Search results for: growth-and-defect-structures

Growth and Defect Structures

Author : H. C. Freyhardt
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Polytypic crystals of semiconductors, dielectrics and magnetic materials attract an increasing attention in science and technology. On one hand, the phenomenon of polyty pism is one of the fundamental problems of solid-state physics; its solution would make it possible to elucidate- the problem of the interconnection of different structures and intraatomic forces acting in crystals. On the other hand, the polytypic difference in crystals is most strongly expressed in electro-physical properties, which makes their application promising, mainly in semiconductor electronics. Thus, the difficulties of pro ducing modulated structures in polytypic crystals can be overcome since these crystals form a class of one-dimensional natural superlattices. At present it has become clear that polytypism in crystals and compounds is the rule rather than an exception and it is determined by the conditions of their synthesis. This phenomenon seems to be rather widespread in nature and fundamental for crystal forma tion. H polytypism was recently thought to be but a specific structural feature of a few substances such as SiC, ZnS, CdI , etc. , by now this phenomenon has been discovered in 2 v an increasing range of crystalline substances, for example, in silicon, diamond, AIIIB , VI AIIB , AIBVII compounds, in ternary semiconducting compounds, metals, silicates, perovskites, mica, organic crystals. The more accurately the structural studies are per formed, the greater is the number of crystals of various substances found to exhibit the phenomenon of polytypism. Recently, excellent surveys have systematized our knowledge of polytypism.

CdTe and Related Compounds Physics Defects Hetero and Nano structures Crystal Growth Surfaces and Applications

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Almost thirty years after the remarkable monograph of K. Zanio and the numerous conferences and articles dedicated since that time to CdTe and CdZnTe, after all the significant progresses in that field and the increasing interest in these materials for several extremely attractive industrial applications, such as nuclear detectors and solar cells, the edition of a new enriched and updated monograph dedicated to these two very topical II-VI semiconductor compounds, covering all their most prominent, modern and fundamental aspects, seemed very relevant and useful. Detailed coverage of the main topics associated with the very topical II-VI semiconductor compound CdTe and its alloy CZT Review of the CdTe recent developments Fundamental background of many topics clearly introduced and exposed

Post growth Annealing of CdZnTe Crystals

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Characterization of Crystal Growth Defects by X Ray Methods

Author : B.K. Tanner
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This book contains the proceedings of a NATO Advanced Study Institute entitled "Characterization of Crystal Growth Defects by X-ray Methods' held in the University of Durham, England from 29th August to 10th September 1979. The current interest in electronic materials, in particular silicon, gallium aluminium arsenide, and quartz, and the recent availability of synchrotron radiation for X-ray diffraction studies made this Advanced Study Institute particularly timely. Two main themes ran through the course: 1. A survey of the various types of defect occurring in crystal growth, the mechanism of their different methods of generation and their influence on the properties of relativelY perfect crystals. 2. A detailed and advanced course on the observation and characterization of such defects by X-ray methods. The main emphasis was on X-ray topographic techniques but a substantial amount of time was spent on goniometric techniques such as double crystal diffractometry and gamma ray diffraction. The presentation of material in this book reflects these twin themes. Section A is concerned with defects, Section C with techniques and in linking them. Section B provides a concise account of the basic theory necessary for the interpretation of X-ray topographs and diffractometric data. Although the sequence follows roughly the order of presentation at the Advanced Study Institute certain major changes have been made in order to improve the pedagogy. In particular, the first two chapters provide a vital, and seldom articulated, case for the need for characterization for crystals used in device technologies.

