Search results for: intuitionism-vs-classicism

Mathematical Intuitionism and Intersubjectivity

Author : Tomasz Placek
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In 1907 Luitzen Egbertus Jan Brouwer defended his doctoral dissertation on the foundations of mathematics and with this event the modem version of mathematical intuitionism came into being. Brouwer attacked the main currents of the philosophy of mathematics: the formalists and the Platonists. In tum, both these schools began viewing intuitionism as the most harmful party among all known philosophies of mathematics. That was the origin of the now-90-year-old debate over intuitionism. As both sides have appealed in their arguments to philosophical propositions, the discussions have attracted the attention of philosophers as well. One might ask here what role a philosopher can play in controversies over mathematical intuitionism. Can he reasonably enter into disputes among mathematicians? I believe that these disputes call for intervention by a philo sopher. The three best-known arguments for intuitionism, those of Brouwer, Heyting and Dummett, are based on ontological and epistemological claims, or appeal to theses that properly belong to a theory of meaning. Those lines of argument should be investigated in order to find what their assumptions are, whether intuitionistic consequences really follow from those assumptions, and finally, whether the premises are sound and not absurd. The intention of this book is thus to consider seriously the arguments of mathematicians, even if philosophy was not their main field of interest. There is little sense in disputing whether what mathematicians said about the objectivity and reality of mathematical facts belongs to philosophy, or not.

Intuitionistic Proof Versus Classical Truth

Author : Enrico Martino
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This book examines the role of acts of choice in classical and intuitionistic mathematics. Featuring fifteen papers – both new and previously published – it offers a fresh analysis of concepts developed by the mathematician and philosopher L.E.J. Brouwer, the founder of intuitionism. The author explores Brouwer’s idealization of the creative subject as the basis for intuitionistic truth, and in the process he also discusses an important, related question: to what extent does the intuitionistic perspective succeed in avoiding the classical realistic notion of truth? The papers detail realistic aspects in the idealization of the creative subject and investigate the hidden role of choice even in classical logic and mathematics, covering such topics as bar theorem, type theory, inductive evidence, Beth models, fallible models, and more. In addition, the author offers a critical analysis of the response of key mathematicians and philosophers to Brouwer’s work. These figures include Michael Dummett, Saul Kripke, Per Martin-Löf, and Arend Heyting. This book appeals to researchers and graduate students with an interest in philosophy of mathematics, linguistics, and mathematics.

Elements of Intuitionism

Author : Michael Dummett
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This is a new edition of one of the best known Oxford Logic Guides. The book gives an introduction to intuitionistic mathematics, leading the reader through the basic mathematical and philosophical concepts.

The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Mathematics and Logic

Author : Stewart Shapiro
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Mathematics and logic have been central topics of concern since the dawn of philosophy. Since logic is the study of correct reasoning, it is a fundamental branch of epistemology and a priority in any philosophical system. Philosophers have focused on mathematics as a case study for general philosophical issues and for its role in overall knowledge- gathering. Today, philosophy of mathematics and logic remain central disciplines in contemporary philosophy, as evidenced by the regular appearance of articles on these topics in the best mainstream philosophical journals; in fact, the last decade has seen an explosion of scholarly work in these areas. This volume covers these disciplines in a comprehensive and accessible manner, giving the reader an overview of the major problems, positions, and battle lines. The 26 contributed chapters are by established experts in the field, and their articles contain both exposition and criticism as well as substantial development of their own positions. The essays, which are substantially self-contained, serve both to introduce the reader to the subject and to engage in it at its frontiers. Certain major positions are represented by two chapters--one supportive and one critical. The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Math and Logic is a ground-breaking reference like no other in its field. It is a central resource to those wishing to learn about the philosophy of mathematics and the philosophy of logic, or some aspect thereof, and to those who actively engage in the discipline, from advanced undergraduates to professional philosophers, mathematicians, and historians.

