Search results for: individual-differences-in-the-neurobiology-of-responses-to-alcohol-in-humans

Individual Differences in the Neurobiology of Responses to Alcohol in Humans

Author : Elaine Setiawan
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Introduction: Alcohol abuse and dependence represent one of the most substantial burdens worldwide having severe medical, occupational and personal consequences. Animal models have implicated the mesolimbic dopamine and endogenous opioid systems but studies in humans have been less clear, in each case raising the possibility of marked individual differences. To investigate this hypothesis, two studies were conducted. In Study 1, we measured striatal dopamine responses to oral alcohol ingestion in subjects at varying risk for alcohol dependence. In Study 2, we measured individual differences in naltrexone's effects on alcohol reward and self-administration. Methods: Study 1) 26 non-dependent social drinkers at varying risk for alcohol use disorders each received two positron emission tomography scans, one following alcohol (1mL/kg 94% ethanol orally) and the other following a placebo. Changes in... [11C]raclopride binding potential were determined as an index of ...

Behavioral Neurobiology of Alcohol Addiction

Author : Wolfgang Sommer
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The question how alcohol alters mood states and why this may end up becoming an addiction is puzzling alcohol researchers since decades. In this volume, an assembly of highly distinguished experts and leaders in alcohol addiction research provides lucid presentations of the current knowledge and research challenges as well as interesting viewpoints on future research directions aimed to stimulate communication and convergence between clinical and preclinical researchers, and to renew interest in the vibrant field of alcohol addiction research among a wide scientifically minded audience. Five Current Topics are discussed in this volume: Neurobiological mechanisms of alcoholism, Genetics, Clinical phenotypes and their preclinical models, Brain imaging, and Translational approaches for treatment development, both pharmacological and non-pharmacological. These areas have in our opinion brought alcohol research substantially forward and influenced our thinking about how to reach our common paramount goal, namely to offer effective treatment solutions for an extensive group of patients with largely unmet medical needs.

Stress Neuroendocrinology and Neurobiology

Author : George Fink
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Stress: Neuroendocrinology and Neurobiology: Handbook of Stress Series, Volume 2, focuses on neuroendocrinology, the discipline that deals with the way that the brain controls hormonal secretion, and in turn, the way that hormones control the brain. There have been significant advances in our understanding of neuroendocrine molecular and epigenetic mechanisms, especially in the way in which stress-induced hormonal and neurochemical changes affect brain plasticity, neuronal connectivity, and synaptic function. The book features the topic of epigenetics, and how it enables stress and other external factors to affect genetic transmission and expression without changes in DNA sequence. Integrated closely with new behavioral findings and relevance to human disorders, the concepts and data in this volume offer the reader cutting-edge information on the neuroendocrinology of stress. Volume 2 is of prime interest to neuroscientists, clinicians, researchers, academics, and graduate students in neuroendocrinology, neuroscience, biomedicine, endocrinology, psychology, psychiatry, and in some areas of the social sciences, including stress and its management in the workplace. Includes chapters that offer impressive scope with topics addressing the neuroendocrinology and endocrinology of stress Presents articles carefully selected by eminent stress researchers and prepared by contributors that represent outstanding scholarship in the field Richly illustrated, with explanatory figures and tables

Human Ecology Forum

Author :
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Digest of Neurology and Psychiatry

Author : Institute of Living
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"Abstracts and reviews of selected literature in psychiatry, neurology and their allied fields." (varies slightly)

Alcohol

Author : George F. Koob
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A current survey and synthesis of the most important findings in our understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms of addiction is detailed in our Neurobiology of Addiction series, each volume addressing a specific area of addiction. ALCOHOL, Volume 3 in the series, explores the molecular, cellular, and neurocircuitry systems in the brain responsible for alcohol addiction using the heuristic three-stage cycle framework of binge/intoxication, withdrawal/negative affect, and preoccupation/anticipation. Outlines the history and behavioral mechanism of action of alcohol relevant to the neurobiology of alcohol addiction Includes neurocircuitry, cellular, and molecular neurobiological mechanisms of alcohol addiction in each stage of the addiction cycle Explores evolving areas of research associated with all three stages of the alcohol addiction cycle, including neurobiological studies of neurodevelopmental effects of early exposure to alcohol, sleep disturbances caused by alcohol, pain interactions with alcohol, sex differences in the response to alcohol, and epigenetic/genetic interactions with alcohol.

