Search results for: facilitating-conceptual-change-in-students-understanding-of-the-periodic-table

Facilitating Conceptual Change in Students Understanding of the Periodic Table

Author : Mansoor Niaz
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This book is about how students are taught the periodic table. It reviews aspects of the periodic table’s development, using the history and philosophy of science. The teaching method presented in this book is ideal for teaching the subject in high school and at introductory university level. Chemistry students taught in this new, experimental way are compared with those taught in the traditional way and the author describes how tests found more conceptual responses from the experimental group than the control group. The historical aspects of importance to this teaching method are: the role of the Karlsruhe Congress of 1860; the accommodation of the chemical elements in the periodic table; prediction of elements that were discovered later; corrections of atomic weights; periodicity in the periodic table as a function of the atomic theory; and the accommodation of argon. The experimental group of students participated in various activities, including: discussion of various aspects related to the history and philosophy of science; construction of concept maps and their evaluation by the students; PowerPoint presentations; and interviews with volunteer students.

Computational Education and Materials Science Aspects

Author : Ponnadurai Ramasami
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Chapters collected from "The Virtual Conference on Chemistry and its Applications (VCCA-2021) – Research and Innovations in Chemical Sciences: Paving the Way Forward". This conference was held in August 2021 and organized by the Computational Chemistry Group of the University of Mauritius. These peer-reviewed chapters offer insights into research on fundamental and applied chemistry with interdisciplinary subject matter.

Students Understanding of Research Methodology in the Context of Dynamics of Scientific Progress

Author : Mansoor Niaz
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This book discusses how to improve high school students’ understanding of research methodology based on alternative interpretations of data, role of controversies, creativity and the scientific method, in the context of the oil drop experiment. These aspects form an important part of the nature of science (NOS). The study reported in this volume is is based on a reflective, explicit and activity-based approach to teaching nature of science (NOS) that can facilitate high school students’ understanding of how scientists elaborate theoretical frameworks, design experiments, report data that leads to controversies and finally with the collaboration of the scientific community a consensus is reached. Most students changed their perspective and drew concept maps in which they emphasized the creative, accumulative, controversial nature of science and the scientific method.

Chemistry Education and Contributions from History and Philosophy of Science

Author : Mansoor Niaz
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This book explores the relationship between the content of chemistry education and the history and philosophy of science (HPS) framework that underlies such education. It discusses the need to present an image that reflects how chemistry developed and progresses. It proposes that chemistry should be taught the way it is practiced by chemists: as a human enterprise, at the interface of scientific practice and HPS. Finally, it sets out to convince teachers to go beyond the traditional classroom practice and explore new teaching strategies. The importance of HPS has been recognized for the science curriculum since the middle of the 20th century. The need for teaching chemistry within a historical context is not difficult to understand as HPS is not far below the surface in any science classroom. A review of the literature shows that the traditional chemistry classroom, curricula, and textbooks while dealing with concepts such as law, theory, model, explanation, hypothesis, observation, evidence and idealization, generally ignore elements of the history and philosophy of science. This book proposes that the conceptual understanding of chemistry requires knowledge and understanding of the history and philosophy of science. “Professor Niaz’s book is most welcome, coming at a time when there is an urgently felt need to upgrade the teaching of science. The book is a huge aid for adding to the usual way - presenting science as a series of mere facts - also the necessary mandate: to show how science is done, and how science, through its history and philosophy, is part of the cultural development of humanity.” Gerald Holton, Mallinckrodt Professor of Physics & Professor of History of Science, Harvard University “In this stimulating and sophisticated blend of history of chemistry, philosophy of science, and science pedagogy, Professor Mansoor Niaz has succeeded in offering a promising new approach to the teaching of fundamental ideas in chemistry. Historians and philosophers of chemistry --- and above all, chemistry teachers --- will find this book full of valuable and highly usable new ideas” Alan Rocke, Case Western Reserve University “This book artfully connects chemistry and chemistry education to the human context in which chemical science is practiced and the historical and philosophical background that illuminates that practice. Mansoor Niaz deftly weaves together historical episodes in the quest for scientific knowledge with the psychology of learning and philosophical reflections on the nature of scientific knowledge and method. The result is a compelling case for historically and philosophically informed science education. Highly recommended!” Harvey Siegel, University of Miami “Books that analyze the philosophy and history of science in Chemistry are quite rare. ‘Chemistry Education and Contributions from History and Philosophy of Science’ by Mansoor Niaz is one of the rare books on the history and philosophy of chemistry and their importance in teaching this science. The book goes through all the main concepts of chemistry, and analyzes the historical and philosophical developments as well as their reflections in textbooks. Closest to my heart is Chapter 6, which is devoted to the chemical bond, the glue that holds together all matter in our earth. The chapter emphasizes the revolutionary impact of the concept of the ‘covalent bond’ on the chemical community and the great novelty of the idea that was conceived 11 years before quantum mechanics was able to offer the mechanism of electron pairing and covalent bonding. The author goes then to describe the emergence of two rival theories that explained the nature of the chemical bond in terms of quantum mechanics; these are valence bond (VB) and molecular orbital (MO) theories. He emphasizes the importance of having rival theories and interpretations in science and its advancement. He further argues that this VB-MO rivalry is still alive and together the two conceptual frames serve as the tool kit for thinking and doing chemistry in creative manners. The author surveys chemistry textbooks in the light of the how the books preserve or not the balance between the two theories in describing various chemical phenomena. This Talmudic approach of conceptual tension is a universal characteristic of any branch of evolving wisdom. As such, Mansoor’s book would be of great utility for chemistry teachers to examine how can they become more effective teachers by recognizing the importance of conceptual tension”. Sason Shaik Saeree K. and Louis P. Fiedler Chair in Chemistry Director, The Lise Meitner-Minerva Center for Computational Quantum Chemistry, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, ISRAEL

