Search results for: genomic-designing-for-abiotic-stress-resistant-cereal-crops

Genomic Designing for Biotic Stress Resistant Cereal Crops

Author : Chittaranjan Kole
File Size : 80.54 MB
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This book presents deliberations on molecular and genomic mechanisms underlying the interactions of crop plants to the biotic stresses caused by different diseases and pests that are important to develop resistant crop varieties. Knowledge on the advanced genetic and genomic crop improvement strategies including molecular breeding, transgenics, genomic-assisted breeding, and the recently emerging genome editing for developing resistant varieties in cereal crops is imperative for addressing FHNEE (food, health, nutrition, energy, and environment) security. Whole genome sequencing of these crops followed by genotyping-by-sequencing has provided precise information regarding the genes conferring resistance useful for gene discovery, allele mining, and shuttle breeding which in turn opened up the scope for 'designing' crop genomes with resistance to biotic stresses. The eight chapters each dedicated to a cereal crop in this volume elucidate on different types of biotic stresses and their effects on and interaction with the crop; enumerate on the available genetic diversity with regard to biotic stress resistance among available cultivars; illuminate on the potential gene pools for utilization in interspecific gene transfer; present brief on classical genetics of stress resistance and traditional breeding for transferring them to their cultivated counterparts; depict the success stories of genetic engineering for developing biotic stress-resistant crop varieties; discuss on molecular mapping of genes and QTLs underlying stress resistance and their marker-assisted introgression into elite varieties; enunciate on different genomics-aided techniques including genomic selection, allele mining, gene discovery, and gene pyramiding for developing adaptive crop varieties with higher quantity and quality of yields, and also elaborate some case studies on genome editing focusing on specific genes for generating biotic stress-resistant crops.

Genomic Designing for Abiotic Stress Resistant Cereal Crops

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This book presents abiotic stresses that cause crop damage in the range of 6-20%. Understanding the interaction of crop plants to the abiotic stresses caused by heat, cold, drought, flooding, submergence, salinity, acidity, etc., is important to develop resistant crop varieties. Knowledge on the advanced genetic and genomic crop improvement strategies including molecular breeding, transgenics, genomic-assisted breeding, and the recently emerging genome editing for developing resistant varieties in cereal crops is imperative for addressing FPNEE (food, health, nutrition, energy, and environment) security. Whole genome sequencing of these crops followed by genotyping-by-sequencing has facilitated precise information about the genes conferring resistance useful for gene discovery, allele mining, and shuttle breeding which in turn opened up the scope for 'designing' crop genomes with resistance to abiotic stresses. The nine chapters each dedicated to a cereal crop in this volume are deliberate on different types of abiotic stresses and their effects on and interaction with crop plants; enumerate on the available genetic diversity with regard to abiotic stress resistance among available cultivars; illuminate on the potential gene pools for utilization in interspecific gene transfer; are brief on the classical genetics of stress resistance and traditional breeding for transferring them to their cultivated counterparts; elucidate on the success stories of genetic engineering for developing abiotic stress-resistant crop varieties; discuss on molecular mapping of genes and QTLs underlying stress resistance and their marker-assisted introgression into elite varieties; enunciate on different emerging genomics-aided techniques including genomic selection, allele mining, gene discovery, and gene pyramiding for developing adaptive crop varieties with higher quantity and quality, and also elaborate some case studies on genome editing focusing on specific genes for generating abiotic stress-resistant crops.

Genomic Designing for Biotic Stress Resistant Cereal Crops

Author : Chittaranjan Kole
File Size : 73.94 MB
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Presents crop-wise compilation of advanced genetic and genomic techniques employed for crop improvement. Includes comprehensive review on crop improvement of 9 important cereal crops. Consists of chapters authored by eminent scientists

Genomic Designing of Climate Smart Cereal Crops

Author : Chittaranjan Kole
File Size : 81.84 MB
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This book highlights modern methods and strategies to improve cereal crops in the era of climate change, presenting the latest advances in plant molecular mapping and genome sequencing. Spectacular achievements in the fields of molecular breeding, transgenics and genomics in the last three decades have facilitated revolutionary changes in cereal- crop-improvement strategies and techniques. Since the genome sequencing of rice in 2002, the genomes of over eight cereal crops have been sequenced and more are to follow. This has made it possible to decipher the exact nucleotide sequence and chromosomal positions of agroeconomic genes. Most importantly, comparative genomics and genotyping-by-sequencing have opened up new vistas for exploring available biodiversity, particularly of wild crop relatives, for identifying useful donor genes.

Genomic Designing of Climate Smart Pulse Crops

Author : Chittaranjan Kole
File Size : 71.60 MB
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This book describes the concepts, strategies and techniques for pulse-crop improvement in the era of climate change, highlighting the latest advances in plant molecular mapping and genome sequencing. Genetic mapping of genes and QTLs has broadened the scope of marker-assisted breeding and map-based cloning in almost all major pulse crops. Genetic transformation, particularly using alien genes conferring resistance to herbicide, insects and diseases has facilitated the development of a huge number of genetically modified varieties of the major pulse crops. Since the genome sequencing of rice in 2002, genomes of over 7 pulse crops have been sequenced. This has resulted in the possibility of deciphering the exact nucleotide sequence and chromosomal positions of agroeconomic genes. Most importantly, comparative genomics and genotyping-by-sequencing has opened up a new vista for exploring wild crop relatives for identification of useful donor genes.

