Search results for: einsteins-opponents

Einstein s Opponents

Author : Milena Wazeck
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This detailed account of the controversy surrounding the publication of Albert Einstein's theory of relativity explores the ferocious popular and academic opposition which at one time encircled one of the most important scientific breakthroughs of the twentieth century. Based on extensive archival research, this fascinating discourse includes a compelling and entertaining examination of the contemporary literature created by Einstein's detractors. Exploring the arguments and strategies, social contexts, and motivations of Einstein's detractors, and providing unique insights into the dynamics of scientific controversies, this book is ideal for anyone interested in the history and philosophy of physics, popular science, and the public understanding of science.

Einstein s Berlin

Author : Dieter Hoffmann
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An annotated city guide to Albert Einstein's life in Berlin, Germany from 1914 to 1932 when Einstein developed the general theory of relativity, gained worldwide fame, supported democratic, socialist, pacifist, and Zionist causes, and withstood the growing ire of ultranationalists.

The Einstein Dossiers

Author : Siegfried Grundmann
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In 1919 the Prussian Ministry of Science, Arts and Culture opened a dossier on "Einstein's Theory of Relativity." It was rediscovered by the author in 1961 and is used in conjunction with numerous other subsequently identified 'Einstein' files as the basis of this fascinating book. In particular, the author carefully scrutinizes Einstein's FBI file from 1950-55 against mostly unpublished material from European including Soviet sources and presents hitherto unknown documentation on Einstein's alleged contacts with the German Communist Party and the Comintern. Siegfried Grundmann's thorough study of Einstein's participation on a committee of the League of Nations, based on archival research in Geneva, is also new. This book outlines Einstein's image in politics and German science policy. It covers the period from his appointment as a researcher in Berlin to his fight abroad against the "boycott of German science" after World War I and his struggle at home against attacks on "Jewish physics" of which he was made a prime target. An important gap in the literature on Einstein is thus filled, contributing much new material toward a better understanding of Einstein's so rigorous break with Germany.

Defending Einstein

Author : Hans Reichenbach
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Hans Reichenbach, a philosopher of science who was one of five students in Einstein's first seminar on the general theory of relativity, became Einstein's bulldog, defending the theory against criticism from philosophers, physicists, and popular commentators. This 2006 book chronicles the development of Reichenbach's reconstruction of Einstein's theory in a way that clearly sets out all of its philosophical commitments and its physical predictions as well as the battles that Reichenbach fought on its behalf, in both the academic and popular press. The essays include reviews and responses to philosophical colleagues; polemical discussions with physicists Max Born and D. C. Miller; as well as popular articles meant for the layperson. At a time when physics and philosophy were both undergoing revolutionary changes in content and method, this book is a window into the development of scientific philosophy and the role of the philosopher.

Time s Arrow and Archimedes Point

Author : Huw Price
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Why is the future so different from the past? Why does the past affect the future and not the other way around? What does quantum mechanics really tell us about the world? In this important and accessible book, Huw Price throws fascinating new light on some of the great mysteries of modern physics, and connects them in a wholly original way. Price begins with the mystery of the arrow of time. Why, for example, does disorder always increase, as required by the second law of thermodynamics? Price shows that, for over a century, most physicists have thought about these problems the wrong way. Misled by the human perspective from within time, which distorts and exaggerates the differences between past and future, they have fallen victim to what Price calls the "double standard fallacy": proposed explanations of the difference between the past and the future turn out to rely on a difference which has been slipped in at the beginning, when the physicists themselves treat the past and future in different ways. To avoid this fallacy, Price argues, we need to overcome our natural tendency to think about the past and the future differently. We need to imagine a point outside time -- an Archimedean "view from nowhen" -- from which to observe time in an unbiased way. Offering a lively criticism of many major modern physicists, including Richard Feynman and Stephen Hawking, Price shows that this fallacy remains common in physics today -- for example, when contemporary cosmologists theorize about the eventual fate of the universe. The "big bang" theory normally assumes that the beginning and end of the universe will be very different. But if we are to avoid the double standard fallacy, we need to consider time symmetrically, and take seriously the possibility that the arrow of time may reverse when the universe recollapses into a "big crunch." Price then turns to the greatest mystery of modern physics, the meaning of quantum theory. He argues that in missing the Archimedean viewpoint, modern physics has missed a radical and attractive solution to many of the apparent paradoxes of quantum physics. Many consequences of quantum theory appear counterintuitive, such as Schrodinger's Cat, whose condition seems undetermined until observed, and Bell's Theorem, which suggests a spooky "nonlocality," where events happening simultaneously in different places seem to affect each other directly. Price shows that these paradoxes can be avoided by allowing that at the quantum level the future does, indeed, affect the past. This demystifies nonlocality, and supports Einstein's unpopular intuition that quantum theory describes an objective world, existing independently of human observers: the Cat is alive or dead, even when nobody looks. So interpreted, Price argues, quantum mechanics is simply the kind of theory we ought to have expected in microphysics -- from the symmetric standpoint. Time's Arrow and Archimedes' Point presents an innovative and controversial view of time and contemporary physics. In this exciting book, Price urges physicists, philosophers, and anyone who has ever pondered the mysteries of time to look at the world from the fresh perspective of Archimedes' Point and gain a deeper understanding of ourselves, the universe around us, and our own place in time.