Feyerabend s Epistemological Anarchism

Author : Mansoor Niaz
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This book argues that the traditional image of Feyerabend is erroneous and that, contrary to common belief, he was a great admirer of science. It shows how Feyerabend presented a vision of science that represented how science really works. Besides giving a theoretical framework based on Feyerabend ́s philosophy of science, the book offers criteria that can help readers to evaluate and understand research reported in important international science education journals, with respect to Feyerabend’s epistemological anarchism. The book includes an evaluation of general chemistry and physics textbooks. Most science curricula and textbooks provide the following advice to students: Do not allow theories in contradiction with observations, and all scientific theories must be formulated inductively based on experimental facts. Feyerabend questioned this widely prevalent premise of science education in most parts of the world, and in contrast gave the following advice: Scientists can accept a hypothesis despite experimental evidence to the contrary and scientific theories are not always consistent with all the experimental data. No wonder Feyerabend became a controversial philosopher and was considered to be against rationalism and anti-science. Recent research in philosophy of science, however, has shown that most of Feyerabend ́s philosophical ideas are in agreement with recent trends in the 21st century. Of the 120 articles from science education journals, evaluated in this book only 9% recognized that Feyerabend was presenting a plurality of perspectives based on how science really works. Furthermore, it has been shown that Feyerabend could even be considered as a perspectival realist. Among other aspects, Feyerabend emphasized that in order to look for breakthroughs in science one does not have to be complacent about the truth of the theories but rather has to look for opportunities to “break rules” or “violate categories.” Mansoor Niaz carefully analyses references to Feyerabend in the literature and displays the importance of Feyerabend’s philosophy in analyzing, historical episodes. Niaz shows through this remarkable book a deep understanding to the essence of science. - Calvin Kalman, Concordia University, Canada In this book Mansoor Niaz explores the antecedents, context and features of Feyerabend’s work and offers a more-nuanced understanding, then reviews and considers its reception in the science education and philosophy of science literature. This is a valuable contribution to scholarship about Feyerabend, with the potential to inform further research as well as science education practice.- David Geelan, Griffith University, Australia

From Science in the Making to Understanding the Nature of Science

Author : Mansoor Niaz
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The Nature of Science is highly topical among science teacher educators and researchers. Increasingly, it is a mandated topic in state curriculum documents. This book draws together recent research on Nature of Science studies within a historical and philosophical framework suitable for students and teacher educators. Traditional science curricula and textbooks present science as a finished product. Taking a different approach, this book provides a glimpse of “science in the making” — scientific practice imbued with arguments, controversies, and competition among rival theories and explanations. Teaching about “science in the making” is a rich source of motivating students to engage creatively with the science curriculum. Readers are introduced to “science in the making” through discussion and analysis of a wide range of historical episodes from the early 19th century to early 21st century. Recent cutting-edge research is presented to provide insight into the dynamics of scientific progress. More than 90 studies from major science education journals, related to nature of science are reviewed. A theoretical framework, field tested with in-service science teachers, is developed for moving from ‘science in the making’ to understanding the Nature of Science.

