Search results for: energy-scavenging-for-wireless-sensor-networks

Energy Scavenging for Wireless Sensor Networks

Author : Shad Roundy
File Size : 68.30 MB
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The vast reduction in size and power consumption of CMOS circuitry has led to a large research effort based around the vision of wireless sensor networks. The proposed networks will be comprised of thousands of small wireless nodes that operate in a multi-hop fashion, replacing long transmission distances with many low power, low cost wireless devices. The result will be the creation of an intelligent environment responding to its inhabitants and ambient conditions. Wireless devices currently being designed and built for use in such environments typically run on batteries. However, as the networks increase in number and the devices decrease in size, the replacement of depleted batteries will not be practical. The cost of replacing batteries in a few devices that make up a small network about once per year is modest. However, the cost of replacing thousands of devices in a single building annually, some of which are in areas difficult to access, is simply not practical. Another approach would be to use a battery that is large enough to last the entire lifetime of the wireless sensor device. However, a battery large enough to last the lifetime of the device would dominate the overall system size and cost, and thus is not very attractive. Alternative methods of powering the devices that will make up the wireless networks are desperately needed.

Efficient RF Energy Scavenging and Ultra low Power Management for Powering Wireless Sensor Nodes

Author : Vikrant P. Arumugam
File Size : 20.24 MB
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As the demand for real-time information in engineering and health care systems keeps increasing, the need for wireless sensor nodes is also continuously increasing. As a result, the cost and effort involved in installing and maintaining batteries to power the numerous sensor nodes is growing exponentially. Providing a cost effective and maintenance free alternate energy source is the motivation behind the development of energy scavenging solutions for self-powered sensor networks. In this research, an energy scavenging system that extracts energy from ambient radio-frequency waves transmitted in the 2.4GHz ISM band is designed. The harvested energy is efficiently managed with an ultra low-power switched capacitor buck-boost DC-DC converter to wirelessly power the nodes in a wireless sensor network. Analysis and optimization of the number of rectifier stages required to achieve efficient power conversion is carried out. To improve far field conversion efficiency and extend the scavenger sensitivity, the threshold voltage of the diodes in the rectifiers are reduced to about 50mV by using the floating-gate programming technique.The active power consumption of the switched-capacitor DC-DC converter is around 1.2[mu]W. A micro-power analog to digital converter for variable gain selection and a sub-threshold linear voltage regulator for providing the start-up, are designed. The integrated system provides a fully autonomous micro-energy scavenging solution for the sensor nodes. The simulated results suggest that the scavenger achieves a 10% higher con- version efficiency than the most recently reported work. The operational distance of this improved energy scavenging solution is 6 meters (in free space) from an intentional RF transmitter operating under FCC specifications at 2.4GHz. The targeted application of this research is to provide an alternate energy solution for low power devices, including wireless sensor nodes and bio-medical applications.

Pyroelectric Energy Scavenging Techniques for Self Powered Nuclear Reactor Wireless Sensor Networks

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Recent advances in technologies for harvesting waste thermal energy from ambient environments present an opportunity to implement truly wireless sensor nodes in nuclear power plants. These sensors could continue to operate during extended station blackouts and during periods when operation of the plant s internal power distribution system has been disrupted. The energy required to power the wireless sensors must be generated using energy harvesting techniques from locally available energy sources, and the energy consumption within the sensor circuitry must therefore be low to minimize power and hence the size requirements of the energy harvester. Harvesting electrical energy from thermal energy sources can be achieved using pyroelectric or thermoelectric conversion techniques. Recent modeling and experimental studies have shown that pyroelectric techniques can be cost competitive with thermoelectrics in self powered wireless sensor applications and, using new temperature cycling techniques, has the potential to be several times as efficient as thermoelectrics under comparable operating conditions. The development of a new thermal energy harvester concept, based on temperature cycled pyroelectric thermal-to-electrical energy conversion, is outlined. This paper outlines the modeling of cantilever and pyroelectric structures and single element devices that demonstrate the potential of this technology for the development of high efficiency thermal-to-electrical energy conversion devices.

