Search results for: force-statecraft-and-german-unity-the-struggle-to-adapt-institutions-and-practices

Force Statecraft and German Unity

Author : Thomas-Durell Young
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The authors review German security and defense policy, reflecting on the past, present, and future of this issue. Unification of Germany as an empire and a republic at various times in its history is discussed. The process of diplomatic, strategic, and collective psychological readjustment as it affects Europe, and Germany in particular, is explored. The future of war and peace in Europe and security and defense policy as an expression of Germany's aspirations in the world system of nations is also discussed.

Force Statecraft and German Unity

Author : Thomas-Durell Young
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Force Statecraft and German Unity The Struggle to Adapt Institutions and Practices

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Force Statecraft and German Unity the Struggle to Adapt Institutions and Practices

Author : Thomas-Durell Young
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One can make two general observations concerning Bonn's ongoing attempt to adapt institutions and practices. First, confusion in German policy making is clearly a manifestation of officials largely navigating in a little-known policy milieu. Realpolitik, let alone Machtpolitik (either as mere terms, let alone as concepts) are neither freely used in "polite" political discord in Germany, nor widely contemplated. As a result of a wide-spread political culture governed by self-restraint, confronting difficult issues in their proper context has made decision making frequently complicated and confusing to outside observers. What we are presently witnessing is a learning period in German external policy making, with all of its attendant errors. It is an open question how long this educational process will last or if the German body politic is prepared for such straight forward discussion. Second, perturbations in policy formation are partly a result of Bonn's approach to foreign and security policies which remains exclusively defined and expressed by the German government in the context of the North Atlantic Alliance and the emerging European Security and Defense Identity. Indeed, there is no sizeable political bloc in the Federal Republic that argues otherwise. In consequence, there is no evidence that Bonn is prepared to consider adopting a national approach to national security. In sum, German statecraft has the unenviable task of legitimizing its new national status, not only before its allies and neighbors, but also before a skeptical German public. Given the history of statecraft in a unified Germany, this will surely be a difficult and potentially time- consuming process. To the Federal Republic's credit, one must recall that, unlike previous historical experiences, contemporary German democratic traditions and institutions are universally accepted in Germany, and they have been tested.

Nation States as Schizophrenics

Author : Roberta N. Haar
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The end of the Cold War gave rise to the expectation that Germany and Japan would increase their roles in the management of a secure international environment. However, neither country followed expectations, preferring instead to deny their strengths and withdraw themselves from political and economic realities.

Multinational Land Formations and NATO Reforming Practices and Structures

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Germany at Fifty five

Author : James Sperling
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Examining how the past has influenced current domestic and foreign policy in Germany, this book explores topics such as the unification of east and west, the founding of the Berlin and Bonn republics, the legacies of national socialism and how the unified Germany's political culture continues to evolve.

Naval War College Review

Author : Naval War College (U.S.)
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World Power Forsaken

Author : John Duffield
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What does German unification imply for international politics? Many commentators have speculated about how a united Germany will use its new found power and influence on the world stage, and for good reason. Because of its size, central location, and strong economy, Germany will inevitably exert considerable influence over developments in Europe, if not beyond. Drawing on interviews and other primary source materials, this comprehensive study examines in detail each of the central issues of Germany’s security policy since 1990: its promotion of political and economic reform in the former Soviet bloc, its efforts to maintain and strengthen European security institutions, the transformation of Germany’s armed forces, and its responses to international crises and conflicts, including the debate over German participation in foreign military actions. Rejecting claims that German policy is becoming nationalized and militarized, the author argues that Germany’s actions have in fact been characterized by considerable restraint and continuity with the past, notwithstanding its much greater potential freedom of action after the Cold War. In order to make sense of this record, the book presents a general framework of analysis that promises to be useful for explaining the security policies of a variety of states. It then shows how a variety of influences both in Germany’s external environment and within Germany itself have importantly shaped German security policy since unification. In sharp contrast to the realist approaches that have dominated security studies, the book highlights the roles played by international institutions and Germany’s distinct postwar political culture in molding German state behavior. In a final chapter, the author discusses the likely future course of German security policy and the implications of his analysis for the theoretical study of national security policy.

