Search results for: heritage-microbiology-and-science

Heritage Microbiology and Science

Author : Eric May
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Heritage Science is an emerging discipline and this book forms a comprehensive volume on key topical areas of this new field and discusses the threats to a wide range of heritage materials and monuments by biological and chemical agents of decay. It provides up-to-date information on subjects covering the component field of heritage microbiology, molecular and chemical analytical techniques, and the mechanisms of degradation and deterioration of historic ships and buildings. Extensive emphasis is placed on case studies and there is a valuable section on historic ships covering the preservation of HMS Victory, SS Great Britain, Vasa and the Mary Rose. This book provides an indispensable guide and reference source for those working in all areas of historical conservation, biodeterioration, microbiology and materials science.

Science and heritage

Author : Great Britain: Parliament: House of Lords: Science and Technology Committee
File Size : 88.90 MB
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This report is an update on developments since the Committee reported in November 2006 (HLP 256, 9th report session 2005-06, ISBN 9780104009550) and the Government published its response (Cm. 7031, ISBN 9780101703123) in January 2007. The Committee had recommended an organisational framework whereby the hitherto fragmented heritage sector could come together with university-based scientists and funding bodies to develop strategic priorities for heritage science and collaborative projects and research proposals. The response at a post-publication seminar attended by representatives from the heritage and science communities was overwhelmingly positive. The Committee welcomes the progress made in implementing its recommendations, but notes that the progress has only come from the heritage sector and research community: the Department for Culture, Media and Sport has failed to grasp the significance of the Committee's recommendations. The Committee urges the new set of ministers at the Department to revisit the original report, respond positively and provide moral leadership to the sector.

Cultural Heritage Microbiology

Author : Ralph Mitchell
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Historic and culturally important objects, like all materials, are vulnerable to microbial attack. Over time, microorganisms can affect paint, wood, paper, glass, textiles, metal, wax, stone, polymers, and coatings, Microbial deterioration of heritage materials can be caused by the formation and growth of biofilms or by direct attack by a variety of microorganisms, all of which may be difficult to correct without also damaging the materials themselves. On the other hand, microbial processes can also be adapted to conserve and even restore heritage materials, pointing to the complex nature of microbial interactions with these irreplaceable materials. Cultural Heritage Microbiology assembles over twenty scientific papers published during the past two decades, each presenting a major advance in some facet of this complex field. These seminal articles, by a wide range of international experts, are grouped by the historic material affected. Each section is introduced by a thorough review, written for this volume, which serves to introduce and synthesize these past studies and to combine them with the latest cutting-edge findings to present the most current state of the field. Extensive references in every chapter and article offer valuable resources for further investigation. Cultural Heritage Microbiology is ideal for anyone concerned with recognizing and dealing with microbial deterioration of heritage materials. Professionals and students in microbiology, conservation science, archaeology, fine arts, architecture, museum conservation, and other fields will find here the most current knowledge and approaches to preserving cultural heritage objects for generations to come.

Microbial Biotechnology Approaches to Monuments of Cultural Heritage

Author : Ajar Nath Yadav
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Our country’s cultural legacy is one of the world’s most diverse, drawing millions of visitors every year to our convents and monuments, and to our museums, libraries, concert halls and festivals. In addition, it is a dynamic trigger of economic activity and jobs. Among the various scientific branches, microbial biotechnology offers an innovative and precise approach to the complexity of problems that restorers face in their daily work. This book discusses a range of topics, including the biodiversity of microbial communities from various cultural heritage monuments, microbial biotechnological cleaning techniques, the role of bacterial fungal communities for the conservation of cultural heritage, and microbial enzymes and their potential applications as biorestoration agents. Written by internationally recognized experts, and providing up-to-date and detailed insights into microbial biotechnology approaches to cultural heritage monuments, the book is a valuable resource for biological scientists, especially microbiologists, microbial biotechnologists, biochemists and microbial biotechnologists.

Science Technology and Cultural Heritage

Author : M.A. Rogerio-Candelera
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The Second International Congress on Science and Technology for the Conservation of Cultural Heritage was held in Seville, Spain, June 24-27, 2014, under the umbrella of the TechnoHeritage network. TechnoHeritage is an initiative funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitivity dedicated to the creation of a network which integrates CSIC and University groups, private companies and end users such as foundations, museums or institutions. The network’s purpose is to foster the creation of transdisciplinary (and not only multidisciplinary) initiatives focused on the study of all assets, movable or immovable, that make up Cultural Heritage. The congress was dedicated to six topics, namely (1) Environmental assessment and monitoring (pollution, climate change, natural events, etc.) of Cultural Heritage; (2) New products and materials for conservation and maintenance of Cultural Heritage; (3) Agents and mechanisms of deterioration of Cultural Heritage (physical, chemical, biological), including deterioration of modern materials used in Contemporary Art and information storage; (4) Development of new instruments, non invasive technologies and innovative solutions for analysis, protection and conservation of Cultural Heritage; (5) Security technologies, remote sensing and G.I.S. for the protection and management of Cultural Heritage; and (6) Significance, social value and policies for the conservation of Cultural Heritage. This volume publishes a total of seventy-two contributions which reflect some of the most recent responses to the challenge of cultural assets conservation and the application of different scientific approaches to the common goal of the conservation of Cultural Heritage.