Springer Handbook of Crystal Growth

Author : Govindhan Dhanaraj
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Over the years, many successful attempts have been chapters in this part describe the well-known processes made to describe the art and science of crystal growth, such as Czochralski, Kyropoulos, Bridgman, and o- and many review articles, monographs, symposium v- ing zone, and focus speci cally on recent advances in umes, and handbooks have been published to present improving these methodologies such as application of comprehensive reviews of the advances made in this magnetic elds, orientation of the growth axis, intro- eld. These publications are testament to the grow- duction of a pedestal, and shaped growth. They also ing interest in both bulk and thin- lm crystals because cover a wide range of materials from silicon and III–V of their electronic, optical, mechanical, microstructural, compounds to oxides and uorides. and other properties, and their diverse scienti c and The third part, Part C of the book, focuses on - technological applications. Indeed, most modern ad- lution growth. The various aspects of hydrothermal vances in semiconductor and optical devices would growth are discussed in two chapters, while three other not have been possible without the development of chapters present an overview of the nonlinear and laser many elemental, binary, ternary, and other compound crystals, KTP and KDP. The knowledge on the effect of crystals of varying properties and large sizes. The gravity on solution growth is presented through a c- literature devoted to basic understanding of growth parison of growth on Earth versus in a microgravity mechanisms, defect formation, and growth processes environment.

Crystal Growth Bibliography Indexes

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Defect Structure and Properties of Nanomaterials

Author : J Gubicza
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Defect Structure and Properties of Nanomaterials: Second and Extended Edition covers a wide range of nanomaterials including metals, alloys, ceramics, diamond, carbon nanotubes, and their composites. This new edition is fully revised and updated, covering important advances that have taken place in recent years. Nanostructured materials exhibit unique mechanical and physical properties compared with their coarse-grained counterparts, therefore these materials are currently a major focus in materials science. The production methods of nanomaterials affect the lattice defect structure (vacancies, dislocations, disclinations, stacking faults, twins, and grain boundaries) that has a major influence on their mechanical and physical properties. In this book, the production routes of nanomaterials are described in detail, and the relationships between the processing conditions and the resultant defect structure, as well as the defect-related properties (e.g. mechanical behavior, electrical resistance, diffusion, corrosion resistance, thermal stability, hydrogen storage capability, etc.) are reviewed. In particular, new processing methods of nanomaterials are described in the chapter dealing with the manufacturing procedures of nanostructured materials. New chapters on (i) the experimental methods for the study of lattice defects, (ii) the defect structure in nanodisperse particles, and (iii) the influence of lattice defects on electrical, corrosion, and diffusion properties are included, to further enhance what has become a leading reference for engineering, physics, and materials science audiences. Provides a detailed overview of processing methods, defect structure, and defect-related mechanical and physical properties of nanomaterials Covers a wide range of nanomaterials including metals, alloys, ceramics, diamond, carbon nanotubes, and their composites Includes new chapters covering recent advances in both processing techniques and methods for the study of lattice defects Provides valuable information that will help materials scientists and engineers highlight lattice defects and the related mechanical and physical properties

Trends in Structural Mechanics

Author : J. Roorda
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The desire to understand the mechanics of elastic and plastic solids, new materials and the stability, reliability and dynamic behaviour of structures and their components under extreme environmental conditions has dominated research in structural engineering for many decades. Advances in these areas have revolutionized design methods, codes of practice, and the teaching of structural engineers. In this volume an international body of leading authorities presents some forty papers on current research directions in the specific areas of solid mechanics, structural computation, modern materials and their application, buckling and instability, design of structural systems and components, reliability, seismic analysis, and engineering education. They were presented at a symposium held July 10-12, 1994, at the University of Waterloo, Canada, to honour Professor Archibald Norbert Sherbourne who recently retired from a long and active career of teaching, research and academic administration at this University. The themes of the work contained within this volume reflect Professor Sherbourne's own research interests and will be of interest to both academics and practicing structural engineers.

