Search results for: isaac-newton-eighteenth-century-perspectives

Isaac Newton

Author : Emeritus Professor of History of Science and Technology A Rupert Hall
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For the first time, the early eighteenth century biographical notices of Sir Isaac Newton have been compiled into one convenient volume. Eminent Newtonian scholar Rupert Hall brings together the five biographies on Newton from this period and includes commentary on each translation. The centerpiece of the volume is a new translation of Paolo Frisi's 1778 biography, which was the first such work on Newton ever published. This comprehensive work also includes the biographies of Newton by Fontenelle (1727), Thomas Birch (1738), Charles Hutton (1795), and John Conduitt, as well as a bibliography of Newton's works. This book is a valuable addition to the works on Newton and will be of extreme interest to historians of science, Newtonian scholars, and general readers with an interest in the history of one of the world's greatest scientific geniuses.

From Citizens to Subjects

Author : Rebekah Higgitt
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From Citizens to Subjects challenges the common assertion in historiography that Enlightenment-era centralization and rationalization brought progress and prosperity to all European states, arguing instead that centralization failed to improve the socio-economic position of urban residents in the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth over a 100-year period. Murphy examines the government of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the several imperial administrations that replaced it after the Partitions, comparing and contrasting their relationships with local citizenry, minority communities, and nobles who enjoyed considerable autonomy in their management of the cities of present-day Poland, Ukraine, and Belarus. He shows how the failure of Enlightenment-era reform was a direct result of the inherent defects in the reformers' visions, rather than from sabotage by shortsighted local residents. Reform in Poland-Lithuania effectively destroyed the existing system of complexities and imprecisions that had allowed certain towns to flourish, while also fostering a culture of self-government and civic republicanism among city citizens of all ranks and religions. By the mid-nineteenth century, the increasingly immobile post-Enlightenment state had transformed activist citizens into largely powerless subjects without conferring the promised material and economic benefits of centralization.

Brook Taylor s Work on Linear Perspective

Author : Kirsti Andersen
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A Study of Taylors Role in the History of Perspective Geometry. Including Facsimiles of Taylors̀ Two Books on Perspective.

Newton and Newtonianism

Author : J.E. Force
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This volume contains eleven essays by eminent scholars which focus on Newton's theology, his study of alchemy, the early reception of Newtonianism, and the history of Newton scholarship. It includes unique accounts of the attempts over the last quarter of the twentieth century, to publish Sir Isaac Newton's theological manuscripts, including an essay by the eminent historian of philosophy, Richard H. Popkin, regarding his involvement in this enterprise, as well as essays by Rob Iliffe and Scott Mandelbrote, the founding Editorial Directors of the Newton Manuscript Project, recently set up to publish Newton's unpublished manuscripts for the first time. The volume also features the emerging interpretations of Newton's seminal theological thought, and its relationship to his scientific work, as well as other important essays which illuminate Newton's influence upon so many of the complex and seemingly paradoxical patterns of the Enlightenment.

Isaac Newton Philosophical Writings

Author : Isaac Newton, Sir
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This volume collects together Newton's principal philosophical writings for the first time.

Isaac Newton s Temple of Solomon and his Reconstruction of Sacred Architecture

Author : Tessa Morrison
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This book is about a side of Isaac Newton’s character that has not been examined – Isaac Newton as architect as demonstrated by his reconstruction of Solomon’s Temple. Although it is well known that Isaac Newton worked on the Temple, and this is mentioned in most of his biographies and in articles on the religious aspects of this work, however, there is no research on Newton’s architectural work. This book not only recreates Newton’s reconstruction of the Temple but it also considers how his work on the Temple interlinks with his other interests of science, chronology, prophecy and theology. In addition the book contains the first translation of Introduction to the Lexicon of the Prophets, Part two: About the appearance of the Jewish Temple commonly known by its call name Babson 0434. This work will appeal not only to scholars of science and architectural history but also to scholars of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries’ history of ideas.

