Search results for: forensic-facial-identification

Forensic Facial Identification

Author : Tim Valentine
File Size : 86.48 MB
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Forensic Facial Identification discusses the latest scientific and technical advancements in the field and their implications for practice in psychology, criminology, and law. Provides an up-to-date set of best practices for forensic facial identification Reviews current procedures for different facial identification methods and their reliability Covers eyewitness testimony, line-ups, facial composites, anthropological face reconstructions, CCTV images, and computerized automatic face recognition systems Incorporates case studies which put the latest research and technology in the proper legal context

Forensic Face Matching

Author : Markus Bindemann
File Size : 55.84 MB
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In everyday life we identify faces regularly and seemingly with great ease. One might assume this to be a straightforward and highly accurate task. However, we are poor at identifying the faces of unfamiliar people, who we have never met before, despite the fact that many important everyday tasks depend on this. Forensic face matching requires the comparison of two face photographs, of a person who is not known to the observer. This seemingly simple task is critical for a wide range of security tasks, such as person identification at airports and borders, passport issuance and renewal, and criminal identification in police investigations. Despite its ubiquity, face matching is highly prone to error, even under conditions that are designed to maximally facilitate this task. For this reason, face matching has been studied extensively in psychology, with the bulk of the research conducted since 2010. Forensic Face Matching provides readers with a wide-ranging, detailed, and critical overview of facial comparison and face matching, providing insights into its application, efficacy, and limitations in occupational settings, and of current scientific knowledge of this task.

Forensic Facial Identification by Image Comparison

Author : Kenneth A. Linge
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Applying Psychology to Forensic Facial Identification

Author : A. H. McIntyre
File Size : 60.28 MB
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Eyewitness recognition is acknowledged to be prone to error but there is less understanding of difficulty in discriminating unfamiliar faces. This thesis examined the effects of face perception on identification of facial composites, and on unfamiliar face image comparison. Facial composites depict face memories by reconstructing features and configurations to form a likeness. They are generally reconstructed from an unfamiliar face memory, and will be unavoidably flawed. Identification will require perception of any accurate features, by someone who is familiar with the suspect and performance is typically poor. In typical face perception, face images are processed efficiently as complete units of information. Chapter 2 explored the possibility that holistic processing of inaccurate composite configurations will impair identification of individual features. Composites were split below the eyes and misaligned to impair holistic analysis (cf. Young, Hellawell, & Jay, 1987); identification was significantly enhanced, indicating that perceptual expertise with inaccurate configurations exerts powerful effects that can be reduced by enabling featural analysis. Facial composite recognition is difficult, which means that perception and judgement will be influence by an affective recognition bias: smiles enhance perceived familiarity, while negative expressions produce the opposite effect. In applied use, facial composites are generally produced from unpleasant memories and will convey negative expression; affective bias will, therefore, be important for facial composite recognition. Chapter 3 explored the effect of positive expression on composite identification: composite expressions were enhanced, and positive affect significantly increased identification. Affective quality rather than expression strength mediated the effect, with subtle manipulations being very effective. Facial image comparison (FIC) involves discrimination of two or more face images. Accuracy in unfamiliar face matching is typically in the region of 70%, and as discrimination is difficult, may be influenced by affective bias. Chapter 4 explored the smiling face effect in unfamiliar face matching. When multiple items were compared, positive affect did not enhance performance and false positive identification increased. With a delayed matching procedure, identification was not enhanced but in contrast to face recognition and simultaneous matching, positive affect improved rejection of foil images. Distinctive faces are easier to discriminate. Chapter 5 evaluated a systematic caricature transformation as a means to increase distinctiveness and enhance discrimination of unfamiliar faces. Identification of matching face images did not improve, but successful rejection of non-matching items was significantly enhanced. Chapter 6 used face matching to explore the basis of own race bias in face perception. Other race faces were manipulated to show own race facial variation, and own race faces to show African American facial variation. When multiple face images were matched simultaneously, the transformation impaired performance for all of the images; but when images were individually matched, the transformation improved perception of other race faces and discrimination of own race faces declined. Transformation of Japanese faces to show own race dimensions produced the same pattern of effects but failed to reach significance. The results provide support for both perceptual expertise and featural processing theories of own race bias. Results are interpreted with reference to face perception theories; implications for application and future study are discussed.

Forensic Facial Identification

Author : Tim Valentine
File Size : 89.91 MB
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Forensic Facial Identification discusses the latest scientific and technical advancements in the field and their implications for practice in psychology, criminology, and law. Provides an up-to-date set of best practices for forensic facial identification Reviews current procedures for different facial identification methods and their reliability Covers eyewitness testimony, line-ups, facial composites, anthropological face reconstructions, CCTV images, and computerized automatic face recognition systems Incorporates case studies which put the latest research and technology in the proper legal context

Craniofacial Identification

Author : Caroline Wilkinson
File Size : 23.21 MB
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Draws together a wide range of elements relating to craniofacial analysis and identification, examining the latest advances in the field.

