Search results for: efficient-secure-two-party-protocols

Efficient Secure Two Party Protocols

Author : Carmit Hazay
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In the setting of multiparty computation, sets of two or more parties with p- vate inputs wish to jointly compute some (predetermined) function of their inputs. The computation should be such that the outputs received by the parties are correctly distributed, and furthermore, that the privacy of each party’s input is preserved as much as possible, even in the presence of - versarial behavior. This encompasses any distributed computing task and includes computations as simple as coin-tossing and broadcast, and as c- plex as electronic voting, electronic auctions, electronic cash schemes and anonymous transactions. The feasibility (and infeasibility) of multiparty c- putation has been extensively studied, resulting in a rather comprehensive understanding of what can and cannot be securely computed, and under what assumptions. The theory of cryptography in general, and secure multiparty computation in particular, is rich and elegant. Indeed, the mere fact that it is possible to actually achieve the aforementioned task is both surprising and intriguing.

Engineering Secure Two Party Computation Protocols

Author : Thomas Schneider
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Secure two-party computation, called secure function evaluation (SFE), enables two mutually mistrusting parties, the client and server, to evaluate an arbitrary function on their respective private inputs while revealing nothing but the result. Originally the technique was considered to be too inefficient for practical privacy-preserving applications, but in recent years rapid speed-up in computers and communication networks, algorithmic improvements, automatic generation, and optimizations have enabled their application in many scenarios. The author offers an extensive overview of the most practical and efficient modern techniques used in the design and implementation of secure computation and related protocols. After an introduction that sets secure computation in its larger context of other privacy-enhancing technologies such as secure channels and trusted computing, he covers the basics of practically efficient secure function evaluation, circuit optimizations and constructions, hardware-assisted garbled circuit protocols, and the modular design of efficient SFE protocols. The goal of the author's research is to use algorithm engineering methods to engineer efficient secure protocols, both as a generic tool and for solving practical applications, and he achieves an excellent balance between the theory and applicability. The book is essential for researchers, students and practitioners in the area of applied cryptography and information security who aim to construct practical cryptographic protocols for privacy-preserving real-world applications.

Secure Two Party Computation Protocols

Author : Bolt William
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Secure two-party computation, called secure function evaluation (SFE), enables two mutually mistrusting parties, the client and server, to evaluate an arbitrary function on their respective private inputs while revealing nothing but the result. Originally the technique was considered to be too inefficient for practical privacy-preserving applications, but in recent years rapid speed-up in computers and communication networks, algorithmic improvements, automatic generation, and optimizations have enabled their application in many scenarios. The author offers an extensive overview of the most practical and efficient modern techniques used in the design and implementation of secure computation and related protocols. After an introduction that sets secure computation in its larger context of other privacy-enhancing technologies such as secure channels and trusted computing, he covers the basics of practically efficient secure function evaluation, circuit optimizations and constructions, hardware-assisted garbled circuit protocols, and the modular design of efficient SFE protocols. The goal of the author's research is to use algorithm engineering methods to engineer efficient secure protocols, both as a generic tool and for solving practical applications, and he achieves an excellent balance between the theory and applicability. The book is essential for researchers, students and practitioners in the area of applied cryptography and information security who aim to construct practical cryptographic protocols for privacy-preserving real-world applications.

Efficient Cryptographic Protocols Secure Two party Computation and Refereed Delegation of Computation

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Mathematical Reviews

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Compilation Techniques for Actively Secure Mixed Mode Two Party Computation

Author : Alexander Norton
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Secure multiparty computation allows two or more parties to compute a function without leaking unnecessary information about their inputs to other parties. In traditional secure multiparty computation protocols, the function is represented as a circuit and each gate of the circuit is securely computed. The mixed mode model is a generalization where only some gates are computed securely, and other gates are computed in a local, unsecured manner. There are computations where mixed mode protocols are known to be just as secure and much more efficient, and so it is natural to ask if it is possible to automatically construct optimized mixed mode secure protocols for a given function. Previous results describe powerful compilation techniques to transform circuits into efficient mixed mode protocols, but the results are only secure against very restricted (passive) adversaries. These passively secure protocols can be secured against active adversaries using extensions of classic secure multiparty computation compilation techniques. However, this comes with a significant loss of concrete efficiency, which negates the mixed mode efficiency advantages. In this thesis, we describe novel techniques that can efficiently compile mixed mode two party protocols from passive to active security. The techniques exploit structural properties of the underlying circuits to reduce the overhead of compilation without compromising the security. The gain in efficiency varies based on the circuit that is being compiled, and although for some circuits the techniques will yield no gains, for others the resulting secure protocols have exponentially lower computation and communication cost.

Secure Two party Computation and Communication

Author : Vladimir Kolesnikov
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In this dissertation, we address several issues that arise in protecting communication between parties, as well as in the area of secure function evaluation. Intuitively, the notion of secure function evaluation is clear and natural: several parties wish to compute some function of their inputs without revealing any information about the inputs, other than what is implied by the value of the function. Research included in this dissertation follows three main directions, briefly described below.The first direction (Chapters 3 and 4) is the design of efficient protocols for concrete functions of interest. Specifically, we present new, more efficient protocols for securely computing the Greater Than (GT) function on the inputs of two parties. Secure evaluation of GT is frequently needed in financial transactions. We introduce new primitives, which are convenient building blocks for more complex tasks, and generalize our GT solutions to satisfy them. Based on this, we construct secure auction protocols, protocols for determining whether an integer lies on an interval, and others.The third direction (Chapter 6) is research on key exchange (KE). In contrast with the previous two directions, here the goal is for two parties to protect their communication against eavesdropping and active interference of an external attacker. KE is a basic procedure, frequently used to establish secure channels between parties. It is a prerequisite to a large number of protocols, including those of the above two directions. We demonstrate a subtle flaw in a previous family of KE protocols and give new KE definitions for the following practical "bank" setting. Here, a server wishes to exchange a key with a client. They have a shared password, and the client carries a "bank card", capable of storing several cryptographic keys. Finally, we present new, more efficient KE protocols for this setting, and prove their security.The second direction (Chapter 5) is a fundamental approach to secure evaluation of any function, given as a boolean circuit. We present a very efficient information-theoretic (IT) reduction from the problem of secure evaluation of a polysize formula (or, equivalently, a log-depth boolean circuit) to Oblivious Transfer (a fundamental well-researched cryptographic primitive). Our cost of evaluating each gate of the formula is quadratic in its depth, while in previous reductions it was exponential. Our constructions imply efficient one-round protocols for evaluation of polysize formulas on the players' inputs. We extend our solutions to evaluation of polysize circuits, at the cost of having only computational security.