Albert Einstein Einstein s life and work in context

Author : Jürgen Renn
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Conjectures and Refutations

Author : Karl Popper
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Conjectures and Refutations is one of Karl Popper's most wide-ranging and popular works, notable not only for its acute insight into the way scientific knowledge grows, but also for applying those insights to politics and to history. It provides one of the clearest and most accessible statements of the fundamental idea that guided his work: not only our knowledge, but our aims and our standards, grow through an unending process of trial and error.

Einstein s Jury

Author : Jeffrey Crelinsten
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"There is no shortage of literature on Einstein and relativity, yet Crelinsten succeeds in providing a novel and fruitful perspective on how Einstein's theory of general relativity was received in its early years. By focusing on the astronomers rather than the physicists, and America rather than Europe, he adds a valuable chapter to the history of modern science in which scientific and social aspects are treated equally and in the same compelling detail."--Helge Kragh, University of Aarhus, Denmark "Jeffrey Crelinsten has written a wonderful book that fills an important gap in our knowledge of the reception and acceptance of general relativity in the scientific community: he focuses on the crucial role played by astronomers, particularly in the United States. In a fascinating account he describes how general relativity was tested and confirmed and how the new field of relativistic cosmology emerged out of this work. I wish this book had appeared earlier!"--A. J. Kox, University of Amsterdam "An excellent book, with wonderful gems that arise out of the author's mastery of the literature. It will be enormously useful to Einstein scholars as well as to those interested in the history of astronomy."--Daniel Kennefick, University of Arkansas "A fascinating and detailed story of the emergence of modern cosmology that reaches back to the debates over the validity of Einstein's theory of general relativity during the early decades of the twentieth century. This is an American tale of pragmatism and empiricism, of eclipse expeditions and of the intrepid spirit of those who built the world's largest astronomical observatories and discovered an expanding universe."--Diana Kormos Buchwald, Einstein Papers Project, Caltech "An overwhelming accomplishment that surely will have a lasting impact on the history of the subject. So much is laid to rest about the dominance of the 'Eddington' 1919 eclipse result and its resulting PR as to be an eye-opener to many (to most) would-be-historians. [Crelinsten's] research into original sources is powerful and makes the case!"-- Allan R. Sandage, Staff Astronomer Emeritus, The Observatories (Pasadena, CA) Carnegie Institution of Washington "Since the 1960s, scientists have shown with exquisite precision that Einstein was right about relativity. But for relativity's first two decades (1910-1930), the case for Einstein was hardly a slam dunk. Jeffrey Crelinsten tells the exciting roller-coaster story of the early experimental tests of special and general relativity, from light deflection measurements to ether-drift tests. Believers debated skeptics, but in the end, the jury was swayed by the data. Crelinsten's tale reads like a scientific courtroom thriller."--Clifford Will, Washington University in St. Louis, author of Was Einstein Right?

Einstein in Context

Author : Mara Beller
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This special issue of Science and Context examines the entire area of scientific inquiry surrounding Einstein, presenting controversies and debates within their contexts.