Labelled Non Classical Logics

Author : Luca Viganò
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The subject of Labelled Non-Classical Logics is the development and investigation of a framework for the modular and uniform presentation and implementation of non-classical logics, in particular modal and relevance logics. Logics are presented as labelled deduction systems, which are proved to be sound and complete with respect to the corresponding Kripke-style semantics. We investigate the proof theory of our systems, and show them to possess structural properties such as normalization and the subformula property, which we exploit not only to establish advantages and limitations of our approach with respect to related ones, but also to give, by means of a substructural analysis, a new proof-theoretic method for investigating decidability and complexity of (some of) the logics we consider. All of our deduction systems have been implemented in the generic theorem prover Isabelle, thus providing a simple and natural environment for interactive proof development. Labelled Non-Classical Logics is essential reading for researchers and practitioners interested in the theory and applications of non-classical logics.

Foundational Theories of Classical and Constructive Mathematics

Author : Giovanni Sommaruga
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The book "Foundational Theories of Classical and Constructive Mathematics" is a book on the classical topic of foundations of mathematics. Its originality resides mainly in its treating at the same time foundations of classical and foundations of constructive mathematics. This confrontation of two kinds of foundations contributes to answering questions such as: Are foundations/foundational theories of classical mathematics of a different nature compared to those of constructive mathematics? Do they play the same role for the resp. mathematics? Are there connections between the two kinds of foundational theories? etc. The confrontation and comparison is often implicit and sometimes explicit. Its great advantage is to extend the traditional discussion of the foundations of mathematics and to render it at the same time more subtle and more differentiated. Another important aspect of the book is that some of its contributions are of a more philosophical, others of a more technical nature. This double face is emphasized, since foundations of mathematics is an eminent topic in the philosophy of mathematics: hence both sides of this discipline ought to be and are being paid due to.

Divination and Human Nature

Author : Peter T. Struck
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Divination and Human Nature casts a new perspective on the rich tradition of ancient divination—the reading of divine signs in oracles, omens, and dreams. Popular attitudes during classical antiquity saw these readings as signs from the gods while modern scholars have treated such beliefs as primitive superstitions. In this book, Peter Struck reveals instead that such phenomena provoked an entirely different accounting from the ancient philosophers. These philosophers produced subtle studies into what was an odd but observable fact—that humans could sometimes have uncanny insights—and their work signifies an early chapter in the cognitive history of intuition. Examining the writings of Plato, Aristotle, the Stoics, and the Neoplatonists, Struck demonstrates that they all observed how, setting aside the charlatans and swindlers, some people had premonitions defying the typical bounds of rationality. Given the wide differences among these ancient thinkers, Struck notes that they converged on seeing this surplus insight as an artifact of human nature, projections produced under specific conditions by our physiology. For the philosophers, such unexplained insights invited a speculative search for an alternative and more naturalistic system of cognition. Recovering a lost piece of an ancient tradition, Divination and Human Nature illustrates how philosophers of the classical era interpreted the phenomena of divination as a practice closer to intuition and instinct than magic.

A Unified Analytical Foundation for Constraint Handling Rules

Author : Hariolf Betz
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The non-deterministic rule-based programming language of Constraint Handling Rules (CHR) features a remarkable combination of desirable properties: a foundation in classical logic, powerful analysis methods for deciding program properties – especially confluence – and an efficient execution model. Upon a closer look, we observe several limitations to this asset. In this thesis, we introduce several concepts to amend for these short- comings. Firstly, we propose an unusually concise formulation of the two most important semantic interpretations of CHR. Secondly, we analyse the relationship between the major diverging interpretations of CHR. Finally, we found CHR on intuitionistic linear logic.

Mathematical Intuition

Author : R.L. Tieszen
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"Intuition" has perhaps been the least understood and the most abused term in philosophy. It is often the term used when one has no plausible explanation for the source of a given belief or opinion. According to some sceptics, it is understood only in terms of what it is not, and it is not any of the better understood means for acquiring knowledge. In mathematics the term has also unfortunately been used in this way. Thus, intuition is sometimes portrayed as if it were the Third Eye, something only mathematical "mystics", like Ramanujan, possess. In mathematics the notion has also been used in a host of other senses: by "intuitive" one might mean informal, or non-rigourous, or visual, or holistic, or incomplete, or perhaps even convincing in spite of lack of proof. My aim in this book is to sweep all of this aside, to argue that there is a perfectly coherent, philosophically respectable notion of mathematical intuition according to which intuition is a condition necessary for mathemati cal knowledge. I shall argue that mathematical intuition is not any special or mysterious kind of faculty, and that it is possible to make progress in the philosophical analysis of this notion. This kind of undertaking has a precedent in the philosophy of Kant. While I shall be mostly developing ideas about intuition due to Edmund Husser! there will be a kind of Kantian argument underlying the entire book.

