Search results for: iron-in-soils-and-clay-minerals

Iron in Soils and Clay Minerals

Author : J.W. Stucki
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Probably more than any other element, iron markedly influences the chemical and physical properties of soils and sediments in the earth. Considering its transition metal status, with potential variation in electronic configuration, ionic radius, and magnetic moment, combined with its abundance and relatively large mass, little wonder that one sees its unique influence on every hand. Pre sentations at the NATO Advanced Study Institute (NATO AS!) on Iron in Soils and Clay Minerals reviewed and discussed the occurrence, behavior, and properties of Fe-bearing minerals found in soils and in the clay mineral groups kaolinite, smectite, and mica. Also discussed at the NATO AS! were the basic chemical properties of Fe, methods for separating and identifying Fe in minerals, and the role of Fe minerals in weathering and other soil-forming processes. The present publication is the reviewed and edited proceedings of that Advanced Study Institute. The sequence of chapters follows the general pattern beginning with introductory chapters which overview the general occurrence of Fe in the earth and its chemistry, both generally and in mineral environments, followed by identification and characterization methods for Fe and Fe phases in minerals. The properties and behavior of Fe oxides, Fe-bearing clay minerals, and other Fe minerals in soils are then described, and the text ends with a summary of the role of Fe in soil-forming processes. A Table of Contents and subject index are provided to assist the reader in finding specific topics within the text.

Clays and Clay Minerals

Author : Ada Swineford
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Clays and Clay Minerals, Volume 5 contains the proceedings of the Seventh National Conference on Clays and Clay Minerals held in Washington, D.C., on October 20-23, 1958. The papers explore developments in clays and clay mineralogy and cover topics such as differential settling tendencies of clay minerals in saline waters; effect of seawater on clay minerals; clay mineralogy of bottom sediments; relationships in the montmorillonite group of clay minerals; and water content of vermiculite. Advances in X-ray diftractometry of clay minerals are also discussed. This book is comprised of 23 chapters and begins with an analysis of differential settling velocities of individual clay mineral types and clay mineral mixtures in quiet saline water. The reader is then introduced to rapid dissolution of allophane and kaolinite-halloysite after dehydration; formation of chlorite-like structures from montmorillonite; regional clay mineral patterns in the Gulf of Mexico; and quantitative X-ray determinations of some aluminous clay minerals in rocks. The geology of clay deposits in parts of Washington and Idaho is also examined, along with the influence of exchangeable cations on the viscosity of clay suspensions. The final chapter presents the results of X-ray analysis of soil colloids by a modified salted paste method. This volume will be of value to earth scientists, mineralogists, and those interested in clays.

Handbook of Clay Science

Author : Faïza Bergaya
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The first general texts on clay mineralogy and the practical applications of clay, written by R.E. Grim, were published some 40-50 years ago. Since then, a vast literature has accumulated but this information is scattered and not always accessible. The Handbook of Clay Science aims at assembling the scattered literature on the varied and diverse aspects that make up the discipline of clay science. The topics covered range from the fundamental structures (including textures) and properties of clays and clay minerals, through their environmental, health and industrial applications, to their analysis and characterization by modern instrumental techniques. Also included are the clay-microbe interaction, layered double hydroxides, zeolites, cement hydrates, genesis of clay minerals as well as the history and teaching of clay science. No modern book in the English language is available that is as comprehensive and wide-ranging in coverage as the Handbook of Clay Science. In providing a critical and up-to-date assessment of the accumulated information, this will serve as the first point of entry into the literature for both newcomers and graduate students, while for research scientists, university teachers, industrial chemists, and environmental engineers the book will become a standard reference text. * Presents contributions from 66 authors from 18 different countries who have come together to produce the most comprehensive modern handbook on clay science * Provides up-to-date concepts, properties, and reactivity of clays and clay minerals in a one-stop source of information * Covers classical and new environmental, industrial, and health applications of clays, as well as the instrumental techniques for clay mineral analysis * Combines geology, mineralogy, crystallography with physics, geotechnology, and soil mechanics together with inorganic, organic, physical, and colloid chemistry for a truly multidisciplinary approach

The Origin of Clay Minerals in Soils and Weathered Rocks

Author : Bruce B. Velde
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Of huge relevance in a number of fields, this is a survey of the different processes of soil clay mineral formation and the consequences of these processes concerning the soil ecosystem, especially plant and mineral. Two independent systems form soil materials. The first is the interaction of rocks and water, unstable minerals adjusting to surface conditions. The second is the interaction of the biosphere with clays in the upper parts of alteration profiles.

Interacting Processes in Soil Science

Author : R.J. Wagenet
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Interacting Processes in Soil Science focuses on coupled processes in soil. Topics covered in this important volume include the effects of inorganic salts upon water flow, modeling of sorption, transport and transformation of organic solutes, and the effects of microorganisms on silicate clay minerals. The book presents studies and approaches that can be extended and complemented by innovative work in the future. Interacting Processes in Soil Science will be an essential reference for all researchers and students in soil science, soil and water engineering, civil and environmental engineering, earth sciences, and hydrology.