Handbook of Crystal Growth

Author : Tatau Nishinaga
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Volume IA Handbook of Crystal Growth, 2nd Edition (Fundamentals: Thermodynamics and Kinetics) Volume IA addresses the present status of crystal growth science, and provides scientific tools for the following volumes: Volume II (Bulk Crystal Growth) and III (Thin Film Growth and Epitaxy). Volume IA highlights thermodynamics and kinetics. After historical introduction of the crystal growth, phase equilibria, defect thermodynamics, stoichiometry, and shape of crystal and structure of melt are described. Then, the most fundamental and basic aspects of crystal growth are presented, along with the theories of nucleation and growth kinetics. In addition, the simulations of crystal growth by Monte Carlo, ab initio-based approach and colloidal assembly are thoroughly investigated. Volume IB Handbook of Crystal Growth, 2nd Edition (Fundamentals: Transport and Stability) Volume IB discusses pattern formation, a typical problem in crystal growth. In addition, an introduction to morphological stability is given and the phase-field model is explained with comparison to experiments. The field of nanocrystal growth is rapidly expanding and here the growth from vapor is presented as an example. For the advancement of life science, the crystal growth of protein and other biological molecules is indispensable and biological crystallization in nature gives many hints for their crystal growth. Another subject discussed is pharmaceutical crystal growth. To understand the crystal growth, in situ observation is extremely powerful. The observation techniques are demonstrated. Volume IA Explores phase equilibria, defect thermodynamics of Si, stoichiometry of oxides and atomistic structure of melt and alloys Explains basic ideas to understand crystal growth, equilibrium shape of crystal, rough-smooth transition of step and surface, nucleation and growth mechanisms Focuses on simulation of crystal growth by classical Monte Carlo, ab-initio based quantum mechanical approach, kinetic Monte Carlo and phase field model. Controlled colloidal assembly is presented as an experimental model for crystal growth. Volume IIB Describes morphological stability theory and phase-field model and comparison to experiments of dendritic growth Presents nanocrystal growth in vapor as well as protein crystal growth and biological crystallization Interprets mass production of pharmaceutical crystals to be understood as ordinary crystal growth and explains crystallization of chiral molecules Demonstrates in situ observation of crystal growth in vapor, solution and melt on the ground and in space

World Directory of Crystallographers

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Growth and Properties of Ultrathin Epitaxial Layers

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Although there has been steady progress in understanding aspects of epitaxial growth throughout the last 30 years of modern surface science, work in this area has intensified greatly in the last 5 years. A number of factors have contributed to this expansion. One has been the general trend in surface science to tackle problems of increasing complexity as confidence is gained in the methodology, so for example, the role of oxide/metal interfaces in determining the properties of many practical supported catalysts is now being explored in greater detail. A second factor is the recognition of the potential importance of artificial multilayer materials not only in semiconductor devices but also in metal/metal systems because of their novel magnetic properties. Perhaps even more important than either of these application areas, however, is the newly-discovered power of scanning probe microscopies, and most notably scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), to provide the means to study epitaxial growth phenomena on an atomic scale under a wide range of conditions. These techniques have also contributed to revitalised interest in methods of fabricating and exploiting artificial structures (lateral as well as in layers) on a nanometre scale. This volume, on Growth and Properties of Ultrathin Epitaxial Layers, includes a collection of articles which reflects the present state of activity in this field. The emphasis is on metals and oxides rather than semiconductors.

Nitride Semiconductors

Author : Pierre Ruterana
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Semiconductor components based on silicon have been used in a wide range of applications for some time now. These elemental semiconductors are now well researched and technologically well developed. In the meantime the focus has switched to a new group of materials: ceramic semiconductors based on nitrides are currently the subject of research due to their optical and electronic characteristics. They open up new industrial possibilities in the field of photosensors, as light sources or as electronic components. This collection of review articles provides a systematic and in-depth overview of the topic, on both a high and current level. It offers information on the physical basics as well as the latest results in a compact yet comprehensive manner. The contributions cover the physical processes involved in manufacture, from semiconductor growth, via their atomic structures and the related characteristics right up to future industrial applications. A highly pertinent book for anyone working in applied materials research or the semiconductor industry.

Silicon Processing for Photovoltaics II

Author : C.P. Khattak
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The processing of semiconductor silicon for manufacturing low cost photovoltaic products has been a field of increasing activity over the past decade and a number of papers have been published in the technical literature. This volume presents comprehensive, in-depth reviews on some of the key technologies developed for processing silicon for photovoltaic applications. It is complementary to Volume 5 in this series and together they provide the only collection of reviews in silicon photovoltaics available. The volume contains papers on: the effect of introducing grain boundaries in silicon; the commercial production for multicrystalline silicon ingots and ribbon; epitaxial solar cell fabrication; metallurgical approaches to producing low-cost meltstock; the non-conventional bifacial solar cell approach.

