Search results for: engine-exhaust-particulates

Engine Exhaust Particulates

Author : Avinash Kumar Agarwal
File Size : 60.75 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download : 667
Read : 983
Download »
This book provides a comparative analysis of both diesel and gasoline engine particulates, and also of the emissions resulting from the use of alternative fuels. Written by respected experts, it offers comprehensive insights into motor vehicle particulates, their formation, composition, location, measurement, characterisation and toxicology. It also addresses exhaust-gas treatment and legal, measurement-related and technological advancements concerning emissions. The book will serve as a valuable resource for academic researchers and professional automotive engineers alike.

Engine Exhaust Particulates

Author : Avinash Kumar Agarwal
File Size : 32.86 MB
Format : PDF, Mobi
Download : 339
Read : 657
Download »
This book provides a comparative analysis of both diesel and gasoline engine particulates, and also of the emissions resulting from the use of alternative fuels. Written by respected experts, it offers comprehensive insights into motor vehicle particulates, their formation, composition, location, measurement, characterisation and toxicology. It also addresses exhaust-gas treatment and legal, measurement-related and technological advancements concerning emissions. The book will serve as a valuable resource for academic researchers and professional automotive engineers alike.

Mutagenic Properties of Engine Exhaust Particulates

Author : Yi-Yuann Wang
File Size : 67.60 MB
Format : PDF, Kindle
Download : 691
Read : 789
Download »

On Board Engine Exhaust Particulate Matter Sensor for HCCI and Conventional Diesel Engines

Author :
File Size : 22.22 MB
Format : PDF
Download : 322
Read : 206
Download »
The goal of the research was to refine and complete development of an on-board particulate matter (PM) sensor for diesel, DISI, and HCCI engines, bringing it to a point where it could be commercialized and marketed.

Curiositez de la nature et de l art apport es dans deux voyages des Indes

Author :
File Size : 51.25 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Docs
Download : 159
Read : 542
Download »

The Fate of Lead in Petrol Engine Exhaust Particulates Inhaled by the Rat

Author : A. Morgan
File Size : 46.6 MB
Format : PDF, Kindle
Download : 718
Read : 973
Download »

Size Distribution and Mass Output of Particulates from Diesel Engine Exhausts

Author : John A. Breslin
File Size : 86.5 MB
Format : PDF
Download : 161
Read : 485
Download »

Construction and Preliminary Evaluation of a Diesel Exhaust Particulate Filter for Underground Use

Author : Robert W. Freedman
File Size : 53.34 MB
Format : PDF
Download : 297
Read : 1200
Download »

Novel Collection and Toxicological Analysis Techniques for IC Engine Exhaust Particulate Matter

Author :
File Size : 67.2 MB
Format : PDF, Docs
Download : 613
Read : 598
Download »
The project staff partnered with Costas Sioutas from the University of Southern California to apply the VACES (Versatile Aerosol Concentration Enhancement System) to a diesel engine test facility at West Virginia University Department of Mechanical Engineering and later the NIOSH Lake Lynn Mine facility. The VACES system was able to allow diesel exhaust particulate matter (DPM) to grow to sufficient particle size to be efficiently collected with the SKC Biosampler impinger device, directly into a suspension of simulated pulmonary surfactant. At the WVU-MAE facility, the concentration of the aerosol was too high to allow efficient use of the VACES concentration enhancement, although aerosol collection was successful. Collection at the LLL was excellent with the diluted exhaust stream. In excess of 50 samples were collected at the LLL facility, along with matching filter samples, at multiple engine speed and load conditions. Replicate samples were combined and concentration increased using a centrifugal concentrator. Bioassays were negative for all tested samples, but this is believed to be due to insufficient concentration in the final assay suspensions.