Isaac Newton

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Samuel Johnson s Pragmatism and Imagination

Author : Stefka Ritchie
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The central theme of this book is an under-studied link between the canon of Francis Bacon’s and Isaac Newton’s scientific and philosophical thought and Samuel Johnson’s critical approach that can be traced in a textual study of his literary works. The interpretive framework adopted here encourages familiarity with the history and philosophy of science, confirming that the history of ideas is an entirely human construct that constitutes an integral part of intellectual history. This further endorses the argument that intermediality can only be of benefit to future research into the richness of Johnson’s literary style. As perceived boundaries are crossed between conventionally distinct communication media, the profile of Johnson that emerges is of a writer of passionate intelligence who was able to combine a pragmatic approach to knowledge with flights of imagination as a true artist.

The Cambridge Companion to Newton

Author : Rob Iliffe
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This new edition includes three updated chapters, a revised bibliography, new introduction and three entirely new chapters.

The Calculus Wars

Author : Jason Socrates Bardi
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Now regarded as the bane of many college students' existence, calculus was one of the most important mathematical innovations of the seventeenth century. But a dispute over its discovery sewed the seeds of discontent between two of the greatest scientific giants of all time -- Sir Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. Today Newton and Leibniz are generally considered the twin independent inventors of calculus, and they are both credited with giving mathematics its greatest push forward since the time of the Greeks. Had they known each other under different circumstances, they might have been friends. But in their own lifetimes, the joint glory of calculus was not enough for either and each declared war against the other, openly and in secret. This long and bitter dispute has been swept under the carpet by historians -- perhaps because it reveals Newton and Leibniz in their worst light -- but The Calculus Wars tells the full story in narrative form for the first time. This vibrant and gripping scientific potboiler ultimately exposes how these twin mathematical giants were brilliant, proud, at times mad and, in the end, completely human.

Newton and the Counterfeiter

Author : Thomas Levenson
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Already famous throughout Europe for his theories of planetary motion and gravity, Isaac Newton decided to take on the job of running the Royal Mint. And there, Newton became drawn into a battle with William Chaloner, the most skilful of counterfeiters, a man who not only got away with faking His Majesty's coins (a crime that the law equated with treason), but was trying to take over the Mint itself. But Chaloner had no idea who he was taking on. Newton pursued his enemy with the cold, implacable logic that he brought to his scientific research. Set against the backdrop of early eighteenth-century London with its sewers running down the middle of the streets, its fetid rivers, its packed houses, smoke and fog, its industries and its great port, this dark tale of obsession and revenge transforms our image of Britain's greatest scientist.

William Stukeley

Author : David Boyd Haycock
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William Stukeley was the most renowned English antiquary of the 18th century. This study discusses his life and achievements which he shared with his illustrious friend Isaac Newton and with other natural philosophers, theologians and historians.

The Cambridge Companion to Newton

Author : Smith
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Newton's philosophical analysis of space and time /Robert Disalle --Newton's concepts of force and mass, with notes on the Laws of Motion /I. Bernard Cohen --Curvature in Newton's dynamics /J. Bruce Brackenridge and Michael Nauenberg --Methodology of the Principia /George E. Smith --Newton's argument for universal gravitation /William Harper --Newton and celestial mechanics /Curtis Wilson --Newton's optics and atomism /Alan E. Shapiro --Newton's metaphysics /Howard Stein --Analysis and synthesis in Newton's mathematical work /Niccolò Guicciardini --Newton, active powers, and the mechanical philosophy /Alan Gabbey --Background to Newton's chymistry /William Newman --Newton's alchemy /Karin Figala --Newton on prophecy and the Apocalypse /Maurizio Mamiani --Newton and eighteenth-century Christianity /Scott Mandelbrote --Newton versus Leibniz : from geomentry to metaphysics /A. Rupert Hall --Newton and the Leibniz-Clarke correspondence /Domenico Bertoloni Meli.

Making 20th Century Science

Author : Stephen G. Brush
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Historically, the scientific method has been said to require proposing a theory, making a prediction of something not already known, testing the prediction, and giving up the theory (or substantially changing it) if it fails the test. A theory that leads to several successful predictions is more likely to be accepted than one that only explains what is already known but not understood. This process is widely treated as the conventional method of achieving scientific progress, and was used throughout the twentieth century as the standard route to discovery and experimentation. But does science really work this way? In Making 20th Century Science, Stephen G. Brush discusses this question, as it relates to the development of science throughout the last century. Answering this question requires both a philosophically and historically scientific approach, and Brush blends the two in order to take a close look at how scientific methodology has developed. Several cases from the history of modern physical and biological science are examined, including Mendeleev's Periodic Law, Kekule's structure for benzene, the light-quantum hypothesis, quantum mechanics, chromosome theory, and natural selection. In general it is found that theories are accepted for a combination of successful predictions and better explanations of old facts. Making 20th Century Science is a large-scale historical look at the implementation of the scientific method, and how scientific theories come to be accepted.

