Search Results for "evolution-a-developmental-approach"

Evolution

Evolution

A Developmental Approach

  • Author: Wallace Arthur
  • Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
  • ISBN: 9781444392265
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 416
  • View: 5070
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This book is aimed at students taking courses on evolution in universities and colleges. Its approach and its structure are very different from previously-published evolution texts. The core theme in this book is how evolution works by changing the course of embryonic and post-embryonic development. In other words, it is an evolution text that has been very much influenced by the new approach of evolutionary developmental biology, or 'evo-devo'. Key themes include the following: developmental repatterning; adaptation and coadaptation; gene co-option; developmental plasticity; the origins of evolutionary novelties and body plans; and evolutionary changes in the complexity of organisms. As can be seen from this list, the book includes information across the levels of the gene, the organism, and the population. It also includes the issue of mapping developmental changes onto evolutionary trees. The examples used to illustrate particular points range widely, including animals, plants and fossils. "I have really enjoyed reading this book. One of the strengths of the book is the almost conversational style. I found the style easy to read, but also feel that it will be invaluable in teaching. One of our tasks in university level teaching is to develop students' critical thinking skills. We need to support them in their intellectual development from a "just the facts" approach to being able to make critical judgements based on available evidence. The openness and honesty with which Arthur speaks to uncertainty in science is refreshing and will be a baseline for discussions with students." -Professor Patricia Moore, Exeter University "This book, written as an undergraduate text, is a really most impressive book. Given the burgeoning interest in the role of developmental change in evolution in recent times, this will be a very timely publication. The book is well structured and, like the author's other books, very well written. He communicates with a clear, lucid style and has the ability to explain even the more difficult concepts in an accessible manner." ---Professor Kenneth McNamara, University of Cambridge The companion site can be found at www.wiley.com/go/arthur/evolution. Here you download all figures from the book, captions, tables, and table of contents.

Evolution of Nervous Systems

Evolution of Nervous Systems

  • Author: N.A
  • Publisher: Academic Press
  • ISBN: 0128040963
  • Category: Medical
  • Page: 2007
  • View: 5339
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Evolution of Nervous Systems, Second Edition is a unique, major reference which offers the gold standard for those interested both in evolution and nervous systems. All biology only makes sense when seen in the light of evolution, and this is especially true for the nervous system. All animals have nervous systems that mediate their behaviors, many of them species specific, yet these nervous systems all evolved from the simple nervous system of a common ancestor. To understand these nervous systems, we need to know how they vary and how this variation emerged in evolution. In the first edition of this important reference work, over 100 distinguished neuroscientists assembled the current state-of-the-art knowledge on how nervous systems have evolved throughout the animal kingdom. This second edition remains rich in detail and broad in scope, outlining the changes in brain and nervous system organization that occurred from the first invertebrates and vertebrates, to present day fishes, reptiles, birds, mammals, and especially primates, including humans. The book also includes wholly new content, fully updating the chapters in the previous edition and offering brand new content on current developments in the field. Each of the volumes has been carefully restructured to offer expanded coverage of non-mammalian taxa, mammals, primates, and the human nervous system. The basic principles of brain evolution are discussed, as are mechanisms of change. The reader can select from chapters on highly specific topics or those that provide an overview of current thinking and approaches, making this an indispensable work for students and researchers alike. Presents a broad range of topics, ranging from genetic control of development in invertebrates, to human cognition, offering a one-stop resource for the evolution of nervous systems throughout the animal kingdom Incorporates the expertise of over 100 outstanding investigators who provide their conclusions in the context of the latest experimental results Presents areas of disagreement and consensus views that provide a holistic view of the subjects under discussion