Encyclopedia of Neuroscience Volume 1

Author : Larry R. Squire
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The Encyclopedia of the Neuroscience explores all areas of the discipline in its focused entries on a wide variety of topics in neurology, neurosurgery, psychiatry and other related areas of neuroscience. Each article is written by an expert in that specific domain and peer reviewed by the advisory board before acceptance into the encyclopedia. Each article contains a glossary, introduction, a reference section, and cross-references to other related encyclopedia articles. Written at a level suitable for university undergraduates, the breadth and depth of coverage will appeal beyond undergraduates to professionals and academics in related fields.

Departments of Labor Health and Human Services Education and Related Agencies Appropriations for 1999

Author : United States. Congress. House. Committee on Appropriations. Subcommittee on the Departments of Labor, Health and Human Services, Education, and Related Agencies
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Cognitive Neuroscience Society Annual Meeting Abstract Program

Author : Cognitive Neuroscience Society. Meeting
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The Neuroscience of Meditation

Author : Yi-Yuan Tang
File Size : 87.99 MB
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The Neuroscience of Meditation: Understanding Individual Differences explores the individual differences in learning and practicing meditation, while also providing insights on how to learn and practice effectively. The book comprehensively covers the research in brain areas and networks that mediate the positive effects of meditation upon physical and mental health. Though it examines how people differ in how they learn and practice meditation, it underscores how underlying mechanisms differ in learning and practicing meditation and how they remain unclear to researchers. This book addresses the research gap and explores the brain science behind meditation. Examines the biological mechanisms that give rise to individual differences Incorporates brain imaging and physiological recordings for further measurement of individual differences Covers the genetic association between meditation learning and practice Explores how meditation changes over the lifespan—from children to seniors

Inhibitory Control and Drug Abuse Prevention

Author : Michael T. Bardo
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The purpose of this book is to review our state of knowledge about the neurobehavioral and psychosocial processes involved in behavioral inhibitory processes and to provide an insight into how these basic research findings may be translated into the practice of drug abuse prevention interventions. Over the last decade, there has been a wealth of information indicating that substance use disorders do not simply reflect an exaggeration of reward seeking behavior, but that they also represent a dysfunction of behavioral inhibitory processes that are critical in exercising self-control. A number of studies have determined that individuals with substance use disorders have poor inhibitory control compared to non-abusing individuals. In addition, the fact that the adolescent period is often characterized by a lack of inhibitory control may be one important reason for the heightened vulnerability for the initiation of drug use during this time. Controlled experiments utilizing neuroscience techniques in laboratory animals or neuroimaging techniques in humans have revealed that individual differences in prefrontal cortical regions may underlie, at least in part, these differences in inhibitory control. Although a few excellent journal reviews have been published on the role of inhibitory deficits in drug abuse, there has been relatively little attention paid to the potential applications of this work for drug abuse prevention. The current book will provide both basic and applied researchers with an overview of this important health-relevant topic. Since translational research cuts across multiple disciplines and most readers are not familiar with all of these disciplines, the reading level will be geared to be accessible to graduate students, as well as to faculty and researchers in the field. The book will be organized around three general themes, encased within introductory and concluding chapters. The first theme will review basic neurobehavioral research findings on inhibition and drug abuse. Chapters in this theme will emphasize laboratory studies using human volunteers or laboratory animals that document the latest research implicating a relation between inhibition and drug abuse at both the neural and behavioral levels of analysis. The second theme will move the topic to at-risk populations that have impulse control problems, including children, adolescents and young adults. The third theme will concentrate on prevention science as it relates to inhibitory control. Chapters in this theme will be written by experts attempting to develop and improve prevention interventions by integrating evidence-based knowledge about inhibitory control processes. In all of the chapters, writers will be asked to speculate about innovative approaches that may be useful for the practice of prevention.

Cumulated Index Medicus

Author :
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Cognition and Addiction

Author : Marcus Munafò
File Size : 72.78 MB
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Although research into the relationship between cognitive processes and addictive behaviours is currently an area of substantial growth and interest, this title has brought together the state-of-the-art in this research. Within the title, current research and theoretical models have been synthesised by leading authors in the field of cognition and addiction, with a particular emphasis on widely investigated substances of abuse such as alcohol, nicotine, cocaine and opiates.