Newton Philosophical Writings

Author : Sir Isaac Newton
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This revised edition contains a wide range of Newton's writings that have influenced the development of philosophy in modern Europe.

Newton Philosophical Writings

Author : Andrew Janiak
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Sir Isaac Newton (1642–1727) left a voluminous legacy of writings. Despite his influence on the early modern period, his correspondence, manuscripts, and publications in natural philosophy remain scattered throughout many disparate editions. In this volume, Newton's principal philosophical writings, including excerpts from the Principia and the Opticks and a corrected translation of 'De Gravitatione', are collected in a single place. This newly expanded second edition of Philosophical Writings contains new excerpts from Newton's earliest optical writings, some of his unpublished reflections on the interpretation of Scriptural passages that concern the Earth's motion, and his correspondence with important figures in his day, including the theologian Richard Bentley, the mathematician Roger Cotes, and the philosopher G. W. Leibniz. The excerpts show in depth how Newton developed a number of highly controversial views concerning space, time, motion and matter and then defended them against the withering criticisms of his contemporaries.


Author : Patricia Fara
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Isaac Newton is now universally celebrated as a genius of science, renowned for his innovatory work on gravity and optics. Yet Newton did not always enjoy such legendary status. His posthumous reputation has constantly changed and is riddled with contradictions. NEWTON investigates the different ways in which Newton's life and works have been interpreted at different times. It charts his transformation into a scientific genius, explaining the changing attitude of the scientific community towards Newton's ideas, from Berkeley to Einstein. It also explores the making of Newton the national hero, through the myths that surround him and the many artistic and literary descriptions of him. NEWTON tells the fascinating story of Newton's reputation, shedding light on the growth of science generally and on our changing attitude towards our intellectual heritage. 'Fara's brilliant book is not so much a biography as the story of a phenomenon . . . fascinating' Scotsman 'Fara does not debunk Newton as recent novelists have but delivers him more whole and greater than ever' Sunday Herald

Recreating Newton

Author : Rebekah Higgitt
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Examines Isaac Newton's changing legacy during the nineteenth century. This book focuses on 1820-70, a period that saw the creation of the specialized and secularized role of the 'scientist'. It shows how debates about Newton's character stimulated historical scholarship and led to the development of a new expertise in the history of science.

The History and Poetics of Scientific Biography

Author : Thomas Söderqvist
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Biographies of scientists carry an increasingly prominent role in today's publishing climate. Traditional historical and sociological accounts of science are complemented by narratives that emphasize the importance of the scientific subject in the production of science. Not least is the realization that the role of science in culture is much more accessible when presented through the lives of its practitioners. Taken as a genre, such biographies play an important role in the public understanding of science. In recent years there has been an increasing number of monographs and collections about biography in general and literary biography in particular. However, biographies of scientists, engineers and medical doctors have rarely been the topic of scholarly inquiry. As such this volume of essays will be welcomed by those interested in the genre of science biography, and who wish to re-examine its history, foundational problems and theoretical implications. Borrowing approaches and methods from cultural studies and the history, philosophy and sociology of science, the contributions cover a broad range of subjects, periods and locations. By presenting such a rich diversity of essays, the volume is able to chart the reoccurring conceptual problems and devices that have influenced scientific biographies from classical antiquity to the present day. In so doing it provides a compelling overview of the history of the genre, suggesting that the different valuations given scientific biography over time have been largely fuelled by vested professional interests.


Author : J. S. Rowlinson
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Why does matter stick together? Why do gases condense to liquids, and liquids to solids? This book provides a detailed historical account of how some of the leading scientists of the past three centuries have tried to answer these questions. The topic of cohesion and the study of intermolecular forces has been an important component of physical science research for hundreds of years. This book is organised into four broad periods of advances in our understanding. The first three are associated with Newton, Laplace and van der Waals. The final section gives an account of the successful use in the twentieth century of quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics to resolve most of the remaining problems. The book will be of primary interest to physical chemists and physicists, as well as historians of science interested in the historical origins of our modern day understanding of cohesion.