Characterisation of Urban Particulates and Their Potential Health Effects

Author : Alexander James Charlton
File Size : 70.42 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download : 888
Read : 180
Download »
Urban particulate matter (UPM) is known to be a causative agent in a number of diseases including cancers of the respiratory system. Toxicological analysis has implicated particle size, surface area, metal ions, free radical induction, and organic chemistry as potential drivers of human health effects; however the relative importance of these factors is unclear. This project attempts to determine the factors responsible for the in vitro toxicity of particulate air pollution. The importance of fuel type on exhaust particle characteristics was examined through the collection of engine exhaust particles (EEP) produced by a heavy diesel engine operating using conventional diesel and rapeseed oil based biofuels. The effects of particle aging in the atmosphere, and the contributions of sources other than engine exhausts were determined through the collection of UPM from a roadside site. The genotoxic potential of particulate samples was determined using the comet assay, and particle free radical induction was measured with the plasmid strand break assay. Particle organic chemistry was determined using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Particular emphasis was placed on the accurate quantification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), a class of carcinogenic hydrocarbons known to be present on the surface of particulate matter. Engine particulate samples were collected from a heavy duty diesel engine using conventional petrodiesel, rapeseed oil (RSa) or rapeseed oil with a fuel additive (RSaAd). Analysis of particulate specific emissions indicated that Rsa combustion generated a significantly greater mass of particulate matter than the combustion of diesel. This increase in particulate mass output was attributed to poor RSa combustion characteristics due to coking of fuel injectors during engine operation. ' This could be corrected through the use of a fuel additive, which bought Rsa particulate emissions into line with diesel. In all fuels the majority of the particulate mass collected had an aerodynamic diameter of less than one 1 urn, indicating that they may potentially deposit within the lower respiratory tract in humans, and as such are relevant to human health. Analysis of total suspended particle and size fractionated samples of engine particulate material showed that engine exhaust particles produced through diesel combustion were significantly more genotoxic than those produced whilst operating with biofuels. A statistically significant size dependency was found in diesel exhaust particles, with finer material inducing a greater level of DNA damage. Finer rapeseed oil exhaust particles were also shown to be more genotoxic than coarser material, although this trend was not as pronounced as in diesel exhaust particles, and was not statistically significant. Free radical analysis of exhaust particles showed that for all fuels the coarsest fraction of PM induced the largest level of radical activity. In most fractions diesel and Rsa EEP induced similar levels of damage, whereas coarse RSaAd induced significantly greater levels of free radicals. Free radical induction was indicated to be a result of particle phase metals present due to engine wear. Diesel EEP P AH levels were higher than Rsa or RSaAd samples in most size fractions of particles examined. Diesel EEP showed finer fractions to have the greatest P AH concentrations, with P AH concentration being roughly in line with v what might be expected based on projected surface area, suggesting absorption from the vapour phase as the mechanism by which P AH arrive on diesel PM. RSO and RSOAd EEP contained significantly lower P AH concentrations than diesel EEP. A correlation was found between particle phase P AH concentrations and observed DNA damage in the comet assay, suggesting PAH as potential drivers of genotoxicity. The concentration and distribution of n-alkane species was shown to be independent of fuel type, which is in line with previous studies that have indicated that engine lubricating oil is the major source of particle n-alkanes. Qualitative analysis of compounds other than P AH and n-alkanes in EEP showed differences in composition between diesel and RSO derived EEP, with the latter containing a greater number of oxygenated compounds. Size fractionated samples of UPM were collected from the Kirkstall Road air monitoring enclosure, located on a busy road servicing Leeds city centre. As in engine experiments the majority of particulate mass was found to be present in finer particles. In addition to particle size seasonal effects were observed with higher particle mass concentrations observed during colder sampling periods. Comet assay analysis of size fractionated UPM indicated that the majority of DNA damage was observed in the finest fraction of particles. However this damage was lower than that observed in the finest fraction of diesel EEP. In general particles collected during colder periods exhibited greater levels of DNA damage than those collected during warm sampling periods. As in diesel EEP the majority of the particle phase P AH detected were in the finest fractions of particulate material. Coarse UPM fractions contained a greater proportion of total particle phase P AH contributions than was observed in diesel EEP, possibly indicating particle agglomeration in the atmosphere. Additionally, a seasonal component was observed, with particles collected during colder seasons generally containing greater levels of PAH. A strong correlation between particle PAH concentrations and DNA damage in the comet assay was observed, indicating that the mechanism by which DNA damage occurs may involve PAH. Free radical analysis showed that the trend observed in EEP was reversed in UPM, with the finest fractions of UPM inducing greater levels of plasmid unwinding. This was at odds with the results of analysis of free radicals by EEP. The reason for this difference was unclear; however this may be a result of UPM and EEP inducing free radical activity by different mechanisms. The use of PAH diagnostic ratios and analysis of n-alkane species distribution indicated that the anthropogenic sources of particulate matter predominate at the roadside. There was evidence that UPM represented a more complex chemical mixture than EEP, with a greater number of particle bound organic compounds. The majority of these species were oxygenates, indicating oxidative processing of particles during atmospheric residence.