Security Culture in Times of War

Author : Frank Reimers
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This book uses a comparative case study approach to examine how security cultures change under the impact of political shocks and learning through failure. The book thus analyzes the security cultures of Germany and the United States as they evolve under the impact of the war in Bosnia-Herzegovina from 1992 to 1995. The thesis thereby also enhances our understanding of German and U.S. foreign policies. Using paired observations for controlled comparison, the thesis employs process tracing to examine the nature and quantity of change. The case studies demonstrate that security cultures influence the assessment of political situations, restrain policy objectives, and condition the range of issues to which political attention is devoted. Both cases reveal that security cultures affect the evaluation of policy options and the choices that are made. The thesis argues that different transformations of German and U.S. security cultures led to divergent political behavior particularly with regard to the use of force, resulting in more forceful and effective interventions in Bosnia and a reframing of future interventions in third-party conflicts. Domestic reactions to the Bosnian war transformed the security culture in Germany, whereas reactions in the U.S. triggered a re-ranking of cultural preferences. Understanding how security cultures change and evolve through exogenous and endogenous factors improves the chances of policy success in today's challenging international environment.

Poland Germany and State Power in Post Cold War Europe

Author : Stefan Szwed
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This book examines the post-Cold War Polish-German relationship and the puzzling rise of foreign and security policy differences between the two states during the 2000s. Through an investigation of four policy issues – NATO’s out-of-area mandate, European Constitution and the division of voting power in the Council, relations with Russia and the eastern neighbours, as well as EU energy policy – the author identifies the roots of their conflict in a structure of material, spatial and temporal asymmetries. Rather than treat them as currency, however, he explores the less conspicuous ways in which power is exercised and structure matters inside a community governed by shared rules and norms. In pursuing its research question, theoretical work, historical reconstructions and empirical analyses, the book combines security studies, transatlantic relations, European integration, and Polish and German politics with general theorizing and conceptual grounding in international relations and political science.

Who Guards the Guardians and How

Author : Thomas C. Bruneau
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The continued spread of democracy into the twenty-first century has seen two-thirds of the almost two hundred independent countries of the world adopting this model. In these newer democracies, one of the biggest challenges has been to establish the proper balance between the civilian and military sectors. A fundamental question of power must be addressed—who guards the guardians and how? In this volume of essays, contributors associated with the Center for Civil-Military Relations in Monterey, California, offer firsthand observations about civil-military relations in a broad range of regions including Latin America, Africa, Asia, and Eastern Europe. Despite diversity among the consolidating democracies of the world, their civil-military problems and solutions are similar—soldiers and statesmen must achieve a deeper understanding of one another, and be motivated to interact in a mutually beneficial way. The unifying theme of this collection is the creation and development of the institutions whereby democratically elected civilians achieve and exercise power over those who hold a monopoly on the use of force within a society, while ensuring that the state has sufficient and qualified armed forces to defend itself against internal and external aggressors. Although these essays address a wide variety of institutions and situations, they each stress a necessity for balance between democratic civilian control and military effectiveness.

Nuclear Policies in Europe

Author : Bruno Tertrais
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While international security has radically changed since 1989, nuclear weapons remain a subject of debate and contention. This paper provides an analytical framework for understanding post-Cold War Europe's strategic debates. It offers insights into Europe's national nuclear policies and perspectives. It examines the possible outcomes of current debates, and gives policy recommendations for managing the new nuclear debates faced by Europe, and by NATO.