International Handbook of Research on Conceptual Change

Author : Stella Vosniadou
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The study of conceptual change traces its heritage to the notions of paradigm (networks of shared beliefs, concepts, practices) and paradigm shift made famous by Thomas Kuhn in his book, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Kuhn’s work was quickly linked to developmental psychology (how knowledge develops) and to science education (teaching big, new ideas). This book is the first comprehensive review of the conceptual change movement and of the impressive research it has spawned on how knowledge develops and can be taught in different content areas. Because of its interdisciplinary focus chapter authors were instructed to write in a manner comprehensible to researchers and students from different fields. The International Handbook of Research on Conceptual Change consists of twenty-seven chapters that clarify the nature of conceptual change research, describes its most important findings and demonstrates their importance for education. It is organized into six sections that include detailed discussions of key theoretical and methodological issues, the roots of conceptual change research in the philosophy and history of science, mechanisms of conceptual change, and learner characteristics. It also contains chapters that describe conceptual change research in the content areas such as physics, astronomy, biology, medicine and health, and history. A particular focus is given to students’ difficulties in learning more advanced and counter-intuitive concepts.

Perspectives on Conceptual Change

Author : Barbara J. Guzzetti
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Perspectives on Conceptual Change presents case study excerpts illustrating the influence on and processes of students' conceptual change, and analyses of these cases from multiple theoretical frameworks. Researchers in reading education have been investigating conceptual change and the effects of students' prior knowledge on their learning for more than a decade. During this time, this research had been changing from the general and cognitive--average effects of interventions on groups of students--to the specific and personal--individuals' reactions to and conceptual change with text structures. Studies in this area have begun to focus on the social, contextual, and affective influences on conceptual change. These studies have potential to be informed by other discourses. Hence, this book shows the results of sharing data--in the form of case study excerpts--with researchers representing varying perspectives of analyses. Instances of learning are examined from cross disciplinary views. Case study authors in turn respond to the case analyses. The result is a text that provides multiple insights into understanding the learning process and the conditions that impact learning.

Teaching Strategies A Guide to Effective Instruction

Author : Donald C. Orlich
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TEACHING STRATEGIES: A GUIDE TO EFFECTIVE INSTRUCTION, now in its eleventh edition, is known for its practical, applied help with commonly used classroom teaching strategies and tactics. Ideal for anyone studying education or involved in a site-based teacher education program, the book focuses on topics such as lesson planning, questioning, and small-group and cooperative-learning strategies. The new edition maintains the book's solid coverage, while incorporating new and expanded material on classroom technology integration, English Language Learner instruction, and proactive classroom management, as well as an up-to-date discussion of teaching students with disabilities and differentiated instruction. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

Innovating Science Teacher Education

Author : Mansoor Niaz
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How teachers view the nature of scientific knowledge is crucial to their understanding of science content and how it can be taught. This book presents an overview of the dynamics of scientific progress and its relationship to the history and philosophy of science, and then explores their methodological and educational implications and develops innovative strategies based on actual classroom practice for teaching topics such the nature of science, conceptual change, constructivism, qualitative-quantitative research, and the role of controversies, presuppositions, speculations, hypotheses, and predictions. Field-tested in science education courses, this book is designed to involve readers in critically thinking about the history and philosophy of science and to engage science educators in learning how to progressively introduce various aspects of ‘science-in-the-making’ in their classrooms, to promote discussions highlighting controversial historical episodes included in the science curriculum, and to expose their students to the controversies and encourage them to support, defend or critique the different interpretations. Innovating Science Teacher Education offers guidelines to go beyond traditional textbooks, curricula, and teaching methods and innovate with respect to science teacher education and classroom teaching.