Einstein Physics and Reality

Author : Jagdish Mehra
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Albert Einstein was one of the principal founders of the quantum and relativity theories. Until 1925, when the Bose–Einstein statistics was discovered, he made great contributions to the foundations of quantum theory. However, after the discovery of quantum mechanics by Heisenberg and wave mechanics by Schrödinger, with the consequent development of the principles of uncertainty and complementarity, it would seem that Einstein's views completely changed. In his theory of the Brownian motion, Einstein had invoked the theory of probability to establish the reality of atoms and molecules; but, in 1916–17, when he wished to predict the exact instant when an atom would radiate — and developed his theory of the A and B coefficients — he wondered whether the “quantum absorption and emission of light could ever be understood in the sense of the complete causality requirement, or would a statistical residue remain? I must admit that there I lack the courage of my convictions. But I would be very unhappy to renounce complete causality”, as he wrote to his friend Max Born. However, he wrote later to Born that quantum mechanics “is certainly imposing”, but “an inner voice tells me that it is not the real thing … It does not bring us closer to the secret of the ‘Old One’. I, at any rate, am convinced that He is not playing at dice”. At the 1927 and 1930 Solvay Conferences on Physics in Brussels, Einstein engaged in profound discussions with Niels Bohr and others about his conviction regarding classical determinism versus the statistical causality of quantum mechanics. To the end of his life he retained his belief in a deterministic philosophy. This highly interesting book explores Einstein's views on the nature and structure of physics and reality. Contents:The “Non-Einsteinian Quantum Theory”“The Crisis in Theoretical Physics”Letters on Wave MechanicsEpistemological Discussion with Einstein: Does Quantum Mechanics Describe Reality Correctly?Is the Quantum-Theoretical Description of Nature Complete?Does God Play Dice?Mach Contra Kant: Aspects of the Development of Einstein's Natural Philosophy Readership: Scientists and general readers. Keywords:Einstein, Physics, and Reality;The Non-Einsteinian Quantum Theory;The Crisis in Theoretical Physics;Letters on Wave Mechanics;Epistemological Discussion with Einstein: Does Quantum Mechanics Describe Reality Correctly?;Is the Quantum-Theoretical Description of Nature Complete?;Does God Play Dice?;Mach Contra Kant: Aspects of the Development of Einstein's Natural Philosophy;Einstein, Planck, Born, Ehrenfest, Heisenberg, Dirac, Bohr, Schrodinger, Poincare, Ernst Mach, Immanuel Kant, and Many Others;The Solvay Conferences on Physics

Einstein

Author : Philipp Frank
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Much has been written about Albert Einstein, technical and biographical, but very little remains as valuable as this unique hybrid of a book written by Einstein’s colleague and contemporary. Both rich in personal insights and grounded in a deep knowledge of twentieth-century science, Phillip Frank's biography anchors the reader with a lucid overview of physics and draws an intimate portrait of the Nobel Prize–winner.

China and Albert Einstein

Author : Danian HU
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This is the first extensive study in English or Chinese of China's reception of the celebrated physicist and his theory of relativity. In a series of biographical studies of Chinese physicists, Hu describes the Chinese assimilation of relativity and explains how Chinese physicists offered arguments and theories of their own. Hu's account concludes with the troubling story of the fate of foreign ideas such as Einstein's in the Chinese Cultural Revolution (1966-1976), when the theory of relativity was denigrated along with Einstein's ideas on democracy and world peace.

Here Erred Einstein

Author : Hans H. Sallhofer
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The emergence of modern physics in the first three decades of the 20th century was accompanied by a loss of determinism. That loss is embodied in the Copenhagen interpretation and the theory of relativity. The development of physics-based technologies, both constructive and destructive, occurred shortly thereafter at so dizzying a rate that scientists rarely took a critical look at the logical foundations of the Copenhagen interpretation and the theory of relativity, or at the consequences of the loss of determinism. This book contains a dialogue between a physicist and a philosopher on that issue. The dialogue is strongly contextualized with respect to the main players in physics during the first sixty years of the 20th century, and to the prevailing political conditions in Western Europe and the USA. It was galvanized by the debate and the subsequent abandonment of the Superconducting Super Collider, and also affords a lively understanding of Greek epistemology. Questioned by the philosopher,the physicist provides an account of the directions taken by physicists and the roads not traveled, as well as his own understanding of the nature of matter.