Effects of Barium based Additive on Diesel Exhaust Particulate

Author : H. William Zeller
File Size : 73.47 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Docs
Download : 189
Read : 283
Download »

Charging Mechanism of Submicron Diesel Particles

Author : Kil-Choo Moon
File Size : 34.21 MB
Format : PDF, Kindle
Download : 670
Read : 519
Download »

Health Effects of Diesel Exhaust

Author : Richard M. Schreck
File Size : 34.89 MB
Format : PDF, Docs
Download : 589
Read : 152
Download »

Health Effects of Exposure to Diesel Exhaust

Author : National Research Council (U.S.). Diesel Impacts Study Committee. Health Effects Panel
File Size : 76.12 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download : 723
Read : 1199
Download »

Mutagenicity of Diesel Exhaust Particle Extracts

Author : Charles R. Clark
File Size : 52.66 MB
Format : PDF, Kindle
Download : 712
Read : 898
Download »

Volatility and Number Measurement of Diesel Engine Exhaust Particles

Author : Hanna Bernemyr
File Size : 71.14 MB
Format : PDF
Download : 449
Read : 1313
Download »

Health Assessment Document for Diesel Engine Exhaust

Author : U. S. Environmental Agency
File Size : 73.20 MB
Format : PDF, Kindle
Download : 604
Read : 872
Download »
This Health Assessment Document for Diesel Engine Exhaust (DE) represents EPA's first comprehensive review of the potential health effects from ambient exposure to exhaust from diesel engines. The assessment was developed to provide information about the potential for DE to pose environmental health hazards, information that would be useful in evaluating regulatory needs under provisions of the Clean Air Act. The assessment identifies and characterizes the potential human health hazards of DE (i.e, hazard assessment) and seeks to estimate the relationship between exposure and disease response for the key health effects (i.e., dose-response assessment). The diesel engine has been a vital workhorse in the United States, powering many of its large trucks, buses, and farm, railroad, marine, and construction equipment. Expectations are that diesel engine use in these areas will increase due to the superior performance characteristics of the engine. Diesel engine exhaust (DE), however, contains harmful pollutants in a complex mixture of gases and particulates. Human exposure to this exhaust comes from both highway uses (on-road) as well as non-road uses of the diesel engine. EPA started evaluating and regulating the gaseous emissions from the heavy-duty highway use of diesel engines in the 1970s and particle emissions in the 1980s. The reduction of harmful exhaust emissions has taken a large step forward because of standards issued in 2000 which will bring about very large reductions in exhaust emissions for model year 2007 heavy-duty engines used in trucks, buses, and other on-road uses. A draft of this assessment, along with the peer review comments of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee, was part of the scientific basis for EPA's regulation of heavy-duty highway engines completed in December 2000. The information provided by this assessment was useful in developing EPA's understanding of the public health implications of exposure to DE and the public health benefits of taking regulatory action to control exhaust emissions. EPA anticipates developing similarly stringent regulations for other diesel engine uses, including those used in non-road applications.

Evaluation of the Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer Eeps for Real Time Measurements of Diesel and Biodiesel Exhaust Particulate Matter