Handbook of Nitride Semiconductors and Devices Materials Properties Physics and Growth

Author : Hadis Morkoç
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The three volumes of this handbook treat the fundamentals, technology and nanotechnology of nitride semiconductors with an extraordinary clarity and depth. They present all the necessary basics of semiconductor and device physics and engineering together with an extensive reference section. Volume 1 deals with the properties and growth of GaN. The deposition methods considered are: hydride VPE, organometallic CVD, MBE, and liquid/high pressure growth. Additionally, extended defects and their electrical nature, point defects, and doping are reviewed.

Multiscale Fatigue Crack Initiation and Propagation of Engineering Materials Structural Integrity and Microstructural Worthiness

Author : George C. Sih
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What can be added to the fracture mechanics of metal fatigue that has not already been said since the 1900s? From the view point of the material and structure engineer, there are many aspects of failure by fatigue that are in need of attention, particularly when the size and time of the working components are changed by orders of magnitude from those considered by st traditional means. The 21 century marks an era of technology transition where structures are made larger and devices are made smaller, rendering the method of destructive testing unpractical. While health monitoring entered the field of science and engineering, the practitioners are discovering that the correlation between the signal and the location of interest depends on a priori knowledge of where failure may initiate. This information is not easy to find because the integrity of the physical system will change with time. Required is software that can self-adjust in time according to the monitored data. In this connection, effective application of health monitoring can use a predictive model of fatigue crack growth. Earlier fatigue crack growth models assumed functional dependence on the maximum stress and the size of the pre-existing crack or defect. Various possibilities were examined in the hope that the data could be grouped such that linear interpolation would apply.

Microscopy of Semiconducting Materials 2007

Author : A.G. Cullis
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This volume contains invited and contributed papers presented at the conference on ‘Microscopy of Semiconducting Materials’ held at the University of Cambridge on 2-5 April 2007. The event was organised under the auspices of the Electron Microscopy and Analysis Group of the Institute of Physics, the Royal Microscopical Society and the Materials Research Society. This international conference was the fifteenth in the series that focuses on the most recent world-wide advances in semiconductor studies carried out by all forms of microscopy and it attracted delegates from more than 20 countries. With the relentless evolution of advanced electronic devices into ever smaller nanoscale structures, the problem relating to the means by which device features can be visualised on this scale becomes more acute. This applies not only to the imaging of the general form of layers that may be present but also to the determination of composition and doping variations that are employed. In view of this scenario, the vital importance of transmission and scanning electron microscopy, together with X-ray and scanning probe approaches can immediately be seen. The conference featured developments in high resolution microscopy and nanoanalysis, including the exploitation of recently introduced aberration-corrected electron microscopes. All associated imaging and analytical techniques were demonstrated in studies including those of self-organised and quantum domain structures. Many analytical techniques based upon scanning probe microscopies were also much in evidence, together with more general applications of X-ray diffraction methods.

SiC Power Materials

Author : Zhe Chuan Feng
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In the 1950s Shockley predicted that SiC would quickly replace Si as a result of its superior material properties. In many ways he was right and today there is an active industry based on SiC, with new achievements being reported every year. This book reviews the progress achieved in SiC research and development, particularly over the past 10 years. It presents the essential properties of 3C-, 6H- and 4H-SiC polytypes including structural, electrical, optical, surface and interface properties; describes existing key SiC devices and also the challenges in materials growth and device fabrication of the 21st century. Overall it provides an up-to-date reference book suitable for a broad audience of newcomers, graduate students and engineers in industrial R&D.

