologists, student teachers, academics and researchers who want to realize the significant potential of cooperative learning in all educational settings.

Effects of Computer Based Cooperative Learning on the Problem Solving Skills of Grade Six Students

Author : Steven Poris
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This study was designed to determine if sixth-grade students' problem solving skills were improved by means of their experience with a computer-based logical puzzle game designed to increase reasoning skills, and, in turn, problem solving ability. Students worked on this game either in cooperative learning pairs or alone. Baseline and post-experimental problem-solving ability was measured through the administration of a Problem Solving Test; Form A was utilized as a pretest for this purpose, Form B was used as a post-test. Comparisons of problem-solving ability based upon post-test scores (Form B) were made among four groups of students (N = 106): Group 1: Students (n = 26) who worked on the computer-based puzzle game in cooperative learning pairs Group 2: Students (n = 27) who worked on the computer-based puzzle game as individuals Group 3: Students (n = 24) who worked on a computer-based social studies simulation in cooperative learning pairs Group 4: Students (n = 29) who worked on a computer-based social studies simulation as individuals. A t-test comparison of post-test data between all students who worked on the puzzle game and all students who did not work on the puzzle game showed no significant difference between the two groups' problem solving abilities. However, an analysis of variance comparing the means of all four groups showed that the students in Group 1 performed significantly better (F=3.783, p

Creativity and Collaborative Learning

Author : Jacqueline S. Thousand
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When the barriers created by traditional instruction are removed, all students are capable of helping each other to learn and grow - regardless of their background or cognitive ability. With this practical resource, instructors will learn how to capitalize on students' individual differences and promote the academic and social growth of every learner in the inclusive classroom. A wealth of research-based teaching strategies, sample lesson plans, illustrative case studies, and hands-on instructional materials are provided to help educators meet their students' varying educational and psychological needs. Throughout this book, internationally recognized education experts detail the powerful strategies made possible by cooperative/collaborative learning and provide practical guidelines for adapting curricula and instructional methods, developing peer-mediated teaching systems, organizing peer mediation programs, facilitating friendships and peer connections, and enhancing creative thinking among students and colleagues. This fundamental reference will help educators, administrators, and classroom support personnel provide each student in the inclusive classroom with a quality education and the experience they need to build successful careers, communities, friendships, and families.

Handbook of Cooperative Learning Methods

Author : Hanna Shachar
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This professional reference overviews cooperative learning and includes sections on generic methods of instruction, the application of cooperative learning to particular disciplines, and the implementation of programs in schools.