Cracking the SAT Premium Edition with 8 Practice Tests 2015

Author : Princeton Review
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THE ALL-IN-ONE SOLUTION FOR YOUR HIGHEST POSSIBLE SCORE! Get all the prep you need to ace the SAT with The Princeton Review, including 8 full-length practice tests, thorough topic reviews, and exclusive access to our online Premium Portal with tons of extra practice and resources. Techniques That Actually Work. • Powerful strategies to avoid traps and beat the test • Tips for pacing yourself and prioritizing tough questions • Detailed examples for applying each technique to your advantage Everything You Need To Know for a High Score. • Expert subject reviews for each test topic • Practical information about what to expect on the SAT • "Hit Parade" of commonly-appearing SAT vocabulary words Practice Your Way to Perfection. • 4 full-length practice tests with detailed answer explanations • 4 additional full-length SAT practice exams online • Drills for each test section—Math, Critical Reading, and Writing • Instant scoring available online for book and online tests, plus optional LiveGrader(TM) essay scoring Plus, with Cracking the SAT, Premium Edition you'll get online access to our exclusive Premium Portal for an extra competitive edge: • Bonus online math and verbal drills to hone your techniques • Video tutorials with strategy breakdowns for each section of the SAT • Multi-week study plan guides • College and university profiles, college admission guides, and financial aid tips • Special "SAT Insider" section packed with helpful info on planning college visits, picking a perfect school, and writing essays that stand out From the Trade Paperback edition.

Beyond Uncertainty

Author : David C. Cassidy
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"Beyond Uncertainty: Heisenberg, Quantum Physics, and the Bomb is an excellent work of scholarship and makes Heisenberg's work and life accessible to the general reader, while remaining important and interesting for the historian and scientist. Along with Wernher von Braun, Heisenberg's career under Hitler represents perhaps the best twentieth-century example of a faustian bargain with evil for the advancement of knowledge and science. Cassidy tells this story with nuance and passion."--Mark Walker, author of Nazi Science: Myth, Truth, and the German Atomic Bomb In 1992, David C. Cassidy's groundbreaking biography of Werner Heisenberg, Uncertainty, was published to resounding acclaim from scholars and critics. Michael Frayn, in the Playbill of the Broadway production of Copenhagen, referred to it as one of his main sources and "the standard work in English." Richard Rhodes (The Making of the Atom Bomb) called it "the definitive biography of a great and tragic physicist," and the Los Angeles Times praised it as "an important book. Cassidy has sifted the record and brilliantly detailed Heisenberg's actions." No book that has appeared since has rivaled Uncertainty, now out of print, for its depth and rich detail of the life, times, and science of this brilliant and controversial figure of twentieth-century physics. Since the fall of the Soviet Union, long-suppressed information has emerged on Heisenberg's role in the Nazi atomic bomb project. In Beyond Uncertainty, Cassidy interprets this and other previously unknown material within the context of his vast research and tackles the vexing questions of a scientist's personal responsibility and guilt when serving an abhorrent military regime. David C. Cassidy is the author of J. Robert Oppenheimer and the American Century, Einstein and Our World, and Uncertainty. Professor of natural sciences at Hofstra University, he has served as associate editor of The Collected Papers of Albert Einstein. He is the only author to have received both the Science Writing Award from the American Institute of Physics and the Pfizer Award from the History of Science Society for the same book (Uncertainty).

Einstein s Legacy

Author : Julian Schwinger
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A Nobel Laureate relates the fascinating story of Einstein and relativity theory in well-illustrated, nontechnical terms, discussing the meaning of time, gravity and its effect on light, the curving of space-time, more.

Einstein s Riddle

Author : Jeremy Stangroom
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Puzzles.