Neurobiology of Addiction

Author : George F. Koob
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Neurobiology of Addiction is conceived as a current survey and synthesis of the most important findings in our understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms of addiction over the past 50 years. The book includes a scholarly introduction, thorough descriptions of animal models of addiction, and separate chapters on the neurobiological mechanisms of addiction for psychostimulants, opioids, alcohol, nicotine and cannabinoids. Key information is provided about the history, sources, and pharmacokinetics and psychopathology of addiction of each drug class, as well as the behavioral and neurobiological mechanism of action for each drug class at the molecular, cellular and neurocircuitry level of analysis. A chapter on neuroimaging and drug addiction provides a synthesis of exciting new data from neuroimaging in human addicts — a unique perspective unavailable from animal studies. The final chapters explore theories of addiction at the neurobiological and neuroadaptational level both from a historical and integrative perspective. The book incorporates diverse finding with an emphasis on integration and synthesis rather than discrepancies or differences in the literature. · Presents a unique perspective on addiction that emphasizes molecular, cellular and neurocircuitry changes in the transition to addiction · Synthesizes diverse findings on the neurobiology of addiction to provide a heuristic framework for future work · Features extensive documentation through numerous original figures and tables that that will be useful for understanding and teaching

Alcohol as a Drug

Author : Charles Earl Becker
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Psychopathology

Author : W. Edward Craighead
File Size : 87.3 MB
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"Designed for graduate level courses in adult psychopathology, the Second Edition of this book incorporates the newly released (2013) DSM-5 . Unique in its approach, this text presents a historical context in which current diagnoses are made. Presenting an overview of the issues and methodologies of conducting assessments, each of the major psychological disorders is discussed in a standard format in the chapter dealing with that disorder. The text includes new chapters on nonalcohol substance abuse and contextual factors affecting diagnoses. Each chapter covers: description from DSM, using case examples; epidemiology; basic research, including neurobiology and neuroscience of the disorder; prevalence and consequences of the disorder; behavioral, social, cognitive, and emotional aspects of the disorder; and treatment of the disorder, using clinical examples showing how psychopathology and assessment influence treatment"--

Alcohol Research Health

Author :
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Nutritional Neuroscience

Author : Harris R. Lieberman
File Size : 66.42 MB
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Scientific and commercial interest in the field of nutritional neuroscience has grown immensely over the last decade. Today, a broad range of dietary supplements, foods for weight loss, functional foods, nutraceuticals, and medical foods are widely available. Many of these products are marketed for their effects on behavior or brain function, which relates directly to nutritional neuroscience and raises issues regarding their safety and efficacy. The only comprehensive reference on this subject, Nutritional Neuroscience discusses the relationship of nutrition to behavior and neuroscience. Following a review of fundamental issues and methods, the book covers the effects of macronutrients and micronutrients on brain function and behavior. Chapters are devoted to the effects of a wide range of foods, specific nutrients, food constituents, and food additives on cognitive behavior and development. The final section examines foods and supplements that modulate brain function. With a broad range of information presented in a simple and straightforward manner, this book provides an ideal introduction to nutritional neuroscience. The depth of information and comprehensive coverage also make this an essential reference for specialists involved in nutrition, neuroscience, pharmacology, psychology, and related disciplines.

Biomedical Index to PHS supported Research pt A Subject access A H

Author :
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Neurobiology of Psychiatric Disorders

Author : Thomas E Schlaepfer
File Size : 34.95 MB
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This new volume in the Handbook of Clinical Neurology presents a comprehensive review of the fundamental science and clinical treatment of psychiatric disorders. Advances in neuroscience have allowed for dramatic advances in the understanding of psychiatric disorders and treatment. Brain disorders, such as depression and schizophrenia, are the leading cause of disability worldwide. It is estimated that over 25% of the adult population in North America are diagnosed yearly with at least one mental disorder and similar results hold for Europe. Now that neurology and psychiatry agree that all mental disorders are in fact, "brain diseases," this volume provides a foundational introduction to the science defining these disorders and details best practices for psychiatric treatment. Provides a comprehensive review of the scientific foundations of psychiatric disorders and psychiatric treatment Includes detailed results from genetics, molecular biology, brain imaging, and neuropathological, immunological, epidemiological, metabolic, therapeutic and historical aspects of the major psychiatric disorders A "must have" reference and resource for neuroscientists, neurologists, psychiatrists, and clinical psychologists as well as all research scientists investigating disorders of the brain