Handbook of Crystal Growth

Author : Peter Rudolph
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Vol 2A: Basic Technologies Handbook of Crystal Growth, 2nd Edition Volume IIA (Basic Technologies) presents basic growth technologies and modern crystal cutting methods. Particularly, the methodical fundamentals and development of technology in the field of bulk crystallization on both industrial and research scales are explored. After an introductory chapter on the formation of minerals, ruling historically the basic crystal formation parameters, advanced basic technologies from melt, solution, and vapour being applied for research and production of the today most important materials, like silicon, semiconductor compounds and oxides are presented in detail. The interdisciplinary and general importance of crystal growth for human live are illustrated. Vol 2B: Growth Mechanisms and Dynamics Handbook of Crystal Growth, 2nd Edition Volume IIB (Growth Mechanisms and Dynamics) deals with characteristic mechanisms and dynamics accompanying each bulk crystal growth method discussed in Volume IIA. Before the atoms or molecules pass over from a position in the fluid medium (gas, melt or solution) to their place in the crystalline face they must be transported in the fluid over macroscopic distances by diffusion, buoyancy-driven convection, surface-tension-driven convection, and forced convection (rotation, acceleration, vibration, magnetic mixing). Further, the heat of fusion and the part carried by the species on their way to the crystal by conductive and convective transport must be dissipated in the solid phase by well-organized thermal conduction and radiation to maintain a stable propagating interface. Additionally, segregation and capillary phenomena play a decisional role for chemical composition and crystal shaping, respectively. Today, the increase of high-quality crystal yield, its size enlargement and reproducibility are imperative conditions to match the strong economy. Volume 2A Presents the status and future of Czochralski and float zone growth of dislocation-free silicon Examines directional solidification of silicon ingots for photovoltaics, vertical gradient freeze of GaAs, CdTe for HF electronics and IR imaging as well as antiferromagnetic compounds and super alloys for turbine blades Focuses on growth of dielectric and conducting oxide crystals for lasers and non-linear optics Topics on hydrothermal, flux and vapour phase growth of III-nitrides, silicon carbide and diamond are explored Volume 2B Explores capillarity control of the crystal shape at the growth from the melt Highlights modeling of heat and mass transport dynamics Discusses control of convective melt processes by magnetic fields and vibration measures Includes imperative information on the segregation phenomenon and validation of compositional homogeneity Examines crystal defect generation mechanisms and their controllability Illustrates proper automation modes for ensuring constant crystal growth process Exhibits fundamentals of solution growth, gel growth of protein crystals, growth of superconductor materials and mass crystallization for food and pharmaceutical industries

Fatigue Damage Crack Growth and Life Prediction

Author : F. Ellyin
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Fatigue failure is a multi-stage process. It begins with the initiation of cracks, and with continued cyclic loading the cracks propagate, finally leading to the rupture of a component or specimen. The demarcation between the above stages is not well-defined. Depending upon the scale of interest, the variation may span three orders of magnitude. For example, to a material scientist an initiated crack may be of the order of a micron, whereas for an engineer it can be of the order of a millimetre. It is not surprising therefore to see that investigation of the fatigue process has followed different paths depending upon the scale of phenomenon under investigation. Interest in the study of fatigue failure increased with the advent of industrial ization. Because of the urgent need to design against fatigue failure, early investiga tors focused on prototype testing and proposed failure criteria similar to design formulae. Thus, a methodology developed whereby the fatigue theories were proposed based on experimental observations, albeit at times with limited scope. This type of phenomenological approach progressed rapidly during the past four decades as closed-loop testing machines became available.

Lasers in the Preservation of Cultural Heritage

Author : Costas Fotakis
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With the maturation of laser technology in diagnostic and conservation applications, conservation scientists, archeologists, art historians, researchers, and advanced science-oriented students now have the tools necessary for preserving the future of our past-our cultural heritage. Presenting recent developments in the field, Lasers in the Preservation of Cultural Heritage: Principles and Applications addresses the basic concepts of laser applications and supplies case studies of analytical, structural diagnostic, and laser cleaning applications. The book provides a comprehensive presentation of the fundamental principles and applications of modern laser technology in the analysis of composition, diagnostics of structural integrity, and conservation of artworks and antiquities. Beginning with an introduction to the basic techniques used in art conservation and archeology, the book describes the fundamental aspects of laser-matter interactions, emphasizing laser diagnostics and laser processing applications. The next few chapters focus on laser-based spectroscopic techniques for the analysis of the composition of materials in art and archaeology, including laser-induced breakdown, Raman, and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopic techniques. The book proceeds to highlight nondestructive diagnostic techniques, laser processing applications, laser applications for the cleaning of paintings and stone, and methods for the removal of encrustations. It concludes with case studies for the conservation of materials like parchment, paper, metal, ivory, and wood, and includes conservation approaches for modern paintings. Bridging science with art, Lasers in the Preservation of Cultural Heritage presents a systematic overview of the fundamentals and applications of laser techniques in artwork conservation and archeological science.