Author : Jim Dunshee
File Size : 48.35 MB
Format : PDF
Download : 741
Read : 342
Download »
Even at low concentrations, the criteria air pollutant particulate matter (PM) is an environmental and public health hazard. Emissions levels legislated for modern diesel vehicles are so low (~90% lower than 2003) that it has become difficult to accurately measure PM by the regulatory metric: the mass of particles collected on a filter (i.e., the gravimetric method). Additionally, gravimetric analysis cannot measure real-time emission rates, and therefore is unable to characterize high-emitting transient events (e.g., engine starts, stop-and-go driving). By an alternate method, PM can be estimated by measuring the number-weighted particle size distribution (PSD) and calculating mass with a combination of theoretical and empirical constants (e.g., particle effective density). This integrated particle size distribution (IPSD) method is capable of high measurement sensitivity and real-time resolution. Real-time measurements by the IPSD method require fast-sizing spectrometers, such as the TSI Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer (EEPS), which sizes (between 5.6-560 nm) and counts particles based on their electrical mobility. The EEPS utilizes a unipolar charger to quickly charge particles for sizing and counting, however this mechanism has been shown to produce a less predictable charge distribution than bipolar chargers used in Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) systems – the gold standard “slow-sizing” spectrometer. Several evaluations have shown deficiencies in EEPS PSD measurements due to charging differences (associated with particle morphology) unaccounted for in the transfer function matrix used to calibrate the EEPS. Specifically, the unipolar charger multiply charges a higher percentage of soot agglomerates (fractal-like particles common in diesel engine exhaust) than bipolar chargers. Because inaccurate PSDs are a primary reason for reported discrepancies between IPSD calculated mass and the gravimetric method, it is important to correct this deficiency in EEPS measurements. Recently, TSI has released additional EEPS calibration matrices (“Soot” and “Compact”) which have shown better agreement with SMPS measurements under preliminary test conditions. This study further evaluates the performance of these new matrices relative to the original “Default” matrix for diesel and biodiesel exhaust particles. Steady-state (75% engine load) emissions were generated by a light-duty diesel engine operating on (1) ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and (2) 100% soybean biodiesel. Raw EEPS data processed with each matrix were compared to simultaneously collected reference measurements from an SMPS. PSDs were evaluated based on their shape – i.e., multimodal fits of geometric mean diameter (GMD) and geometric standard deviation (GSD) – and concentration at peak particle diameter. For both fuels, all measurements agreed well in terms of the shape of the PSD: primary mode (accumulation) GMD ± 10nm, GSD ± 0.3. For ULSD, EEPS Default, Soot, and Compact concentrations were higher than the SMPS by factors of 1.9, 1.3, and 2.5, respectively. For biodiesel, EEPS Default, Soot, and Compact concentrations were higher than the SMPS by factors of 2.1, 1.7, and 2.4, respectively. Based on these results, the Soot matrix produced acceptable agreement between EEPS and SMPS measurements of ULSD exhaust particles. However, based on the factor of ~2 difference observed here, an additional calibration matrix may be necessary for the EEPS to accurately measure biodiesel exhaust particles. The IPSD method for estimating PM mass was applied to available data sets with corresponding gravimetric measurements (one ULSD transient cycle test and the same biodiesel steady-state test used for PSD evaluation). Real-time PSDs from each of the three EEPS matrices were used in combination with three sets of values assumed for size-dependent particle effective density (representing a range of potential conditions), resulting in nine IPSD estimates of PM mass corresponding to each gravimetric sample (one ULSD, one biodiesel). For the transient ULSD test, a widely used effective density distribution for fractal-like soot agglomerates resulted in good agreement between IPSD estimated mass and the gravimetric measurement (within 9% and 6% for Soot and Compact matrices, respectively). For the steady-state biodiesel test, assuming unit density (1g/cm3 for all particles) resulted in good agreement between IPSD estimated mass and the gravimetric measurement (within 7% and 2% for Soot and Compact matrices, respectively). These results support previous findings that the Soot matrix is currently the best available option for measurement of ULSD exhaust particles by the EEPS and that particle effective density distributions similar to the “fractal-like” one used here are an accurate estimate for ULSD exhaust particles under many conditions. However, based on the discrepancies between the EEPS and SMPS measured biodiesel exhaust PSDs observed here, as well as a current lack of information on the effective density of biodiesel exhaust particles, it is clear that additional research is necessary in order to understand the properties of biodiesel exhaust particles, especially as they relate to electrical mobility measurements and IPSD estimation of PM mass.

The Effect of Fuel Properties on Diesel Engine Exhaust Particulate Formation

Author : Shigeru Tosaka
File Size : 41.53 MB
Format : PDF, ePub
Download : 197
Read : 178
Download »

Air Pollution and Control

Author : Nikhil Sharma
File Size : 50.75 MB
Format : PDF, Mobi
Download : 872
Read : 1230
Download »
This book focuses on various aspects related to air pollution, including major sources of air pollution, measurement techniques, modeling studies and solution approaches to control. The book also presents case studies on measuring air pollution in major urban areas, such as Delhi, India. The book examines vehicles as a source of air pollution and addresses the quantitative analysis of engine exhaust emissions. Subsequent chapters discuss particulate matter from engines and coal-fired power plants as a major pollutant, as well as emission control techniques using various after treatment systems. The book’s final chapter considers future perspectives and a way forward for sustainable development. It also discusses several emission control techniques that will gain relevance in the future, when stricter emission norms will be enforced for international combustion (IC) engines as well as power plants. Given its breadth of coverage, the book will benefit a wide variety of readers, including researchers, professionals, and policymakers.