Soils Plants and Clay Minerals

Author : Pierre Velde
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This book represents a rather complicated history of encounters, changes in research interest and some very interesting results. Initially it is the very fruitful interaction of Ecology and Geology. The point of view of ecologists is extremely refreshing for hard science people. Interaction and inter-relationships are the focus of Ecology whereas the traditional sciences, such as Geology, have tried to isolate the natural phenomena so that thye could be studied in a more rigorous manner. The traditional sciences were of course natural science – based since the world to be observed was at the door step of everyone, mountains, weather patterns, plants and so forth. Chemistry and Physics were de ned after Mathematics in order to establish more precise and viable principles of the behavior of the materials that formed the world around mankind. It became quite clear that the observation of the natural world was too complicated to consider all of the possible variables which could affect an observed process or situation. The systems were simpli ed and taken into the laboratory in order to better master the phenomena observed. Physics c- cerned itself with non-reacting materials, subjected to essentially mechanical forces.

Advances in Soil Science

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Soil is formed from the physical and chemical weathering of rocks-processes described historically becau'se they involve eons of time-by glaciation and by wind and water transport of soil materials, which are later deposited in deltas and loessial planes. Soil undergoes further transformations over time and provides a habitat for biological life and a base for the development of civilizations. Soil is dynamic-always changing as a result of the forces of nature and particularly by the influences of man. Soil has been studied as long as history has been documented. Numerous references to soil are found in historical writings such as Aristotle (384-322 Be), Theophrastus (372-286 Be), Cato the E1der (234-149 Be), and Varro (116-27 Be). Some of the earliest historical references have to do with the erosional forces of wind and water. The study of soils today has taken on increased importance because a rapidly expanding population is placing demands never before experienced on the soil. This has led to an increase in land degradation. Land degradation is one of the most severe problems facing mankind. Volume 11 of Advances in Soil Science was devoted entirely to this critical area of soil science. This series, Advances in Soil Science, was established to provide a forum for leading scientists to analyze and summarize the available scientific information on a subject, assessing its importance and identifying additional research needs.

Methods of Soil Analysis Part 3

Author : D. L. Sparks
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A thorough presentation of analytical methods for characterizing soil chemical properties and processes, Methods, Part 3 includes chapters on Fourier transform infrared, Raman, electron spin resonance, x-ray photoelectron, and x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopies, and more.

Handbook of Soil Sciences

Author : Pan Ming Huang
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An evolving, living organic/inorganic covering, soil is in dynamic equilibrium with the atmosphere above, the biosphere within, and the geology below. It acts as an anchor for roots, a purveyor of water and nutrients, a residence for a vast community of microorganisms and animals, a sanitizer of the environment, and a source of raw materials for construction and manufacturing. To develop lasting solutions to the challenges of balanced use and stewardship of the Earth, we require a fundamental understanding of soil—from its elastic, porous three-phase system to its components, processes, and reactions. Handbook of Soil Sciences: Properties and Processes, Second Edition is the first of two volumes that form a comprehensive reference on the discipline of soil science. Completely revised and updated to reflect the current state of knowledge, this volume covers the traditional areas of soil science: soil physics, soil chemistry, soil mineralogy, soil biology and biochemistry, and pedology. Contributors discuss the application of physical principles to characterize the soil system and mass and energy transport processes within the critical zone. They present significant advances in soil chemistry; describe how minerals are formed and transformed; and provide an introduction to the soil biota. They also examine geomorphology, land use, hydropedology, and subaqueous soils as well as the classification and digital mapping of soil. Critical elements addressed in each section include: Descriptions of concepts and theories Definitions, approaches, methodologies, and procedures Data in tabular and figure format Extensive references This cohesive handbook provides a thorough understanding of soil science principles and practices based on a rigorous, complete, and up-to-date treatment of the subject matter compiled by leading scientists. It is a resource rich in data, offering professional soil scientists, agronomists, engineers, ecologists, biologists, naturalists, and students their first point of entry into a particular aspect of the soil sciences.

Soil Micromorphology Studies in Management and Genesis

Author : A.J. Ringrose-Voase
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The papers in this volume cover micromorphological studies of a wide variety of topics, at various scales from ultramicro- to mesoscopic. Topics included are: soil management; soil structure; surface crusts; hardpans and cemented layers; soil biota; soil genesis; hydromorphic soils; paleosols; archeology; and general pedology. The range of papers reflects the growing use of soil micromorphology in understanding soil problems in land-use and the increasing use of quantitative techniques, together with more traditional applications in pedology. The book is well illustrated with micrographs and contains both author and keyword indices.