Search results for: evidentiality-in-german

Evidentiality in German

Author : Gabriele Diewald
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This book is a comprehensive study of the evidential system in German. It presents a systematic description of the encoding of evidentiality in present-day German, as well as a diachronic reconstruction of the relevant sources and paths of grammaticalization from the Old High German period onwards. Based on empirical corpus research, the study investigates the degree of grammaticalization of each single evidential construction and the make-up of the present-day system as well as the diachronic stages that lead to the present state. The book focuses on three main issues. First, it is concerned with the general notion of evidentiality, its deictic character, and with the interrelations between the domains of evidentiality and epistemic modality. Second, the book presents the results of the synchronic corpus-based analysis of the German evidential periphrastic constructions werden 'become' + infinitive, scheinen 'seem', drohen 'threaten', versprechen 'promise' + zu 'to'- infinitive, which constitute a paradigm for coding evidentiality in Present Day German. Third, the diachronic development of the evidential constructions is represented as a complex grammaticalization process, interacting with the development of modal constructions and leading to a highly differentiated category of modal and evidential distinctions in the grammar of German.

Evidentiality in German

Author : Gabriele Diewald
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The book is a comprehensive study of the evidential system in German. It focuses on the constructions scheinen seem, drohen threaten, versprechen promise + zu-infinitive, and werden become + infinitive. The main idea is that with the diachronic development of these constructions we are witnessing the genesis of a new grammatical category in German."

Evidentiality and Perception Verbs in English and German

Author : Richard J. Whitt
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Evidentiality, the linguistic encoding of a speaker's or writer's evidence for an asserted proposition, has begun to receive serious attention from linguists only in the last quarter century. Much of this attention has focused on languages that encode evidentiality in the grammar, while much less interest has been shown in languages that express evidentiality through means other than inflectional morphology. In English and German, for instance, the verbs of perception - those verbs denoting sight, sound, touch, smell, and taste - are prime carriers of evidential meaning. This study surveys the most prominent of the perception verbs in English and German across all five sensory modalities and accounts for the range of evidential meanings by examining the general polysemy found among perception verbs, as well as the specific complementation patterns in which these verbs occur.

Linguistic Realization of Evidentiality in European Languages

Author : Gabriele Diewald
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The book offers the first collection of papers which explicitly deal with the linguistic realization of evidentiality in European languages. The contributions summarize relevant previous research and develop new perspectives on the view of evidentiality. The scope of the papers ranges from broad overviews on areal and typological issues to in-depth studies of evidential expressions in particular languages.

The Oxford Handbook of Evidentiality

Author : Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald
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This volume offers a thorough, systematic, and crosslinguistic account of evidentiality, the linguistic encoding of the source of information on which a statement is based. In some languages, the speaker always has to specify this source - for example whether they saw the event, heard it, inferred it based on visual evidence or common sense, or was told about it by someone else. While not all languages have obligatory marking of this type, every language has ways of referring to information source and associated epistemological meanings. The continuum of epistemological expressions covers a range of devices from the lexical means in familiar European languages and in many languages of Aboriginal Australia to the highly grammaticalized systems in Amazonia or North America. In this handbook, experts from a variety of fields explore topics such as the relationship between evidentials and epistemic modality, contact-induced changes in evidential systems, the acquisition of evidentials, and formal semantic theories of evidentiality. The book also contains detailed case studies of evidentiality in language families across the world, including Algonquian, Korean, Nakh-Dagestanian, Nambikwara, Turkic, Uralic, and Uto-Aztecan.

Linguistic Realization of Evidentiality in European Languages

Author : Gabriele Diewald
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This book presents a selection of contributions to the workshop "Linguistic realization of evidentiality in European languages", held at the 30th Annual Convention of the German Society of Linguistics in Bamberg (February 27-29, 2008), and additional papers, which have been especially commissioned for this volume. Its main focus lies on providing further empirical evidence about languages that have various - lexical as well as grammatical - evidential expressions. The papers in this volume will offer a cross-linguistic perspective on this topic as they deal with a number of different language families and languages: Romance languages (French, Spanish, Italian), Germanic languages (Dutch, German, English, Icelandic), Baltic and Slavic languages, Greek, Basque, and Turkish.

