Search results for: intellectual-property-law-and-access-to-medicines

Intellectual Property Law and Access to Medicines

Author : Srividhya Ragavan
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The history of patent harmonization is a story of dynamic actors, whose interactions with established structures shaped the patent regime. From the inception of the trade regime to include intellectual property (IP) rights to the present, this book documents the role of different sets of actors – states, transnational business corporations, or civil society groups – and their influence on the structures – such as national and international agreements, organizations, and private entities – that have caused changes to healthcare and access to medication. Presenting the debates over patents, trade, and the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS Agreement), as it galvanized non-state and nonbusiness actors, the book highlights how an alternative framing and understanding of pharmaceutical patent rights emerged: as a public issue, instead of a trade or IP issue. The book thus offers an important analysis of the legal and political dynamics through which the contest for access to lifesaving medication has been, and will continue to be, fought. In addition to academics working in the areas of international law, development, and public health, this book will also be of interest to policy makers, state actors, and others with relevant concerns working in nongovernmental and international organizations.

Intellectual Property Law and Access to Medicine

Author : Srividhya Ragavan
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The history of patent harmonization is a story of dynamic actors, whose interactions with established structures shaped the patent regime. From the inception of the trade regime to include intellectual property rights to the present, this book documents the role of different sets of actors - such as states, transnational business corporations or civil society groups - and their influence on the structures - such as national and international agreements, organizations and private entities - that have caused changes to healthcare and access to medication. Presenting the debates over patents, trade and TRIPS, as it galvanized non-state and non-business actors, the book highlights how an alternative framing and understanding of pharmaceutical patent rights emerged: as a public issue, instead of a trade or IP issue. The book thus offers an important analysis of the legal and political dynamics through which the contest for access to life-saving medication has been, and will continue to be, fought. In addition to academics working in the areas of international law, development, and public health, this book will also be of interest to policy makers, state actors and others with relevant concerns working in non-governmental and international organizations.

Negotiating Health

Author : Pedro Roffe
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In developing countries, access to affordable medicines for the treatment of diseases such as AIDS and malaria remains a matter of life or death. In Africa, for instance, more than one million children die each year from malaria alone, a figure which could soon be far higher with the extension of patent rules for pharmaceuticals. Previously, access to essential medicines was made possible by the supply of much cheaper generics, manufactured largely by India; from 2005, however, the availability of these drugs is threatened as new WTO rules take effect. Halting the spread of malaria and HIV/AIDS is one of the eight Millennium Goals adopted at the UN Millennium Summit, which makes this a timely and topical book. Informed analysis is provided by internationally renowned contributors who look at the post-2005 world and discuss how action may be taken to ensure that intellectual property regimes are interpreted and implemented in a manner supportive to the right to protect public health and, in particular, to promote access to medicines for all.

Intellectual Property Pharmaceuticals and Public Health

Author : Kenneth C. Shadlen
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'This impressive collection offers fascinating new perspectives on the impact of pharmaceutical patents on access to medicines in developing countries. The volume's editors have put together an important book that sets out clearly the challenges to public health in a wide range of national contexts. The book will be a valuable text for all scholars and decision-makers interested in the global politics of intellectual property rights and public health.' – Duncan Matthews, Queen Mary, University of London, UK This up-to-date book examines pharmaceutical development, access to medicines, and the protection of public health in the context of two fundamental changes that the global political economy has undergone since the 1970s, the globalization of trade and production and the increased harmonization of national regulations on intellectual property rights. With authors from eleven different countries presenting case studies of national experiences in Africa, Asia and the Americas, the book analyzes national strategies to promote pharmaceutical innovation, while at the same time assuring widespread access to medicines through generic pharmaceutical production and generic pharmaceutical importation. The expert chapters focus on patents as well as an array of regulatory instruments, including pricing and drug registration policies. Presenting in-depth analysis and original empirical research, this book will strongly appeal to academics and students of intellectual property, international health, international political economy, international development and law.