Mutation-Driven Evolution

Mutation-Driven Evolution

  • Author: Masatoshi Nei
  • Publisher: OUP Oxford
  • ISBN: 0191637823
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 256
  • View: 4245
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The purpose of this book is to present a new mechanistic theory of mutation-driven evolution based on recent advances in genomics and evolutionary developmental biology. The theory asserts, perhaps somewhat controversially, that the driving force behind evolution is mutation, with natural selection being of only secondary importance. The word 'mutation' is used to describe any kind of change in DNA such as nucleotide substitution, gene duplication/deletion, chromosomal change, and genome duplication. A brief history of the principal evolutionary theories (Darwinism, mutationism, neo-Darwinism, and neo-mutationism) that preceded the theory of mutation-driven evolution is also presented in the context of the last 150 years of research. However, the core of the book is concerned with recent studies of genomics and the molecular basis of phenotypic evolution, and their relevance to mutation-driven evolution. In contrast to neo-Darwinism, mutation-driven evolution is capable of explaining real examples of evolution such as the evolution of olfactory receptors, sex-determination in animals, and the general scheme of hybrid sterility. In this sense the theory proposed is more realistic than its predecessors, and gives a more logical explanation of various evolutionary events. Mutation-Driven Evolution is suitable for graduate level students as well as professional researchers (both empiricists and theoreticians) in the fields of molecular evolution and population genetics. It assumes that the readers are acquainted with basic knowledge of genetics and molecular biology.

Linguistics and Evolution

Linguistics and Evolution

A Developmental Approach

  • Author: Julie Tetel Andresen,Julie Tetel
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN: 1107042240
  • Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
  • Page: 316
  • View: 3348
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Linguistics and Evolution offers readers the first rethinking of an introductory approach to linguistics since Leonard Bloomfield's 1933 Language.

Developmental Plasticity and Evolution

Developmental Plasticity and Evolution

  • Author: Mary Jane West-Eberhard
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press
  • ISBN: 0199880735
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 816
  • View: 8694
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The first comprehensive synthesis on development and evolution: it applies to all aspects of development, at all levels of organization and in all organisms, taking advantage of modern findings on behavior, genetics, endocrinology, molecular biology, evolutionary theory and phylogenetics to show the connections between developmental mechanisms and evolutionary change. This book solves key problems that have impeded a definitive synthesis in the past. It uses new concepts and specific examples to show how to relate environmentally sensitive development to the genetic theory of adaptive evolution and to explain major patterns of change. In this book development includes not only embryology and the ontogeny of morphology, sometimes portrayed inadequately as governed by "regulatory genes," but also behavioral development and physiological adaptation, where plasticity is mediated by genetically complex mechanisms like hormones and learning. The book shows how the universal qualities of phenotypes--modular organization and plasticity--facilitate both integration and change. Here you will learn why it is wrong to describe organisms as genetically programmed; why environmental induction is likely to be more important in evolution than random mutation; and why it is crucial to consider both selection and developmental mechanism in explanations of adaptive evolution. This book satisfies the need for a truly general book on development, plasticity and evolution that applies to living organisms in all of their life stages and environments. Using an immense compendium of examples on many kinds of organisms, from viruses and bacteria to higher plants and animals, it shows how the phenotype is reorganized during evolution to produce novelties, and how alternative phenotypes occupy a pivotal role as a phase of evolution that fosters diversification and speeds change. The arguments of this book call for a new view of the major themes of evolutionary biology, as shown in chapters on gradualism, homology, environmental induction, speciation, radiation, macroevolution, punctuation, and the maintenance of sex. No other treatment of development and evolution since Darwin's offers such a comprehensive and critical discussion of the relevant issues. Developmental Plasticity and Evolution is designed for biologists interested in the development and evolution of behavior, life-history patterns, ecology, physiology, morphology and speciation. It will also appeal to evolutionary paleontologists, anthropologists, psychologists, and teachers of general biology.