Einstein

Author : Walter Isaacson
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NOW A MAJOR SERIES 'GENIUS' ON NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC, PRODUCED BY RON HOWARD AND STARRING GEOFFREY RUSH Einstein is the great icon of our age: the kindly refugee from oppression whose wild halo of hair, twinkling eyes, engaging humanity and extraordinary brilliance made his face a symbol and his name a synonym for genius. He was a rebel and nonconformist from boyhood days. His character, creativity and imagination were related, and they drove both his life and his science. In this marvellously clear and accessible narrative, Walter Isaacson explains how his mind worked and the mysteries of the universe that he discovered. Einstein's success came from questioning conventional wisdom and marvelling at mysteries that struck others as mundane. This led him to embrace a worldview based on respect for free spirits and free individuals. All of which helped make Einstein into a rebel but with a reverence for the harmony of nature, one with just the right blend of imagination and wisdom to transform our understanding of the universe. This new biography, the first since all of Einstein's papers have become available, is the fullest picture yet of one of the key figures of the twentieth century. This is the first full biography of Albert Einstein since all of his papers have become available -- a fully realised portrait of this extraordinary human being, and great genius. Praise for EINSTEIN by Walter Isaacson:- 'YOU REALLY MUST READ THIS.' Sunday Times 'As pithy as Einstein himself.’ New Scientist ‘[A] brilliant biography, rich with newly available archival material.’ Literary Review ‘Beautifully written, it renders the physics understandable.’ Sunday Telegraph ‘Isaacson is excellent at explaining the science. ' Daily Express

Einstein Defiant

Author : Edmund Blair Bolles
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"I find the idea quite intolerable that an electron exposed to radiation should choose of its own free will, not only its moment to jump off, but also its direction. In that case, I would rather be a cobbler, or even an employee in a gaming house, than a physicist." -Albert Einstein A scandal hovers over the history of 20th century physics. Albert Einstein -- the century's greatest physicist -- was never able to come to terms with quantum mechanics, the century's greatest theoretical achievement. For physicists who routinely use both quantum laws and Einstein's ideas, this contradiction can be almost too embarrassing to dwell on. Yet Einstein was one of the founders of quantum physics and he spent many years preaching the quantum's importance and its revolutionary nature. The Danish genius Neils Bohr was another founder of quantum physics. He had managed to solve one of the few physics problems that Einstein ever shied away from, linking quantum mathematics with a new model of the atom. This leap immediately yielded results that explained electron behavior and the periodic table of the elements. Despite their mutual appreciation of the quantum's importance, these two giants of modern physics never agreed on the fundamentals of their work. In fact, they clashed repeatedly throughout the 1920s, arguing first over Einstein's theory of "light quanta"(photons), then over Niels Bohr's short-lived theory that denied the conservation of energy at the quantum level, and climactically over the new quantum mechanics that Bohr enthusiastically embraced and Einstein stubbornly defied. This contest of visions stripped the scientific imagination naked. Einstein was a staunch realist, demanding to know the physical reasons behind physical events. At odds with this approach was Bohr's more pragmatic perspective that favored theories that worked, even if he might not have a corresponding explanation of the underlying reality. Powerful and illuminating, Einstein Defiant is the first book to capture the soul and the science that inspired this dramatic duel, revealing the personalities and the passions -- and, in the end, what was at stake for the world.

Albert Einstein

Author : Jürgen Renn
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In 1905, Albert Einstein published five scientific articles that fundamentally changed the world–view of physics: The Special Theory of Reativity revolutionized our concept of space and time, E=mc² became the best–known equation in physics. On the occasion of the 100th aniversary of his "annus mirabilis" 1905, the UNESCO declared the year 2005 the "World Year of Physics", in order to draw attention to the impact of physics. The Max Planck Institute for the history of science dedicates an exhibition in the Kronprinzenpalais in Berlin to the probably most important scientist of the 20th century. In this book, 100 authors explain the historical background of Einstein′s life and work, shed light on many different aspects of his biography, and on the scientific fields and topics that are connected to Einstein′s work. The authors are some of the most renowned Einstein researchers in the world, such as Jürgen Ehlers, Peter Galison, Zeev Rosenkranz, John Stachel and Robert Schulmann. The essays form a bridge between scientific and cultural history, opening up a perspective on Einstein′s biography which goes beyond the traditional picture of the exceptional science genius.