Practical and Foundational Aspects of Secure Computation

Author : Samuel Ranellucci
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Compilation for Secure Multi party Computation

Author : Niklas Büscher
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This book presents a holistic view on compiler assisted practical secure multi-party computation (MPC) over Boolean circuits. It discusses that two or more parties jointly evaluate a function over their inputs in such a way that each party keeps its input unknown to the other parties in MPC. MPC provides a generic way to construct Privacy-Enhancing Technologies, which protect sensitive data during processing steps in untrusted environments. A major obstacle in the past was to generate MPC applications by hand. Recently, special compilers have been developed to build all kinds of applications. This book also explains in detail how efficient MPC applications can be created automatically from ANSI-C, thus, bridging the areas of cryptography, compilation and hardware synthesis. It also gives an insight into the requirements for creating efficient applications for MPC and is hence of interest to not only researchers in the area of MPC but also developers realizing practical applications with MPC. For a better understanding of the complete compile chain from ANSI-C to circuits, which is the ‘machine code’ of MPC, the authors first give the necessary background information on MPC protocols, Boolean logic, and logic synthesis. Then the authors describe the various compilation steps required to translate any code into an adequate circuit description. Afterwards, the authors introduce a variety of optimization techniques for two classes of MPC protocols, namely techniques that improve the runtime of applications in constant- and multi-round MPC protocols. The authors also illustrate how efficient parallelization of MPC protocols can be achieved using the assistance of compilers. It presents the effectiveness of the proposed techniques by giving a detailed evaluation on benchmarking applications. Most of the aforementioned techniques are implemented in our open source compiler that is accompanying this book and allows to study compilation for MPC in practice.Researchers who are interested in practical secure multi-party computation (MPC), and developers who are interested in realizing MPC applications in practice will find this book useful as a reference, as well as advanced-level students in computer science.

WPES 03

Author : Association for Computing Machinery (États-Unis).
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ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security

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Privacy Preserving Joins on Secure Coprocessors

Author : Yaping Li
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Proceedings of the Ninth ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security

Author : Vijay Atluri
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Information Theoretically Secure Computation and Inference in Networks

Author : Ye Wang
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Abstract: In the problem of Secure Multi-party Computation, the objective is to design a protocol that allows a group of parties to securely compute functions of their collective private data, while ensuring that no party reveals any more information about its private data other than what must be inherently revealed by the computation results (privacy) and that no parties can disrupt or influence the computation results beyond the effects of changing their input data (correctness and consistency). Information theoretic approaches toward this problem, that provide provable (unconditional) security guarantees even against adversarial parties that have unbounded computational power, have established that general computation is possible in a variety of scenarios. However, these general solutions are not always efficient or finely tuned to the requirements of specific problems and applications. The focus of this thesis is on the development of information theoretic approaches for multi-party computation applications with the common theme of secure and efficient computation and inference over a distributed data network. Specific applications include: 1) private information retrieval, where the objective is to privately retrieve data without revealing what was selected; 2) secure statistical analysis, the problem of extracting statistics without revealing anything else about the underlying data; 3) secure sampling, which is the secure generation of new data with a given distribution; and 4) secure authentication, where the identity of a party needs to authenticated via inference on his/her credentials and stored registration data. The contributions of this thesis toward addressing these applications include the following: The development of an Oblivious Transfer (OT) protocol, applicable to private information retrieval, that trades off a small amount of privacy while being several times more efficient than other OT protocols. The efficiency of general se- cure two-party computation via OT realized from noisy channels is also analyzed. A technique for approximate secure multi-party computation applicable to secure statistical analysis of large scale distributed databases is developed. By exploiting a dimensionality reduction and the structure of a broad class of functions based on the computed statistics, the feasibility of simultaneously achieving both arbitrarily high accuracy and arbitrarily high communication efficiency is demonstrated. The region of distributions that can be securely sampled in the two-party scenario is characterized. It is further established that for those distributions, it can be accomplished with a protocol that only sends one message. Inner and outer bounds on the region of distributions that can be securely sampled in the general multi-party scenario are also developed. A new three-party protocol, applicable to the problem of secure biometric authentication, that securely computes the Hamming distance even when one of the parties arbitrarily deviates from the protocol is proposed and analyzed. A two-factor secure biometric authentication system that is robust against the compromise of registered biometric data, allowing for revocability and resistance against cross-enrollment attacks is also proposed.

Theory of Cryptography

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Advances in Cryptology

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Journal of Information Science and Engineering

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Information Security

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43rd Annual IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science

Author : IEEE Computer Society. Technical Committee on Mathematical Foundations of Computing
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Collects the 77 papers presented during the November 2002 symposium on the mathematical foundations of computing. Among the topics are abstract combinatorial programs and efficient property testers, a lower bound for testing 3-colorability in bounded degree graphs, a spectral algorithm for learning

27th Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science

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