Forensic Facial Reconstruction

Author : Caroline Wilkinson
File Size : 90.73 MB
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Forensic facial reconstruction is the reproduction of an individual's face from skeletal remains. Used when other forms of identification are very difficult or impossible, it can give a name to the dead in forensic cases, or in archaeological contexts, provide a tangible impression of real individuals from our past. This comprehensive work starts with a discussion of the importance of the face in society and the history of facial reconstruction, going on to evaluate the accuracy of modern reconstruction methods. The Manchester method of facial reconstruction, and the relationships between the hard and soft tissues of the face are described in detail. Uniquely, it also describes the methods and problems associated with reconstructing the faces of children. Collating all published facial tissue data and describing tissue variations with reference to age, sex, stature and ethnic origin, this book will be an important reference volume for all practitioners in the field.

Computer Aided Forensic Facial Comparison

Author : Martin Paul Evison
File Size : 72.89 MB
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Countless facial images are generated everyday through digital and cell phone cameras, surveillance video systems, webcams, and traditional film and broadcast video. As a result, law enforcement and intelligence agencies have numerous opportunities to acquire and analyze images that depict persons of interest. Computer-Aided Forensic Facial Compari

Forensic Face Matching

Author : Markus Bindemann
File Size : 20.70 MB
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In everyday life we identify faces regularly and seemingly with great ease. One might assume this to be a straightforward and highly accurate task. However, we are poor at identifying the faces of unfamiliar people, who we have never met before, despite the fact that many important everyday tasks depend on this. Forensic face matching requires the comparison of two face photographs, of a person who is not known to the observer. This seemingly simple task is critical for a wide range of security tasks, such as person identification at airports and borders, passport issuance and renewal, and criminal identification in police investigations. Despite its ubiquity, face matching is highly prone to error, even under conditions that are designed to maximally facilitate this task. For this reason, face matching has been studied extensively in Psychology, with the bulk of the research conducted since 2010. 'Forensic face Matching' provides readers with a wide-ranging, detailed, and critical overview of facial comparison and face matching, providing insights into its application, efficacy, and limitations in occupational settings, and of current scientific knowledge of this task.

Facial Identification for Digital Forensic

Author : Hiba Al-Kawaz
File Size : 85.3 MB
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Forensic Art

Author : Jennifer MacKay
File Size : 58.13 MB
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Forensic artists are highly-trained specialists who creating composite drawings from witness descriptions and reconstruct crime scenes. This book explains the tools and techniques used by forensic artists, including facial reconstruction, image enhancement, and age progression. Students will be amazed by the skills of these artistic professionals and learn about the about the education needed for the job. Sidebars offer descriptions of unusual cases, and historical crime-solving breakthroughs.

Forensic Art Essentials

Author : Lois Gibson
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Forensic Art Essentials teaches artists to extract information from a witness or victim about a face they have seen, and produce an image good enough to lead detectives to the criminal being described. After reading this book, anyone with adequate drawing skills will be able to learn the tools necessary to develop his or her skills as a forensic artist. Instruction focuses on an explanation of techniques for various scenarios and includes the use of case studies of special situations and how they should be handled. The book covers skull reconstructions of unidentified murder victims and age progressions to aid in the apprehension of known fugitives. It also provides step-by-step illustrations of how to reconstruct a face from a skull, and offers solutions to a multitude of common problems that occur in the field. With 500 full-color illustrations, this book is an essential tool for any forensic artist. Provides insight as to the best way to responsibly interview and extract information from eye-witnesses and victims to develop accurate composite sketches 500 illustrations, many full color, show examples of various challenges in developing sketches and reconstructing from skulls Serves as a guide for forensic art professionals as well as a call to law enforcement agencies to expand the use of this valuable forensic tool

Composite Artistry Meets Facial Recognition Technology

Author : Tracy L. Montgomery
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Forensic art has been used for decades as a tool for law enforcement. When crime witnesses can provide a suspect description, an artist can create a composite drawing in hopes that a member of the public will recognize the subject. In cases where a suspect is captured on film, that photograph can be submitted into a facial recognition program for comparison with millions of possible matches, offering abundant opportunities to identify the suspect. Because composite images are reliant on a chance opportunity for a member of the public to see and recognize the subject depicted, they are unable to leverage the robust number of comparative opportunities associated with facial recognition programs. This research investigates the efficacy of combining composite forensic artistry with facial recognition technology to create a viable investigative tool to identify suspects, as well as better informing artists and program creators on how to improve the success of merging these technologies. This research ultimately reveals that while facial recognition programs can recognize composite renderings, they cannot achieve a level of accuracy that is useful to investigators. It also suggests opportunities to better design facial recognition programs to be more successful in the identification of composite images.

