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Handbook of Learning and Cognitive Processes Volume 5

Author : William K. Estes
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Originally published in 1978 Volume 5 of this Handbook reflects a single theoretical orientation, that characterized by the term human information processing in the literature at the time, but which ranges over a very broad spectrum of cognitive activities. The first two chapters give some overall picture of the background, goals, method, and limitations of the information-processing approach. The remaining chapters treat in detail some principal areas of application – visual processing, mental chronometry, representation of spatial information in memory, problem solving, and the theory of instruction. The first three volumes of the Handbook presented an overview of the field, followed by treatments of conditioning, behavior theory, and human learning and retention. With the fourth volume, the focus of attention shifted from the domain of learning theory to that of cognitive psychology.

Handbook of Learning and Cognitive Processes Volume 5

Author : William K. Estes
File Size : 56.45 MB
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Originally published in 1978 Volume 5 of this Handbook reflects a single theoretical orientation, that characterized by the term human information processing in the literature at the time, but which ranges over a very broad spectrum of cognitive activities. The first two chapters give some overall picture of the background, goals, method, and limitations of the information-processing approach. The remaining chapters treat in detail some principal areas of application – visual processing, mental chronometry, representation of spatial information in memory, problem solving, and the theory of instruction. The first three volumes of the Handbook presented an overview of the field, followed by treatments of conditioning, behavior theory, and human learning and retention. With the fourth volume, the focus of attention shifted from the domain of learning theory to that of cognitive psychology.

Handbook of Learning and Cognitive Processes Volume 6

Author : William K. Estes
File Size : 30.4 MB
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Originally published in 1978, Volume 6 concludes the survey of research and theory on learning and cognitive processes that was envisaged when the plan for this Handbook was sketched. The primary orientation in the planning the Handbook was to concentrate on research and models aimed toward the development of general cognitive theory. The first five chapters of this volume are organized in relation to one of the research areas that had expanded most vigorously during the period of planning and writing of the Handbook. These chapters treat aspects of psycholinguistics most closely related to research and theory covered in the other volumes. Perhaps the most fertile source of new concepts and models closely related to other branches of cognitive theory has been research on semantic memory. This work is given a critical review and interpretation by Smith in the first chapter of this volume, following which some lines of theoretical developmental leading "upward" into problems of comprehension of meaningful material are reviewed by Kintsch, then connections "downward" into more elementary problems of coding in memory by Johnson. Also, Johnson’s chapter shades into the very active current body of work on perceptual and memorial processes in reading, carried further by Baron’s examination of perceptual learning in relation to letter and word recognition. Finally, we consider inputs to the psycholinguistic system via speech and speech perception. The strong emphasis of Pisoni’s chapter on speech perception rather than production simply reflects both the predominance of research on perceptual aspects of speech in the current cognitive literature and the close relationships of this research to other lines of investigation of perception and short-term memory. Some knowledge of the history of the subject and some understanding of the way some of the more persuasive concepts and principles have evolved may serve present-day investigators better than boosting their reading rates. The final chapter of the present volume provides some documentation for this last suggestion.

Handbook of Learning and Cognitive Processes Volume 3

Author : William K. Estes
File Size : 54.16 MB
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Originally published in 1976, Volume 3 of this Handbook deals primarily with conditions of acquisition, retention and forgetting, and the manner in which acquired information and motivation combine to determine performance. The organization of this volume can be understood in terms of four principal categories. The first category deals with general problems of methodology, the second and third with basic concepts arising from research on human learning and performance and the fourth with applications. Volume 1 presented an overview of the field and introduced principal theoretical and methodological issues that persistently recurred in the expanded treatment of specific research areas which comprise the later volumes. The areas traditionally associated with conditioning, learning theory and the basic psychology of human learning are treated in Volumes 2 and 3. The last three volumes will range over active lines of research having to do with human cognitive processes, at the time: Volume 4, attention, memory storage and retrieval; Volumes 5 and 6, information processing, reading, semantic memory, and problem solving.

Handbook of Learning and Cognitive Processes Volume 1

Author : W. K. Estes
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From the Foreword: "Is it possible at present to identify a core cluster of theoretical ideas, concepts, and methods with which everyone working in the area of learning and cognition needs to be familiar? Would it be possible to make explicit the relationships that we feel do or must exist among the various subspecialties, ranging from conditioning through perceptual learning and memory to psycholinguistics, and to present these in a sufficiently organized way to help specialists and non-specialists alike in relating particular lines of research to the broader spectrum of activity? These questions were posed to a substantial number of investigators who are currently most active in developing the ideas and doing the research. Their response constitutes this Handbook..." First published in 1975, Volume 1 of this Handbook attempts to present an overview of the field and to introduce the principal theoretical and methodological issues that will persistently recur in the expanded treatments of specific research areas that comprise the later volumes. Deferring to the current Zeitgeist rather than to chronology, they begin with the present state of cognitive psychology, then introduce the comparative approach, and conclude this volume with a rapid, three-chapter review of the evolution of ideas from conditioning to information processing.