Ecology of Lianas

Ecology of Lianas

  • Author: Stefan Schnitzer,Frans Bongers,Robyn J. Burnham,Francis E. Putz
  • Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
  • ISBN: 1118392485
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 504
  • View: 2039
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Lianas are woody vines that were the focus of intense study byearly ecologists, such as Darwin, who devoted an entire book to thenatural history of climbing plants. Over the past quartercentury, there has been a resurgence in the study of lianas, andliana are again recognized as important components of many forests,particularly in the tropics. The increasing amount ofresearch on lianas has resulted in a fundamentally deeperunderstanding of liana ecology, evolution, and life-history, aswell as the myriad roles lianas play in forest dynamics andfunctioning. This book provides insight into the ecology and evolution oflianas, their anatomy, physiology, and natural history, theirglobal abundance and distribution, and their wide-ranging effectson the myriad organisms that inhabit tropical and temperateforests.

Developmental Genetics and Plant Evolution

Developmental Genetics and Plant Evolution

  • Author: Quentin C.B. Cronk,Richard M. Bateman,Julie A. Hawkins
  • Publisher: CRC Press
  • ISBN: 9781420024982
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 543
  • View: 3968
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A benchmark text, Developmental Genetics and Plant Evolution integrates the recent revolution in the molecular-developmental genetics of plants with mainstream evolutionary thought. It reflects the increasing cooperation between strongly genomics-influenced researchers, with their strong grasp of technology, and evolutionary morphogenetists and systematists who are more deeply rooted in comparative biology and patterns of plant evolution. The book discusses our increasing understanding of gene function and expression, along with modern phylogenies. It integrates morphological and molecular data to highlight specific key transitions in plant evolution that warrant additional intensive study. Furthermore, it explores increasing knowledge of the physical expression of plant development from disciplines such as anatomy and paleobotany. Rather than focus on the technical aspects of plant genomics, this book provides genuinely integrated explanations of plant evolution. The distinguished panel of contributors has succeeded in capturing a demanding subject in an accessible volume for a wide range of professional botanists and students in developmental biology, applied molecular biology, molecular evolution, morphogenesis, organismal botany, and theoretical systematics.

Social Development

Social Development

The Developmental Perspective in Social Welfare

  • Author: James Midgley
  • Publisher: SAGE
  • ISBN: 1446265641
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 208
  • View: 2997
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The social development approach seeks to integrate economic and social policies within a dynamic development process in order to achieve social welfare objectives. This first comprehensive textbook on the subject demonstrates that social development offers critically significant insights for the developed as well as the developing world. James Midgley describes the social development approach, traces its origins in developing countries, reviews theoretical issues in the field and analyzes different strategies in social development. By adding the developmental dimension, social development is shown to transcend the dichotomy between the residualist approach, which concentrates on targeting resources to the most needy, and the institutional approach which urges extensive state involvement in welfare.

Developmental Approaches to Human Evolution

Developmental Approaches to Human Evolution

  • Author: Julia C. Boughner,Campbell Rolian
  • Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
  • ISBN: 1118524748
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 344
  • View: 8535
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Developmental Approaches to Human Evolution encapsulates the current state of evolutionary developmental anthropology. This emerging scientific field applies tools and approaches from modern developmental biology to understand the role of genetic and developmental processes in driving morphological and cognitive evolution in humans, non-human primates and in the laboratory organisms used to model these changes. Featuring contributions from well-established pioneers and emerging leaders, this volume is designed to build research momentum and catalyze future innovation in this burgeoning field. The book’s broad research scope encompasses soft and hard tissues of the head and body, including the skeleton, special senses and the brain. Developmental Approaches to Human Evolution is an invaluable resource on the mechanisms of primate and vertebrate evolution for scholars across a wide array of intersecting disciplines, including primatology, paleoanthropology, vertebrate morphology, evolutionary developmental biology and health sciences.

Integrating Evolution and Development

Integrating Evolution and Development

From Theory to Practice

  • Author: Roger Sansom,Robert N. Brandon
  • Publisher: MIT Press
  • ISBN: 0262693534
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 334
  • View: 8645
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The chapters in 'Intergrating Evolution and Development not only make a cse for the importance of developmental synthesis, they also make significant contributions to this fast-growing field of study.