Evidentiality and Perception Verbs in English and German

Author : Richard Jason Whitt
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Evidentiality

Author : A. Iu Aikhenvald
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In some languages every statement must contain a specification of the type of evidence on which it is based: for example, whether the speaker saw it, or heard it, or inferred it from indirect evidence, or learnt it from someone else. This grammatical reference to information source is called 'evidentiality', and is one of the least described grammatical categories. Evidentiality systems differ in how complex they are: some distinguish just two terms (eyewitness and noneyewitness, or reported and everything else), while others have six or even more terms. Evidentiality is a category in its own right, and not a subcategory of epistemic or some other modality, nor of tense-aspect. Every language has some way of referring to the source of information, but not every language has grammatical evidentiality. In English expressions such as I guess, they say, I hear that, the alleged are not obligatory and do not constitute a grammatical system. Similar expressions in other languages may provide historical sources for evidentials. True evidentials, by contrast, form a grammatical system. In the North Arawak language Tariana an expression such as "the dog bit the man" must be augmented by a grammatical suffix indicating whether the event was seen, or heard, or assumed, or reported. This book provides the first exhaustive cross-linguistic typological study of how languages deal with the marking of information source. Examples are drawn from over 500 languages from all over the world, several of them based on the author's original fieldwork. Professor Aikhenvald also considers the role evidentiality plays in human cognition, and the ways in which evidentiality influences human perception of the world.. This is an important book on an intriguing subject. It will interest anthropologists, cognitive psychologists and philosophers, as well as linguists.

Evidentiality Revisited

Author : Juana I. Marín Arrese
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Evidentiality Revisited focuses on semantic-pragmatic based frameworks for the study of evidentials and evidential strategies in European languages (Dutch, English, French, German, Italian, Lithuanian, Portuguese, Russian and Spanish). The book also presents discourse-pragmatic studies, with special emphasis on the use of evidential and epistemic expressions as resources for stancetaking in discourse. The volume addresses issues such as the relationship between the conceptual domains of evidentiality and epistemic modality, the role of evidential and epistemic resources in modelling stancetaking, the expression of speaker commitment to the validity status of the information, and the discourse-pragmatic variation of evidentiality and epistemic modality in discourse domains and genres. The volume offers a collection of contributions in which cross-linguistic studies and corpus-based studies contribute to provide further insights into a usage-based account of linguistic reality.

Tense Aspect Modality and Evidentiality

Author : Dalila Ayoun
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After an introductory chapter that provides an overview to theoretical issues in tense, aspect, modality and evidentiality, this volume presents a variety of original contributions that are firmly empirically-grounded based on elicited or corpus data, while adopting different theoretical frameworks. Thus, some chapters rely on large diachronic corpora and provide new qualitative insight on the evolution of TAM systems through quantitative methods, while others carry out a collostructional analysis of past-tensed verbs using inferential statistics to explore the lexical grammar of verbs. A common goal is to uncover semantic regularities and variation in the TAM systems of the languages under study by taking a close look at context. Such a fine-grained approach contributes to our understanding of the TAM systems from a typological perspective. The focus on well-known Indo-European languages (e.g. French, German, English, Spanish) and also on less commonly studied languages (e.g. Hungarian, Estonian, Avar, Andi, Tagalog) provides a valuable cross-linguistic perspective.

Current Trends in Diachronic Semantics and Pragmatics

Author : Maj-Britt Mosegaard Hansen
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Focuses on semantic and pragmatic change, its causes and mechanisms. This work gathers the papers that offer studies of language-specific cases of meaning change in particular notional domains. It includes case-studies covering central semantic domains such as concession, evidentiality, modality, negation, scalarity, subjectivity, and temporality.

