Search results for: iron-in-soils-and-clay-minerals

Iron in Soils and Clay Minerals

Author : J.W. Stucki
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Probably more than any other element, iron markedly influences the chemical and physical properties of soils and sediments in the earth. Considering its transition metal status, with potential variation in electronic configuration, ionic radius, and magnetic moment, combined with its abundance and relatively large mass, little wonder that one sees its unique influence on every hand. Pre sentations at the NATO Advanced Study Institute (NATO AS!) on Iron in Soils and Clay Minerals reviewed and discussed the occurrence, behavior, and properties of Fe-bearing minerals found in soils and in the clay mineral groups kaolinite, smectite, and mica. Also discussed at the NATO AS! were the basic chemical properties of Fe, methods for separating and identifying Fe in minerals, and the role of Fe minerals in weathering and other soil-forming processes. The present publication is the reviewed and edited proceedings of that Advanced Study Institute. The sequence of chapters follows the general pattern beginning with introductory chapters which overview the general occurrence of Fe in the earth and its chemistry, both generally and in mineral environments, followed by identification and characterization methods for Fe and Fe phases in minerals. The properties and behavior of Fe oxides, Fe-bearing clay minerals, and other Fe minerals in soils are then described, and the text ends with a summary of the role of Fe in soil-forming processes. A Table of Contents and subject index are provided to assist the reader in finding specific topics within the text.

Iron in Soils and Clay Minerals

Author : J.W. Stucki
File Size : 70.17 MB
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Probably more than any other element, iron markedly influences the chemical and physical properties of soils and sediments in the earth. Considering its transition metal status, with potential variation in electronic configuration, ionic radius, and magnetic moment, combined with its abundance and relatively large mass, little wonder that one sees its unique influence on every hand. Pre sentations at the NATO Advanced Study Institute (NATO AS!) on Iron in Soils and Clay Minerals reviewed and discussed the occurrence, behavior, and properties of Fe-bearing minerals found in soils and in the clay mineral groups kaolinite, smectite, and mica. Also discussed at the NATO AS! were the basic chemical properties of Fe, methods for separating and identifying Fe in minerals, and the role of Fe minerals in weathering and other soil-forming processes. The present publication is the reviewed and edited proceedings of that Advanced Study Institute. The sequence of chapters follows the general pattern beginning with introductory chapters which overview the general occurrence of Fe in the earth and its chemistry, both generally and in mineral environments, followed by identification and characterization methods for Fe and Fe phases in minerals. The properties and behavior of Fe oxides, Fe-bearing clay minerals, and other Fe minerals in soils are then described, and the text ends with a summary of the role of Fe in soil-forming processes. A Table of Contents and subject index are provided to assist the reader in finding specific topics within the text.

Iron in Soils and Clay Minerals

Author : J. W. Stucky
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The geobiochemical cycle of iron; An introduction to physical and chemical principles; Solubility and redox equilibria of iron compounds in soils; Separation and concentration of iron-containing phases; Phase identification by selective dissolution techniques; The assay for iron in soils and clay minerals; Introduction to crystal structures of iron-containing minerals; The application of micro-beam methods to iron minerals in soils; Some properties of soil and synthetic iron oxides; Occurrence and formation of iron oxides in various pedoenvironments; Properties and behavior of iron oxides as determined by mossbauer spectroscopy; Iron compounds as indicators of pedogenic processes: examples from the southern hemisphere; Magnetic properties of iron in soil iron oxides and clay minerals; Structural iron in kaolinites and in associated ancillary minerals; Role of iron in mica weathering; Structural iron in smectites; The characterization of iron complexes with soil organic matter; Chemistry of iron in calcareous systems; Microbiological reactions of iron in soils; The fate of iron during soil formation in humid-temperate environments; Laterites and laterization processes; Effects of seasonal redox processes involving iron on the chemistry of periodically reduced soils; Long-term chemical, mineralogical, and morphological effects of iron-redox processes in periodically flooded soils; Redox processes of iron and sulfur involved in the formation of acid sulfate soils.

Hydrous Phyllosilicates

Author : Sturges W. Bailey
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Reviews in Mineralogy & Geochemistry (RiMG) volumes contain concise advances in theoretical and/or applied mineralogy, crystallography, petrology, and geochemistry.

Interacting Processes in Soil Science

Author : R.J. Wagenet
File Size : 75.37 MB
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Interacting Processes in Soil Science focuses on coupled processes in soil. Topics covered in this important volume include the effects of inorganic salts upon water flow, modeling of sorption, transport and transformation of organic solutes, and the effects of microorganisms on silicate clay minerals. The book presents studies and approaches that can be extended and complemented by innovative work in the future. Interacting Processes in Soil Science will be an essential reference for all researchers and students in soil science, soil and water engineering, civil and environmental engineering, earth sciences, and hydrology.

Oxidation reduction Mechanisms in Iron bearing Phyllosilicates

Author : J. W. Stucki
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Iron in soils and clay minerals

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The Red Soils of China

Author : Michael Wilson
File Size : 28.37 MB
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The red soils of China are typical in their chemical, physical and mineralogical characteristics of red soils in other tropical and sub-tropical areas of the world, particularly in South America, Africa and south-east Asia. For the most part, these soils are highly weathered and inherently infertile. They are acidic, nutrient deficient, poor in organic matter and have a low water-holding and supplying capacity. They cannot sustain arable cropping systems without the most careful management and are highly susceptible to soil erosion, particularly on sloping land. It is the purpose of this book to present recent research showing how the problems associated with using the red soils in China for sustainable agricultural production can be overcome, using a variety of traditional and novel approaches. In principle, these approaches should be useful in other tropical and sub-tropical countries faced with the problem of making the best use of their fragile red soil resources. The term "in principle" is used deliberately because, of course, the different red soil countries invariably operate within dissimilar socio-economic frameworks. At the present time, China may be considered to be in the process of an "industrial revolution", rather like that that took place in Britain in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.

The Origin of Clay Minerals in Soils and Weathered Rocks

Author : Bruce B. Velde
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Of huge relevance in a number of fields, this is a survey of the different processes of soil clay mineral formation and the consequences of these processes concerning the soil ecosystem, especially plant and mineral. Two independent systems form soil materials. The first is the interaction of rocks and water, unstable minerals adjusting to surface conditions. The second is the interaction of the biosphere with clays in the upper parts of alteration profiles.

Soils Plants and Clay Minerals

Author : Pierre Velde
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This book represents a rather complicated history of encounters, changes in research interest and some very interesting results. Initially it is the very fruitful interaction of Ecology and Geology. The point of view of ecologists is extremely refreshing for hard science people. Interaction and inter-relationships are the focus of Ecology whereas the traditional sciences, such as Geology, have tried to isolate the natural phenomena so that thye could be studied in a more rigorous manner. The traditional sciences were of course natural science – based since the world to be observed was at the door step of everyone, mountains, weather patterns, plants and so forth. Chemistry and Physics were de ned after Mathematics in order to establish more precise and viable principles of the behavior of the materials that formed the world around mankind. It became quite clear that the observation of the natural world was too complicated to consider all of the possible variables which could affect an observed process or situation. The systems were simpli ed and taken into the laboratory in order to better master the phenomena observed. Physics c- cerned itself with non-reacting materials, subjected to essentially mechanical forces.