Craniofacial Identification in Forensic Medicine

Author : John G. Clement
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It is the appearance of the face that provides most people with information about a person's identity. Similarly, in forensic science it has long been recognised that the most useful methods of obtaining the identity of an individual, in the absence of fingerprints, rely on the characteristics of the human face, head and teeth. Post-mortem identification of skeletal remains depends heavily on dentition and the morphology of the skull. As a result, 'Craniofacial Identification in Forensic Medicine' considers the various methods of identification describing the ways in which such methods may be integrated with other approaches for establishing identity. Video superimposition, radiographic and photographic superimposition as well as computer and artist modelling of faces from facial remains has led to rapid improvement in the techniques available for human facial identification. This book considers these issues together with the legal, social and psychological implications of their use. The specialist areas covered will be of particular benefit to forensic pathologists, forensic odontologists, forensic anthropologists and other forensic scientists as well as lawyers and law enforcement personnel. The book will also serve as an invaluable source of reference to craniofacial surgeons, coroners (medical examiners), archaeologists and students from a wide range of medical, legal and scientific disciplines.

Scientific Evidence

Author : Paul C. Giannelli
File Size : 77.32 MB
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Creating Digital Faces for Law Enforcement

Author : Michael W. Streed
File Size : 60.56 MB
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Today, law enforcement requires actionable and real-time intelligence; 24 hours a day, seven days a week to help respond to cases efficiently. When evidence is lacking in a case, law enforcement officers are often times left to rely on eyewitness descriptions. In order to quickly disseminate facial composites to news outlets and social media, law enforcement needs to rely on every tool available; including traditional forensic artists and advanced facial composite software. Creating Digital Faces for Law Enforcement provides the proper foundation for obtaining key information needed to create effective facial composites. There are two main methods to create a facial composite, first through traditional forensic art techniques and second by using commercially developed facial composite software. Traditional forensic art has advanced from pen and paper to more enhanced digital tools. This text reviews the development of digital tools used by the forensic artist describing each tool in detail. Creating Digital Faces for Law Enforcement is the first text of its kind to address the creation of digital sketches for forensic artists and software-driven sketches for non-artist/technicians. A step-by-step guide addressing the creation of digital, software-driven, sketches for non-artist technicians Includes descriptions supported by both photographs and video demonstrations to assist the reader in better understanding the process Written by an internationally-recognized police sketch artist with over 35 years of experience A companion website page will host author created / narrated videos for reader access

South African Journal of Science

Author :
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Medicine Science and the Law

Author :
File Size : 53.62 MB
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Handbook of Biometrics for Forensic Science

Author : Massimo Tistarelli
File Size : 80.85 MB
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This comprehensive handbook addresses the sophisticated forensic threats and challenges that have arisen in the modern digital age, and reviews the new computing solutions that have been proposed to tackle them. These include identity-related scenarios which cannot be solved with traditional approaches, such as attacks on security systems and the identification of abnormal/dangerous behaviors from remote cameras. Features: provides an in-depth analysis of the state of the art, together with a broad review of the available technologies and their potential applications; discusses potential future developments in the adoption of advanced technologies for the automated or semi-automated analysis of forensic traces; presents a particular focus on the acquisition and processing of data from real-world forensic cases; offers an holistic perspective, integrating work from different research institutions and combining viewpoints from both biometric technologies and forensic science.

Mothers Who Murder

Author : Xanthe Mallett
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All of these women are notorious, but are all of them deadly? Child murder: A social taboo and one of the most abhorrent acts most of us can imagine. Meet the women found guilty of murdering their own children. They represent some of the most hated women in Australia. The infamous list includes psychologically damaged, sometimes deranged, women on the edge. But, as we will see, accused doesn’t always mean guilty. Among the cases covered is that of Kathleen Folbigg, accused and found guilty of killing four of her children, even with a lack of any forensic evidence proving her guilt; Rachel Pfitzner, who strangled her 2-year-old son and dumped his body in a duck pond; as well as Keli Lane, found guilty of child murder though no body has ever been found. Dr Mallett goes back to the beginning of each case; death’s ground zero. That might be the accused’s childhood, were they abused? Or was their motivation greed, or fear of losing a partner? Were they just simply evil? Or did the media paint them as such, against the evidence and leading to a travesty of justice. Each case will be re-opened, the alternative suspects assessed, the possible motives reviewed. Informed by her background as a forensic scientist, Xanthe offers insight into aspects of the cases that may not have been explored previously. Taking you on her journey through the facts, and reaching her own conclusion as to whether she believe the evidence points to the women’s guilt. Hear their stories.