Evidence for Evidentiality

Author : Ad Foolen
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Statements are always under the threat of the potential counter-question How do you know? To pre-empt this question, language users often indicate what kind of access they had to the communicated content: Their own perception, inference from other information, ‘hearsay’, etc. Such expressions, grammatical or lexical, have been studied in recent years under the cover term of evidentiality research. The present volume contributes 11 new studies to this flourishing field, all exploring evidential phenomena in a range of languages (Dutch, Estonian, Finnish, French, German, Khalkha Mongolian, Spanish, Tibetan, Yurakaré), using a variety of methodologies. Evidential meaning is discussed in relation to other semantic dimensions, such as epistemic modality, semantic roles, commitment, quotative meaning, and tense. The volume is of interest to scholars and students who are interested in up-to-date methods and frameworks for studying evidential meaning and the various ways it is expressed in the languages of the world.

The Expression of Tense Aspect Modality and Evidentiality in Albert Camus s L tranger and Its Translations L tranger de Camus et ses traductions questions de temps d aspect de modalit et d videntialit TAME

Author : Eric Corre
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This book deals with the linguistic treatment of tense-aspect-modal-evidential (TAME) expressions in translations of the French novel L’Étranger by Albert Camus into sixteen languages. It is strongly empirical in spirit, and uses the method of contrastive linguistics and multilingual comparison through the use of parallel corpora. It has five main parts: the first two offer insights into perfect and imperfect tenses in Indo-European languages; the third part shifts the focus on non Indo-European languages; the fourth part deals with modality, and the last part is more translation-oriented. These contents make this book a valuable contribution in semantic micro-typology. In terms of readership, both linguists and specialists in translation, as well as literature scholars, can benefit from the contributions presented in this book. It also relates to other usage-based, corpus-driven studies of TAME phenomena, and to monographs that take as their object of study the use of corpus linguistics in translation studies.

The Grammaticalization of Tense Aspect Modality and Evidentiality

Author : Kees Hengeveld
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This book brings together a series of contributions to the study of grammaticalization of tense, aspect, and modality from a functional perspective. All contributions share the aim to uncover the functional motivations behind the processes of grammaticalization under discussion, but they do so from different points of view.

Evidentiality and Epistemic Modality in Spanish Semi Auxiliaries

Author : Bert Cornillie
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This volume presents a systematic and comprehensive analysis of the Spanish evidential semi-auxiliaries parecer and resultar, the modal constructions with amenazar and prometer, and the modal auxiliaries poder, deber and tener que. These verbs have never been considered together in a global approach that transcends the classical "verbal periphrases" model. The book proposes a cognitive-functional account of evidentiality and modality in Spanish with special attention to subjectivity and grounding. The theoretical reflection relies on empirical evidence of two sorts: synchronic and diachronic corpus-analyses alternate with tests that measure the semantic and pragmatic compatibility of the evidential and epistemic constructions with specific sentences. Following the assumption that linguistic forms are determined by their meaning, the array of constructions that characterizes the different verbs justifies their grouping in three pairs of (semi-)auxiliaries: parecer vs resultar, amenazar vs prometer and poder vs deber/tener que. The distributional differences observed in the corpus are further shown to correlate with different degrees of grammaticalization. Primarily intended for scholars working in the field of Spanish functional linguistics, the monograph is also relevant for grammaticalization studies and for cognitive-semantic research at large. Given its combined theoretical and applied character, the volume is also of interest to anyone concerned with syntactic processes, lexical semantics or the wider area of discourse analysis and pragmatics.