Green Mobile Devices and Networks

Author : Hrishikesh Venkataraman
File Size : 51.60 MB
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While battery capacity is often insufficient to keep up with the power-demanding features of the latest mobile devices, powering the functional advancement of wireless devices requires a revolution in the concept of battery life and recharge capability. Future handheld devices and wireless networks should be able to recharge themselves automaticall

Energy Harvesting and Scavenging in Wide Area Wireless Sensor Networks

Author : Minja Miladinović
File Size : 57.4 MB
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Wireless Sensor Networks

Author : Hossam Mahmoud Ahmad Fahmy
File Size : 21.46 MB
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This second book by the author on WSNs focuses on the concepts of energy, and energy harvesting and management techniques. Definitions and terminologies are made clear without leaning on the relaxing assumption that they are already known or easily reachable, the reader is not to be diverted from the main course. Neatly drawn figures assist in viewing and imagining the offered topics. To make energy related topics felt and seen, the adopted technologies as well as their manufacturers are presented in details. With such a depth, this book is intended for a wide audience, it is meant to be helper and motivator, for the senior undergraduates, postgraduates, researchers, and practitioners; concepts and energy related applications are laid out, research and practical issues are backed by appropriate literature, and new trends are put under focus. For senior undergraduate students, it familiarizes with conceptual foundations and practical projects implementations. Also, it is intended for graduate students working on their thesis and in need of specific knowledge on WSNs and the related energy harvesting and management techniques. Moreover, it is targeting researchers and practitioners interested in features and applications of WSNs, and on the available energy harvesting and management projects and testbeds. Exercises at the end of each chapter are not just questions and answers; they are not limited to recapitulate ideas. Their design objective is not bound to be a methodical review of the provided concepts, but rather as a motivator for lot more of searching, finding, and comparing beyond what has been presented in the book.

Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks

Author : R Budampati
File Size : 89.14 MB
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Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks: Monitoring, Control and Automation explores the explosive growth that has occurred in the use of wireless sensor networks in a variety of applications during the last few years. As wireless technology can reduce costs, increase productivity, and ease maintenance, the book looks at the progress in standardization efforts regarding reliability, security, performance, power consumption, and integration. Early sections of the book discuss issues such as media access control (MAC), antenna design and site survey, energy harvesting, and explosion-proof design. Subsequent sections present WSN standards, including ISA100, ZigBeeTM, WifiTM, WirelessHARTTM and 6loWPAN, and the applications of WSNs in the oil and gas, chemical, food, and nuclear power industries. Reviews technologies and standards for industrial wireless sensor networks Considers particular applications for the technology and their ability to reduce costs, increase productivity, and ease maintenance Focuses on industry needs and standardization efforts regarding reliability, security, performance, power consumption, and integration.

Healthcare Sensor Networks

Author : Daniel Tze Huei Lai
File Size : 86.70 MB
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Healthcare sensor networks (HSNs) now offer the possibility to continuously monitor human activity and physiological signals in a mobile environment. Such sensor networks may be able to reduce the strain on the present healthcare workforce by providing new autonomous monitoring services ranging from simple user-reminder systems to more advanced mon

Sustainable Wireless Sensor Networks

Author : Yen Kheng Tan
File Size : 64.59 MB
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Wireless Sensor Networks came into prominence around the start of this millennium motivated by the omnipresent scenario of small-sized sensors with limited power deployed in large numbers over an area to monitor different phenomenon. The sole motivation of a large portion of research efforts has been to maximize the lifetime of the network, where network lifetime is typically measured from the instant of deployment to the point when one of the nodes has expended its limited power source and becomes in-operational - commonly referred as first node failure. Over the years, research has increasingly adopted ideas from wireless communications as well as embedded systems development in order to move this technology closer to realistic deployment scenarios. In such a rich research area as wireless sensor networks, it is difficult if not impossible to provide a comprehensive coverage of all relevant aspects. In this book, we hope to give the reader with a snapshot of some aspects of wireless sensor networks research that provides both a high level overview as well as detailed discussion on specific areas.

Energy Harvesting Technologies

Author : Shashank Priya
File Size : 60.13 MB
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Energy Harvesting Technologies provides a cohesive overview of the fundamentals and current developments in the field of energy harvesting. In a well-organized structure, this volume discusses basic principles for the design and fabrication of bulk and MEMS based vibration energy systems, theory and design rules required for fabrication of efficient electronics, in addition to recent findings in thermoelectric energy harvesting systems. Combining leading research from both academia and industry onto a single platform, Energy Harvesting Technologies serves as an important reference for researchers and engineers involved with power sources, sensor networks and smart materials.