TRIPS and Access to Medicines

Author : Renata Curzel
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Although ideally a patent system for pharmaceuticals should serve to incentivize research into the development of new medicines, the COVID-19 pandemic has exposed the equal importance of drug access and affordability. This book, by focusing on the Brazilian rule which makes the grant of pharmaceutical patents dependent on the prior consent of the National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA), shows how the Brazilian model affords an example for other countries to follow in dealing with tensions between patent protection and the right to healthcare. Based on an empirical study in which the author examined 147 reports issued by ANVISA as a basis for its decisions, the book deals with such central questions concerning the interface of regulation and innovation in the patent system as the following: compatibility between ANVISA’s prior consent mechanism and the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Agreement; how “evergreening” and “trivial patents” undermine public health and access to medicines; ways of correcting abuses of patent rights and controlling quality of patents; and the discourse on health as a human right. Along with her examination of ANVISA reports, the author analyzes how Article 229-C LPI, which introduced the need of ANVISA’s prior consent to the patent grant of pharmaceuticals in Brazil, has been interpreted in Brazilian case law. Interviews with Brazilian experts are also included. In its commitment to harmonizing patent rights and the right to access of affordable medicines, Brazil’s patent system for pharmaceuticals stands out as a workable response to the basic problem of access to medicines in the developing world. By describing the successes and failures in the Brazilian policy of promoting drug access, this book helps policymakers in developing and emerging countries to better explore TRIPS flexibilities when dealing with similar problems, and provides practitioners in the law of the World Trade Organization, patent law, competition law, and health law with a guide to how a more equitable pharmaceutical patenting system could work in practice.

Access to Medicines and Vaccines

Author : Carlos M. Correa
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Intellectual Property and Health Technologies

Author : Joanna T. Brougher
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Intellectual Property and Health Technologies Balancing Innovation and the Public's Health Joanna T. Brougher, Esq., MPH At first glance, ownership of intellectual property seems straightforward: the control over an invention or idea. But with the recent explosion of new scientific discoveries poised to transform public health and healthcare systems, costly and lengthy patent disputes threaten both to undermine the attempts to develop new medical technologies and to keep potentially life-saving treatments from patients who need them. Intellectual Property and Health Technologies grounds readers in patent law and explores how scientific research and enterprise are evolving in response. Geared specifically to the medical disciplines, it differentiates among forms of legal protection for inventors such as copyrights and patents, explains their limits, and argues for balance between competing forces of exclusivity and availability. Chapters delve into the major legal controversies concerning medical and biotechnologies in terms of pricing, markets, and especially the tension between innovation and access, including: The patent-eligibility of genes The patent-eligibility of medical process patents The rights and roles of universities and inventors The balancing of access, innovation, and profit in drug development The tension between biologics, small-molecule drugs, and their generic counterparts International patent law and access to medicine in the developing world As these issues continue to shape and define the debate, Intellectual Property and Health Technologies enables professionals and graduate students in public health, health policy, healthcare administration, and medicine to understand patent law and how it affects the development of medical technology and the delivery of medicine.

A Human Rights Framework for Intellectual Property Innovation and Access to Medicines

Author : Joo-Young Lee
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This book examines the relationship between intellectual property in pharmaceuticals and access to medicines from a human rights perspective, with a view to contributing to the development of a human rights framework that can guide States in enacting and implementing intellectual property law and policy. The study primarily explores whether conflicts between patents and human rights in the context of access to medicines are inevitable, or whether patents can be made to serve human rights. What could be a normative framework that human rights might provide for patents and innovation? Joo-Young Lee argues that it is necessary to have a deepened understanding of each of the two sets of norms that govern this issue, that is, patent law and international human rights law. The chapters investigate the relevant dimensions of patent law, and analyse particular human rights bearing upon the issue of intellectual property and access to medicines. This study will be of great interest to academic specialists, practitioners or professionals in the fields of human rights, trade, and intellectual property, as well as policy makers, activists, and health professionals across the world working in intellectual property and human rights.

Intellectual Property Medicine and Health

Author : Johanna Gibson
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Intellectual Property, Medicine and Health examines critical issues and debates including access to knowledge and medicinal products, human rights and development, innovations in life technologies and the possibility for ethical frameworks for intellectual property law and its application in public health. The central question of trust and the beneficial interests of society in the use of products of intellectual property, particularly in the fulfillment of the right to access medicinal products, emerge as key to achieving meaningful access to knowledge in health and medicine and the realization of relevant and equitable use of the benefits of scientific research in all societies.

Balancing Wealth and Health

Author : Rochelle Cooper Dreyfuss
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This book examines the tension between intellectual property law and access to medicine in a set of developing countries caught between their international trade obligations and their commitment to the health of their citizens. It presents case studies, conducted with a common methodology, in eleven Latin American countries.