Microorganisms in the Deterioration and Preservation of Cultural Heritage

Author : Edith Joseph
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This open access book offers a comprehensive overview of the role and potential of microorganisms in the degradation and preservation of cultural materials (e.g. stone, metals, graphic documents, textiles, paintings, glass, etc.). Microorganisms are a major cause of deterioration in cultural artefacts, both in the case of outdoor monuments and archaeological finds. This book covers the microorganisms involved in biodeterioration and control methods used to reduce their impact on cultural artefacts. Additionally, the reader will learn more about how microorganisms can be used for the preservation and protection of cultural artefacts through bio-based and eco-friendly materials. New avenues for developing methods and materials for the conservation of cultural artefacts are discussed, together with concrete advances in terms of sustainability, effectiveness and toxicity, making the book essential reading for anyone interested in microbiology and the preservation of cultural heritage.

Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts

Author : D. Neff
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This chapter introduces the techniques used when investigating corrosion layers formed on cultural heritage artefacts. Various multiscale analysis methods, from macroscopic to nanoscopic scales, are presented. Information on the morphology, the elementary composition and the crystalline structure that each method allows for determining the constituents of the corrosion layers is examined, as well as their limits in terms of set-up, spatial and detection resolution. This chapter discusses the characteristics of the scientific tools that can be used to understand corrosion phenomena, by taking into account the major parameters responsible for alteration mechanisms.

Corrosion and Conservation of Cultural Heritage Metallic Artefacts

Author : P Dillmann
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The conservation of metallic archaeological and historic artefacts is a major challenge whether they are ancient bronzes or relics of our more recent industrial past. Based on the work of Working Party 21 Corrosion of Archaeological and Historical Artefacts within the European Federation of Corrosion (EFC), this important book summarises key recent research on analytical techniques, understanding corrosion processes and preventing the corrosion of cultural heritage metallic artefacts. After an introductory part on some of the key issues in this area, part two reviews the range of analytical techniques for measuring and analysing corrosion processes, including time resolved spectroelectrochemistry, voltammetry and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy. Part three reviews different types of corrosion processes for a range of artefacts, whilst part four discusses on-site monitoring techniques. The final part of the book summaries a range of conservation techniques and strategies to conserve cultural heritage metallic artefacts. Corrosion and conservation of cultural heritage metallic artefacts is an important reference for all those involved in archaeology and conservation, including governments, museums as well as those undertaking research in archaeology and corrosion science. Summarises key research on analytical techniques for measuring and analysing corrosion processes Provides detailed understanding of corrosion processes and corrosion prevention Discusses on-site monitoring techniques

Heritage Wood

Author : Austin Nevin
File Size : 86.86 MB
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This volume highlights recent research efforts in the conservation and investigation of works of art on wood. Through eleven case studies it showcases different experimental methods ranging from X-ray analysis of objects to the study of cross-sections made from micro-samples. New research focusing on the technical study, treatment and assessment of works of art on wood in its many forms is featured in this edited volume. Technical studies include the attribution and investigations of a triptych by Hans Memling and a sculpture from workshop of Michel and Gregor Erhart, decorated Syrian rooms, and investigations of finely carved Gothic wooden objects. Synchrotron-based methods are presented for studying the alteration of 19th c. verdigris in Norway, and multi-analytical methods are employed for the investigations of 16th to 19th c. East Asian lacquer from the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna. Novel methods for the cleaning of gilded surfaces using gels and emulsions are shown, as are innovative strategies for the consolidation for waterlogged wood, providing key data for the assessment of risks and benefits of new methods, and the short and long-term effects on gilding layers and archaeological wood. The book clearly shows how collaboration between engineers, physicists, biologists and chemists and conservators of different types of materials can lead to new research in conservation science. This book is crucial reading for conservators and conservation scientists, as well as for technical art historians, providing key methodological case studies of polychromy from different temporal and geographical contexts.

Coping with Biological Growth on Stone Heritage Objects

Author : Daniela Pinna
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Coping with Biological Growth on Stone Heritage Objects: Methods, Products, Applications, and Perspectives offers hands-on guidance for addressing the specific challenges involved in conserving historical monuments, sculptures, archaeological sites, and caves that have been attacked and colonized by micro- and macroorganisms. The volume provides many case studies of removal of biological growth with practical advice for making the right choices. It presents detailed and updated information related to biocides and to alternative substances, features that will be valuable to dealing with these challenges. The author’s goal is to provide access to information and offer the conceptual framework needed to understand complex issues, so that the reader can comprehend the nature of conservation problems and formulate her/his own views. From bacteria to plants, biological agents pose serious risks to the preservation of cultural heritage. In an effort to save heritage objects, buildings, and sites, conservators’ activities aim to arrest, mitigate, and prevent the damages caused by bacteria, algae, fungi, lichens, plants, and birds. Although much has been learned about these problems, information is scattered across meeting proceedings and assorted journals that often are not available to restorers and conservators. This book fills the gap by providing a comprehensive selection and examination of international papers published in the last fifteen years, focusing on the appropriate methods, techniques, and products that are useful for the prevention and removal of micro- and macroorganisms that grow on artificial and natural stone works of art, including wall paintings. Results on new substances with antimicrobic properties and alternative methods for the control of biological growth are presented as well. The book also emphasize issues on bioreceptivity of stones and the factors influencing biological growth and includes an outline of the various organisms able to develop on stones, a discussion on the bioprotection of stones by biofilms and lichens, a review of the main analytical techniques, and a section on bioremediation. This volume will be a valuable reference for cultural heritage conservators and restorers, scientists, and heritage-site staff involved in conservation and maintenance of buildings, archaeological sites, parks, and caves.