Automated Deduction in Classical and Non Classical Logics

Author : Ricardo Caferra
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This volume presents a collection of thoroughly reviewed revised full papers on automated deduction in classical, modal, and many-valued logics, with an emphasis on first-order theories. Five invited papers by prominent researchers give a consolidated view of the recent developments in first-order theorem proving. The 14 research papers presented went through a twofold selection process and were first presented at the International Workshop on First-Order Theorem Proving, FTP'98, held in Vienna, Austria, in November 1998. The contributed papers reflect the current status in research in the area; most of the results presented rely on resolution or tableaux methods, with a few exceptions choosing the equational paradigm.

Knowledge Based and Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems Part II

Author : Andreas Koenig
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The four-volume set LNAI 6881-LNAI 6884 constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Knowledge-Based Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems, KES 2011, held in Kaiserslautern, Germany, in September 2011. Part 2: The total of 244 high-quality papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions. The 70 papers of Part 2 are organized in topical sections on web intelligence, text and multimedia mining and retrieval, intelligent tutoring systems and e-learning environments, other / misc. intelligent systems topics, methods and techniques of artificial and computational intelligence in economics, finance and decision making, workshop on seamless integration of semantic technologies in computer-supported office work (sistcow), innovations in chance discovery, advanced knowledge-based systems, recent trends in knowledge engineering, smart systems, and their applications.

Proof Theory

Author : Katalin Bimbo
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Although sequent calculi constitute an important category of proof systems, they are not as well known as axiomatic and natural deduction systems. Addressing this deficiency, Proof Theory: Sequent Calculi and Related Formalisms presents a comprehensive treatment of sequent calculi, including a wide range of variations. It focuses on sequent calculi

Labelled Deduction

Author : David Basin
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Labelled deduction is an approach to providing frameworks for presenting and using different logics in a uniform and natural way by enriching the language of a logic with additional information of a semantic proof-theoretical nature. Labelled deduction systems often possess attractive properties, such as modularity in the way that families of related logics are presented, parameterised proofs of metatheoretic properties, and ease of mechanisability. It is thus not surprising that labelled deduction has been applied to problems in computer science, AI, mathematical logic, cognitive science, philosophy and computational linguistics - for example, formalizing and reasoning about dynamic `state oriented' properties such as knowledge, belief, time, space, and resources.

Proof Theory and Automated Deduction

Author : Jean Goubault-Larrecq
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Proof Theory and Automated Deduction is written for final-year undergraduate and first-year post-graduate students. It should also serve as a valuable reference for researchers in logic and computer science. It covers basic notions in logic, with a particular stress on proof theory, as opposed to, for example, model theory or set theory; and shows how they are applied in computer science, and especially the particular field of automated deduction, i.e. the automated search for proofs of mathematical propositions. We have chosen to give an in-depth analysis of the basic notions, instead of giving a mere sufficient analysis of basic and less basic notions. We often derive the same theorem by different methods, showing how different mathematical tools can be used to get at the very nature of the objects at hand, and how these tools relate to each other. Instead of presenting a linear collection of results, we have tried to show that all results and methods are tightly interwoven. We believe that understanding how to travel along this web of relations between concepts is more important than just learning the basic theorems and techniques by rote. Audience: The book is a valuable reference for researchers in logic and computer science.