Abiotic Stress Signaling in Plants Functional Genomic Intervention

Author : Girdhar K. Pandey
File Size : 52.96 MB
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Abiotic stresses such as high temperature, low-temperature, drought and salinity limit crop productivity worldwide. Understanding plant responses to these stresses is essential for rational engineering of crop plants. In Arabidopsis, the signal transduction pathways for abiotic stresses, light, several phytohormones and pathogenesis have been elucidated. A significant portion of plant genomes (Arabidopsis and rice were mostly studied) encodes for proteins involves in signaling such as receptor, sensors, kinases, phosphatases, transcription factors and transporters/channels. Despite decades of physiological and molecular effort, knowledge pertaining to how plants sense and transduce low and high temperature, low-water availability (drought), water-submergence, microgravity and salinity signals is still a major question for plant biologist. One major constraint hampering our understanding of these signal transduction processes in plants has been the lack or slow pace of application of molecular genomic and genetics knowledge in the form of gene function. In the post-genomic era, one of the major challenges is investigation and understanding of multiple genes and gene families regulating a particular physiological and developmental aspect of plant life cycle. One of the important physiological processes is regulation of stress response, which leads to adaptation or adjustment in response to adverse stimuli. With the holistic understanding of the signaling pathways involving not only one gene family but multiple genes or gene families, plant biologist can lay a foundation for designing and generating future crops, which can withstand the higher degree of environmental stresses (especially abiotic stresses, which are the major cause of crop loss throughout the world) without losing crop yield and productivity. Therefore, in this e-Book, we intend to incorporate the contribution from leading plant biologists to elucidate several aspects of stress signaling by functional genomics approaches.

Abiotic Stress in Plants

Author : Shah Fahad
File Size : 40.65 MB
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Environmental insults such as extremes of temperature, extremes of water status, and deteriorating soil conditions pose major threats to agriculture and food security. Employing contemporary tools and techniques from all branches of science, attempts are being made worldwide to understand how plants respond to abiotic stresses with the aim to manipulate plant performance that is better suited to withstand these stresses. This book searches for possible answers to several basic questions related to plant responses towards abiotic stresses. Synthesizing developments in plant stress biology, the book offers strategies that can be used in breeding, including genomic, molecular, physiological, and biotechnological approaches that have the potential to develop resilient plants and improve crop productivity worldwide.

Abiotic Stress Management for Resilient Agriculture

Author : Paramjit Singh Minhas
File Size : 39.90 MB
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This book offers a state-of-the-art overview of on abiotic stresses in terms of the challenges; scope and opportunities; copping strategies for adaptation and mitigation using novel tools for building resilience in agricultural crops and livestock; as well as for policy implementation. Divided into four major parts: advances and prospects for understanding stress environments; adaptation and mitigation options; crop-based mitigation strategies; and mitigation options in animal husbandry, the book focuses on problem-solving approaches and techniques that are essential for the medium to long-term sustainability of agricultural production systems The synthesis and integration of knowledge and experiences of specialists from different disciplines offers new perspectives in the versatile field of abiotic stress management, and as such is useful for various stakeholders, including agricultural students, scientists, environmentalists, policymakers, and social scientists.

Plant Abiotic Stress Physiology

Author : Khalid Rehman Hakeem
File Size : 48.54 MB
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This two-volume set highlights the various innovative and emerging techniques and molecular applications that are currently being used in plant abiotic stress physiology. Volume 1: Responses and Adaptations focuses on the responses and adaptations of plants to stress factors at the cellular and molecular levels and offers a variety of advanced management strategies and technologies. Volume 2: Molecular Advancements introduces a range of state-of-the-art molecular advances for the mitigation of abiotic stress in plants. With contributions from specialists in the field, Volume 1 first discusses the physiology and defense mechanisms of plants and the various kinds of stress, such as from challenging environments, climate change, and nutritional deficiencies. It goes on to discuss trailblazing management techniques that include genetics approaches for improving abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants along with CRISPR/CAS-mediated genome editing technologies. Volume 2 discusses how plants have developed diverse physiological and molecular adjustments to safeguard themselves under challenging conditions and how emerging new technologies can utilize these plant adaptations to enhance plant resistance. These include using plant-environment interactions to develop crop species that are resilient to climate change, applying genomics and phenomics approaches from the study of abiotic stress tolerance and more. Agriculture today faces countless challenges to meet the rising need for sustainable food supplies and guarantees of high-quality nourishment for a quickly increasing population. To ensure sufficient food production, it is necessary to address the difficult environmental circumstances that are causing cellular oxidative stress in plants due to abiotic factors, which play a defining role in shaping yield of crop plants. These two volumes help to meet these challenges by providing a rich source of information on plant abiotic stress physiology and effective management techniques.

Broadening the Genetic Base of Grain Cereals

Author : Mohar Singh
File Size : 36.92 MB
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This book offers comprehensive coverage of important grain cereals including their origin and distribution, crop gene pool, level of diversity, production constraints, traits of importance for genetic base widening, crop improvement methodologies, genome mapping, genomics for breeding, and future strategies. The chapters, contributed by eminent crop researchers from around the world, provide rare insights into the crop-specific constraints and prospects drawing from their substantial experience. As such, the book offers an essential source of information for grain cereals scientists, teachers, students, policy planners and developmental experts alike. Grain cereals, which comprise rice, wheat, maize, barley, oats, sorghum and millets, are members of the grass family. These crops are vital to human nutrition, thanks to their roles as staple food crops in different parts of the globe. Some of them are rich sources of carbohydrates, which provide energy, while others are important sources of minerals, vitamins and proteins, in addition to their medicinal properties. In most cereals, the existing variability among elite germplasm has been exploited to attain a desirable level of productivity. However, to make further breakthroughs in enhancing yield and improving stability in future crop cultivars, new sources of genes/alleles need to be identified in wild/weedy species and incorporated into the cultivated varieties. Though there have been many publications on various aspects of grain cereal improvement in the recent past, to date this essential information has remained scattered among different periodicals.