Handbook of Learning and Cognitive Processes Volume 3

Author : William K. Estes
File Size : 55.81 MB
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Originally published in 1976, Volume 3 of this Handbook deals primarily with conditions of acquisition, retention and forgetting, and the manner in which acquired information and motivation combine to determine performance. The organization of this volume can be understood in terms of four principal categories. The first category deals with general problems of methodology, the second and third with basic concepts arising from research on human learning and performance and the fourth with applications. Volume 1 presented an overview of the field and introduced principal theoretical and methodological issues that persistently recurred in the expanded treatment of specific research areas which comprise the later volumes. The areas traditionally associated with conditioning, learning theory and the basic psychology of human learning are treated in Volumes 2 and 3. The last three volumes will range over active lines of research having to do with human cognitive processes, at the time: Volume 4, attention, memory storage and retrieval; Volumes 5 and 6, information processing, reading, semantic memory, and problem solving.

Handbook of Learning and Cognitive Processes Volume 2

Author : William K. Estes
File Size : 79.75 MB
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Originally published in 1975, Volume 2 of this Handbook looks at areas traditionally associated with learning theory such as conditioning, discrimination and behavior theory. It deals with concepts and theories growing principally out of laboratory studies of conditioning and learning. The intention was to treat mechanisms, processes, and principles of some generality – applicable at least to all vertebrates. It was becoming well understood that detailed interpretations of particular behaviors required the authors to take account of the way general principles operate in the context of species-specific behavioral organizations and developmental histories; but detailed consideration of just how these interpretations were accomplished for different animal forms was another enterprise. Here the authors limit their task to abstracting from the enormous literature facts and ideas which seemed general enough to be of interest and perhaps utility to investigators in other disciplines at the time. Volume 1 presented an overview of the field and introduced the principal theoretical and methodological issues that persistently recurred in the expanded treatments of specific research areas that comprise the later volumes. Volume 3 looks at human learning and motivation, while the last 3 volumes range over the many active lines of research identified with human cognitive processes at the time.

Handbook of Learning and Cognitive Processes Volume 4

Author : William K. Estes
File Size : 58.77 MB
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Originally published in 1976, this is Volume 4 of a series that reflected the current state of the field at the time. In this title the focus shifts to modern developments in cognitive psychology. The emphasis is primarily on attention and short-term memory, as these concepts came to be understood in the decade leading up to publication. In addition to presenting the major concepts, the authors outline fundamental theories and methods, all in a way that will be readable by anyone with a reasonable scientific background. As the editor notes in the Foreword, each author "has taken on the assignment of giving explicit attention to the orienting attitudes and long-term goals that tend to shape the overall course of research in his field and to bring out both actual and potential influences and implications with respect to other aspects of the discipline." This volume, as all volumes of the Handbook, will be invaluable for those who want an organized picture of the current state of the field as it was at the time.

Handbook of Learning and Cognitive Processes Volume 4

Author : William K. Estes
File Size : 90.4 MB
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Originally published in 1976, this is Volume 4 of a series that reflected the current state of the field at the time. In this title the focus shifts to modern developments in cognitive psychology. The emphasis is primarily on attention and short-term memory, as these concepts came to be understood in the decade leading up to publication. In addition to presenting the major concepts, the authors outline fundamental theories and methods, all in a way that will be readable by anyone with a reasonable scientific background. As the editor notes in the Foreword, each author "has taken on the assignment of giving explicit attention to the orienting attitudes and long-term goals that tend to shape the overall course of research in his field and to bring out both actual and potential influences and implications with respect to other aspects of the discipline." This volume, as all volumes of the Handbook, will be invaluable for those who want an organized picture of the current state of the field as it was at the time.

Models of Thought

Author : Herbert Alexander Simon
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Nobel Laureate Herbert A. Simon has in the past quarter century been in the front line of the information-processing revolution; in fact, to a remarkable extent his and his colleagues' contributions have written the history of that revolution in cognitive psychology. Research in this burgeoning new branch of knowledge seeks to describe with precision the workings of the human mind in terms of a small number of basic mechanisms organized into strategies. Newly developed computer languages express theories of mental processes, so that computers can then simulate the predicted human behavior. This book brings together papers dating from the start of Simon's career to the present. Its focus is on modeling the chief components of human cognition and on testing these models experimentally. After considering basic structural elements of the human information-processing system (especially search, selective attention, and storage in memory), Simon builds from these components a system capable of solving problems, inducing rules and concepts, perceiving, and understanding. These essays describe a relatively austere, simple, and unified processing system capable of highly complex and various tasks. They provide strong evidence for an explanation of human thinking in terms of basic information processes.