Modalit t und Modalverben im Deutschen

Author : Reimar Müller
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Inhalt: WERNER ABRAHAN: Modals: toward explaining the, epistemic non-finiteness gap' KATRIN AXEL: Althochdeutsche Modalverben als Anhebungsverben ULRIKE DEMSKE: Zur Distribution von Infinitivkomplementen im Althochdeutschen GABRIELE DIEWALD: Scheinen-Probleme: Analogie, Konstruktionsmischung und die Sogwirkung aktiver Grammatikalisierungskanäle SERGE DOITCHINOV: 'Es kann sein, daß der Junge ins Haus gegangen ist.' Zum Erstspracherwerb von können in epistemischer Lesart JOHN DURBIN, REX A. SPROUSE: The syntactic category of the preterite-present modal verbs in German VERONIKA EHRICH: Was nicht müssen und nicht können (nicht) bedeuten können: Zum Skopus der Negation bei den Modalverben des Deutschen THOMAS GLONING: Gebrauchsweisen von Modalverben und Texttraditionen FERDINAND DE HAAN: The relation between modality and evidentiality DANIEL HOLL: Was ist modal an Modalen Infinitiven? REIMAR MÜLLER: Modalverben, Infinitheit und Negation im Prosa-Lancelot DORIS PENKA, ARNIM VON STECHOW: Negative Indefinita unter Modalverben MARGA REIS: Bilden Modalverben im Deutschen eine syntaktische Klasse?

Parentheticals in Spoken English

Author : Nicole Dehé
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Taking both an empirical and a theoretical view of the prosodic phrasing of parentheticals in English, this book reviews the syntactic and prosodic literature on parentheticals along with relevant theoretical work at the syntax-prosody interface. It offers a detailed prosodic analysis of six types of parentheticals - full parenthetical clauses, non-restrictive relative clauses, nominal appositions, comment clauses, reporting verbs, and question tags, all taken from the spoken part of the British Component of the International Corpus of English. To date, the common assumption is that, by default, parentheticals are prosodically phrased separately, an assumption which, as this study shows, is not always in line with the predictions made by current prosodic theory. The present study provides new empirical evidence for the prosodic phrasing of parentheticals in spontaneous and semi-spontaneous spoken English, and offers new implications for a theory of linguistic interfaces.

The Grammaticalization of Tense Aspect Modality and Evidentiality

Author : Kees Hengeveld
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This book brings together a series of contributions to the study of grammaticalization of tense, aspect, and modality from a functional perspective. All contributions share the aim to uncover the functional motivations behind the processes of grammaticalization under discussion, but they do so from different points of view.

Space in Tense

Author : Kyung-Sook Chung
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This monograph explores the tense, aspect, mood, and evidentiality of Korean, which has a rich verbal inflectional system, and proposes novel treatments within the framework of compositional semantics. One of the major contributions is the demonstration that Korean has two types of deictic tense—simple deictic and spatial deictic tense. Spatial deictic tense refers to the notion of the speaker’s ‘perceptual field’ (or deictic range), as well as to temporality, functioning to set up a condition for a systematic evidential distinction. The research in this volume shows that the basic paradigm of evidentiality of Korean derives from the standard TMA system combined with the notion of space. This volume also shows that perfect and past tense utilize different primitives. The intended readership of this volume extends beyond Koreanists to scholars interested specifically in tense, mood, aspect, and evidentiality as well as in general theories of grammar and semantics-pragmatics.

The Grammar of Multilingualism

Author : Artemis Alexiadou
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This volume investigates the nature of grammatical representations in speakers who master multiple languages. Since the early days of modern formal approaches to grammar, most work has been based on the language of monolingual humans. Less work has been conducted based on data from speakers who possess more than one language. Although important insights have been gained from a monolingual focus, there is every reason to believe that bi- and multilingual data can inform linguistic theory. A lot of ongoing work demonstrates that this is indeed the case, and the current volume contributes to this growing literature. Thus, the research topic addresses a number of questions relating to grammatical structures in multilingual speakers as well as the methodological issues that arise in the context of studying such speakers. A better understanding of the grammatical sides of multilingualism is crucial for understanding the human language capacity and in turn for offering better advice to the public concerning issues of language choice for multilingual children and adults, education, and language deficits in multilingual individuals.