Logic from Russell to Church

Author : Dov M. Gabbay
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This volume is number five in the 11-volume Handbook of the History of Logic. It covers the first 50 years of the development of mathematical logic in the 20th century, and concentrates on the achievements of the great names of the period--Russell, Post, Gödel, Tarski, Church, and the like. This was the period in which mathematical logic gave mature expression to its four main parts: set theory, model theory, proof theory and recursion theory. Collectively, this work ranks as one of the greatest achievements of our intellectual history. Written by leading researchers in the field, both this volume and the Handbook as a whole are definitive reference tools for senior undergraduates, graduate students and researchers in the history of logic, the history of philosophy, and any discipline, such as mathematics, computer science, and artificial intelligence, for whom the historical background of his or her work is a salient consideration. • The entire range of modal logic is covered • Serves as a singular contribution to the intellectual history of the 20th century • Contains the latest scholarly discoveries and interpretative insights

The New Yearbook for Phenomenology and Phenomenological Philosophy

Author : Steven Crowell
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The New Yearbook for Phenomenology and Phenomenological Philosophy provides an annual international forum for phenomenological research in the spirit of Husserl's groundbreaking work and the extension of this work by such figures as Scheler, Heidegger, Sartre, Levinas, Merleau-Ponty and Gadamer.

Intuition and the Axiomatic Method

Author : Emily Carson
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Following developments in modern geometry, logic and physics, many scientists and philosophers in the modern era considered Kant’s theory of intuition to be obsolete. But this only represents one side of the story concerning Kant, intuition and twentieth century science. Several prominent mathematicians and physicists were convinced that the formal tools of modern logic, set theory and the axiomatic method are not sufficient for providing mathematics and physics with satisfactory foundations. All of Hilbert, Gödel, Poincaré, Weyl and Bohr thought that intuition was an indispensable element in describing the foundations of science. They had very different reasons for thinking this, and they had very different accounts of what they called intuition. But they had in common that their views of mathematics and physics were significantly influenced by their readings of Kant. In the present volume, various views of intuition and the axiomatic method are explored, beginning with Kant’s own approach. By way of these investigations, we hope to understand better the rationale behind Kant’s theory of intuition, as well as to grasp many facets of the relations between theories of intuition and the axiomatic method, dealing with both their strengths and limitations; in short, the volume covers logical and non-logical, historical and systematic issues in both mathematics and physics.

Multi expert performance evaluation of healthcare institutions using an integrated intuitionistic fuzzy AHP DEA methodology

Author : Irem Otay
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Healthcare management and healthcare industry have been one of the popular and complex topics that many researchers and professionals have focused on.

Logic for Applications

Author : Anil Nerode
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In writing this book, our goal was to produce a text suitable for a first course in mathematical logic more attuned than the traditional textbooks to the re cent dramatic growth in the applications oflogic to computer science. Thus, our choice oftopics has been heavily influenced by such applications. Of course, we cover the basic traditional topics: syntax, semantics, soundnes5, completeness and compactness as well as a few more advanced results such as the theorems of Skolem-Lowenheim and Herbrand. Much ofour book, however, deals with other less traditional topics. Resolution theorem proving plays a major role in our treatment of logic especially in its application to Logic Programming and PRO LOG. We deal extensively with the mathematical foundations ofall three ofthese subjects. In addition, we include two chapters on nonclassical logics - modal and intuitionistic - that are becoming increasingly important in computer sci ence. We develop the basic material on the syntax and semantics (via Kripke frames) for each of these logics. In both cases, our approach to formal proofs, soundness and completeness uses modifications of the same tableau method in troduced for classical logic. We indicate how it can easily be adapted to various other special types of modal logics. A number of more advanced topics (includ ing nonmonotonic logic) are also briefly introduced both in the nonclassical logic chapters and in the material on Logic Programming and PROLOG.

Truth or Consequences

Author : M. Dunn
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The essays in this collection are written by students, colleagues, and friends of Nuel Belnap to honor him on his sixtieth birthday. Our original plan was to include pieces from fonner students only, but we have deviated from this ever so slightly for a variety of personal and practical reasons. Belnap's research accomplishments are numerous and well known: He has founded (together with Alan Ross Anderson) a whole branch of logic known as "relevance logic." He has made contributions of fundamental importance to the logic of questions. His work in modal logic, fonnal pragmatics, and the theory of truth has been highly influential. And the list goes on. Belnap's accomplishments as a teacher are also distinguished and well known but, by virtue of the essential privacy of the teaching relationship, not so well understood. We would like to reflect a little on what makes him such an outstanding teacher.