NATO After Enlargement

Author : Stephen Blank
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In April 1999, NATO members will celebrate in Washington the 50th anniversary of the Washington Treaty and the founding of NATO. At that time they will enroll three new members: Poland, Hungary, and the Czech Republic, decide upon NATO.s new strategic concept, and raise issues connected with the possibility of further enlargement. In the wake of the Paris and Madrid conferences of 1997 that consummated agreements with Russia and Ukraine on their relationships with NATO and resolved to admit the three aforementioned states as members, NATO is moving forward to reshape the European security agenda. But, as in other situations, we may ask .Quo Vadis NATO?. and even more sharply make the same inquiry of individual members and of Russia. In fact, it is quite clear that, despite the American claim that enlargement is merely projecting stability eastward, it actually constitutes a radical transformation of the European agenda and of both U.S. and European history. And, as such, NATO enlargement raises a host of issues for future consideration. But nobody can say for sure where enlargement will lead, or, more importantly, how it will be enforced, though hopes for and prognostications of the ultimate point of arrival abound. Nor can we resolve with any certainty the myriad issues involved in extending NATO both in terms of its organizational scope and its future missions. That extension, particularly in terms of territory or geographical scope is immense in its implications, but the final outcome or resolution of all those issues necessarily remains unclear. That uncertainty is not surprising. It is commonly the case that major restructurings of international politics are undertaken by statesmen and politicians who have only a partial notion at best of where they hope go. As Napoleon would have said, .on s'engage et puis on voit,. (One commits himself and then sees where he is). Precisely because the process of NATO enlargement is itself such a transformation and raises probably more issues and questions than it answers, the Strategic Studies Institute undertook a conference in Washington on January 26, 1998, to begin the process of seeing where the United States and where NATO are going. The following chapters are the fruits of that conference, but obviously they can only deal with some of the issues. Questions like the Baltic littoral's future, the nature of peace operations in the future, or the emerging situation in Bosnia and, more recently, in Kossovo, are not specifically included. But many other fundamental issues have been addressed. Simon Serfaty addresses the larger issue of where European security institutions in general, i.e., not just NATO, but the European Union and its hoped-for Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) are going. Robert Dorff assesses trends in both American and European public opinion regarding issues raised by enlargement and possible future military contingencies. Stephen Blank probes the rival visions of America, Russia, and Europe concerning the future missions and roles of NATO and of these three sets of governments. Sherman Garnett and Rachel Lebenson analyze the complicated situation on Russia's Western frontier where Moldova, Belarus, and Ukraine all interact in a complex way with Russia and the members of NATO. Rachel Bronson and Glen Howard track the little-discussed but increasingly important strategic interaction of NATO and the United States with the Transcaucasian and Central Asia states. General Edward Atkeson (U.S. Army Retired) discusses issues of burdensharing among allies and the military implications of the Partnership for Peace program within the expanded NATO. And General Frederick Kroesen (U.S. Army Retired) raises the important question of how NATO actually should go about building a true military coalition.

European Security

Author : Stephen Blank
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European Security Washington s Shaping Strategy in Action

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Strategic Review

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... dedicated to the advancement and understanding of those principles and practices, military and political, which serve the vital security interests of the United States.

World Affairs

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Includes the Annual report of the American Peace Society.

Parameters

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Multinational Land Formations in NATO

Author : Thomas-Durell Young
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In yet another incisive and detailed work focused on the changing face of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, Dr. Thomas Young provided a unique perspective on a very timely issue.that of bi-/multi national land formations within the Alliance. I say timely because, with recent Council agreement on the new command structure, implementation work on this structure will no doubt, in due course, result in a review of the NATO force structure. In this regard, Dr. Young's research and study provide an invaluable source of essential background reading for this subsequent phase of work. The problems Dr. Young grapples with in this account have been exacerbated by a variety of evolving realities stemming from the new, post-Cold War security environment. Reduced national force structures, new NATO roles and missions emanating from the military implementation of Alliance Strategy and the rapid reaction requirements associated with the embryonic Combined Joint Task Forces (CJTF) Concept are but three of a multitude of inter-related issues which have driven the requirement to address NATO force structure requirements as a whole, as part of the ongoing internal adaptation of Alliance structures and procedures. Dr. Young's basic, underlying premise cannot be challenged.embedded in the 1991 Strategic Concept is the pre-eminence of Alliance cohesion and solidarity. One of the most visible manifestations of cohesion in a new NATO will continue to be the willingness of member nations to contribute elements of their respective force structures to the Alliance, commanded by joint and combined, multi-nationally manned allied headquarters. Neither can the essential, ongoing requirement for multi-national land formations be contested.now more than ever before. I distinctly remember the bold political decision of the early 1990's to transition from national to bi-national/multi-national corps within NATO. In Dr. Young's words: "As political manifestations of Alliance and European solidarity in an era of diminished force structure and strategic ambiguity, their creation at the end of the Cold War served a very important purpose." The reality is, as the author perceptively points out, that in the ensuing years, national force reductions, driven both by national expectations for the conclusions drawn from the evolving security environment with no direct threat to NATO and by the very tangible quotas imposed under the provisions of the Conventional Forces in Europe Treaty, have resulted in the fact that "may current national force structures are incapable of conducting unilateral corps-level operations." Hence, multi-national land formations are an essential component of NATO's future force structure and Dr. Young articulates three themes he sees as fundamental in making them more operationally effective.the empowerment of NATO corps commanders in peace, crisis and conflict, enhancing the operational effectiveness of the corps headquarters themselves and the rationalisation of overall roles, responsibilities and missions in light of the newly agreed command structure model which has no land component commands. With his usual insight, Dr. Young provides unique recommendations worthy of consideration by both NATO and NATO nations' planners. I should stress, however, that some of his recommendations clearly fall into the sole responsibility of nations, and no NATO authority would wish to infringe upon a nation's sovereign right to decide which forces a nation is prepared to contribute.