Search results for: history-and-nature-in-the-enlightenment

History and Nature in the Enlightenment

Author : Nathaniel Wolloch
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The mastery of nature was viewed by eighteenth-century historians as an important measure of the progress of civilization. Modern scholarship has hitherto taken insufficient notice of this important idea. This book discusses the topic in connection with the mainstream religious, political, and philosophical elements of Enlightenment culture. It considers works by Edward Gibbon, Voltaire, Herder, Vico, Raynal, Hume, Adam Smith, William Robertson, and a wide range of lesser- and better-known figures. It also discusses many classical, medieval, and early modern sources which influenced Enlightenment historiography, as well as eighteenth-century attitudes toward nature in general.

Vitalizing Nature in the Enlightenment

Author : Peter H. Reill
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This far-reaching study redraws the intellectual map of the Enlightenment and boldly reassesses the legacy of that highly influential period for us today. Peter Hanns Reill argues that in the middle of the eighteenth century, a major shift occurred in the way Enlightenment thinkers conceived of nature that caused many of them to reject the prevailing doctrine of mechanism and turn to a vitalistic model to account for phenomena in natural history, the life sciences, and chemistry. As he traces the ramifications of this new way of thinking through time and across disciplines, Reill provocatively complicates our understanding of the way key Enlightenment thinkers viewed nature. His sophisticated analysis ultimately questions postmodern narratives that have assumed a monolithic Enlightenment—characterized by the dominance of instrumental reason—that has led to many of the disasters of modern life.

Managing Nature in the Age of Enlightenment

Author : Edwin Rose
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The Faces of Nature in Enlightenment Europe

Author : Lorraine Daston
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History and Nature in the Enlightenment

Author : Mr Nathaniel Wolloch
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The mastery of nature was viewed by eighteenth-century historians as an important measure of the progress of civilization. Modern scholarship has hitherto taken insufficient notice of this important idea. This book discusses the topic in connection with the mainstream religious, political, and philosophical elements of Enlightenment culture. It considers works by Edward Gibbon, Voltaire, Herder, Vico, Raynal, Hume, Adam Smith, William Robertson, and a wide range of lesser- and better-known figures. It also discusses many classical, medieval, and early modern sources which influenced Enlightenment historiography, as well as eighteenth-century attitudes toward nature in general.

British Weather and the Climate of Enlightenment

Author : Jan Golinski
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Enlightenment inquiries into the weather sought to impose order on a force that had the power to alter human life and social conditions. British Weather and the Climate of Enlightenment reveals how a new sense of the national climate emerged in the eighteenth century from the systematic recording of the weather, and how it was deployed in discussions of the health and welfare of the population. Enlightened intellectuals hailed climate’s role in the development of civilization but acknowledged that human existence depended on natural forces that would never submit to rational control. Reading the Enlightenment through the ideas, beliefs, and practices concerning the weather, Jan Golinski aims to reshape our understanding of the movement and its legacy for modern environmental thinking. With its combination of cultural history and the history of science, British Weather and the Climate of Enlightenment counters the claim that Enlightenment progress set humans against nature, instead revealing that intellectuals of the age drew characteristically modern conclusions about the inextricability of nature and culture.

Human Nature and the French Revolution

Author : Xavier Martin
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"Martin should be commended for finding a niche in this vast literature and managing to say something original ...His book is worth reading because it reminds us of an important aspect of Enlightenment thinking, one that questioned the freedom of the will." * H-France "...strongly recommended for specialists and advanced scholars of the period." * History: Review of New Books "...a valuable contribution to the institutional history of the Jacobin clubs." * Canadian Journal of History What view of man did the French Revolutionaries hold? Anyone who purports to be interested in the "Rights of Man" could be expected to see this question as crucial and yet, surprisingly, it is rarely raised. Through his work as a legal historian, Xavier Martin came to realize that there is no unified view of man and that, alongside the "official" revolutionary discourse, very divergent views can be traced in a variety of sources from the Enlightenment to the Napoleonic Code. Michelet's phrases, "Know men in order to act upon them" sums up the problem that Martin's study constantly seeks to elucidate and illustrate: it reveals the prevailing tendency to see men as passive, giving legislators and medical people alike free rein to manipulate them at will. His analysis impels the reader to revaluate the Enlightenment concept of humanism. By drawing on a variety of sources, the author shows how the anthropology of Enlightenment and revolutionary France often conflicts with concurrent discourses. Xavier Martin is a Historian of Law and Professor at the Faculty of Law, Economics and Social Sciences at Angers University. He has published extensively on the ideology of the French Revolution and on the Code Civil of 1804.

State of Nature Stages of Society

Author : Frank Palmeri
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Frank Palmeri sees the conjectural histories of Rousseau, Hume, Herder, and other Enlightenment philosophers as a template for the development of the social sciences in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Without documents or memorials, these thinkers, he argues, employed conjecture to formulate a naturalistic account of society's commercial and secular progression. Palmeri finds evidence of speculative frameworks in the political economy of Malthus, Martineau, Mill, and Marx. He traces the influence of speculative thought in the development of anthropology and ethnography in the 1860s, the foundational sociology of Comte and Spencer, and the sociology of religion pioneered by Weber, Durkheim, and Freud. Conjectural histories reveal a surprising ambivalence toward progress, modernity, and secularization among leading thinkers of the time, an attitude that affected texts as varied as Darwin's Descent of Man, Nietzsche's Genealogy of Morality, and the novels of Walter Scott, George Eliot, and H.G. Wells. Establishing the critical value of conjectural thinking in the study of modern forms of knowledge, Palmeri concludes his investigation with its return in the work of Foucault and in recent histories on early religion, political organization, and material life.

Augustan Historical Writing

Author : Laird Okie
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This work examines the development of narrative historical writing in early eighteenth century England. In addition, it explores the historical dimension of Augustan political ideologies and the character of the Enlightenment in England. Contents: Part One: Tory and Whig History in the Age of Anne: Tory and Whig, Clarendon and Burnet: White Kennett and Laurence Echard; Part Two: The Rise of Whig Historical Writing in the Age of Walpole: Rapin-Thoyras and the Court-Country Historical Debate; The Whig Liberals: John Oldmixon and Daniel Neal; Thomas Salmon: The Tory Rebuttal to Rapin; Part Three: History and Ideology after the Fall of Walpole: Thomas Birch and the Historians; Thomas Carte and the Historical Mind of Jacobitism; James Ralph; William Guthrie; David Hume.

Man s Social Nature

Author : Norbert Waszek
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The four leading members of the Scottish Enlightenment (Francis Hutcheson, David Hume, Adam Smith, Adam Ferguson) not only agreed in regarding human life as essentially social life: they even shared the conviction that man's -social- (defined as altruistic or benevolent) propensities would prevail in the operation of society. Throughout their accounts of man, discussed in part one, a distinct tone of optimism is perceptible. The second part attempts to explain the predominance of this optimism among the Scottish intellectuals of the Enlightenment period. A full exposition of eighteenth-century Scottish history shows the philosophers' optimism to be in line with the climate of opinion belonging to an age of improvement."