Search results for: knowledge-options-and-institutions

Knowledge Options and Institutions

Author : Bruce Kogut
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Bruce Kogut's writing has sketched a theory of human motivation that sees managers as social, often altruistic, sometimes as selfish, who care about their colleagues and their status among them. For the first time this book collects together key pieces that show how this view works in application to practical managerial issues, such as technology transfer and licensing, joint ventures as options, and the diffusion of ideas and best practices in the world economy. In an extensive introduction to these chapters, Kogut grounds this view in recent work in neurosciences and behavioural experiments in human sociality. On this basis, he provides a critique of leading schools of thought in management, including the resource based view of the firm cognition, and experimental economics. He proposes that people are hardwired to learn social norms and to develop identities that conform to social categories. This foundation supports a concept of coordination among people that is inscribed in social communities. It is this concept that leads to a theory of the firm as derived from social knowledge and shared identities. Kogut argues that the resource based view of the firm is only a view and it fails as a theory because it lacks a behavioural foundation. If it were to choose one, the choice would be between knowledge and organizational economics. Similarly, he argues that recent statements regarding cognition do not confront the age-old question of shared templates. If it did, it too would have to confront a theory of social knowledge. The author then proposes that this foundation is essential to an understanding of norms and institutions as well. Thus, we are moving into a period in which rapid advances in neuroscience increasingly lead to an integrated foundation for the social sciences. This opening chapter is the gateway to the collected essays, which assemble the author's published articles on knowledge, options, and institutions. The book ends on the most recent work on open source software and generating rules. The chapter on open source discusses how new technology is changing the face of innovation. The final article on generating rules is the segue to the author's current work that looks at how simple rules of social exchange leads to complex patterns of local and global knowledge.

Space Place and Educational Settings

Author : Tim Freytag
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This open access book explores the nexus between knowledge and space with a particular emphasis on the role of educational settings that are, both, shaping and being reshaped by socio-economic and political processes. It gives insight into the complex interplay of educational inequalities and practices of educational governance in the neighborhood and at larger geographical scales. The book adopts quantitative and qualitative methodologies and explores a wide range of theoretical perspectives by drawing upon empirical cases and examples from France, Germany, Italy, the UK and North America, and presents and reflects ongoing research of international scholars from various disciplinary backgrounds such as education, human geography, public policy, sociology, and urban and regional planning. As such, it provides an interesting read for scholars, students and professionals in the broader field of social, cultural and educational studies, as well as policy makers and practitioners in the fields of education, pedagogy, social work, and urban and regional planning.

Institutional Diversity and Innovation

Author : Cornelia Storz
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The concept of "innovation systems" has gained considerable attention from scholars and politicians alike. The concept promises not only to serve as a tool to explain sustained economic development, but also to provide policy-makers with scientifically grounded policy options to advance the growth of economies. The thrust of much recent literature has been to review existing empirical findings in order to deduce "best practice" models which are assumed to benefit all countries in a similar fashion. However, as this book argues, such ‘universal’ models often fail in both analysis and policy prescriptions, as they do not take into account sufficiently the circumstances and development trajectories of particular countries. With a foreword by Richard Whitley, this book discusses the extent to which the diagnoses and reform recommendations of recent work on innovation theory, and the related policy recommendations, actually apply to Japan and China. Making links between behavioural economics and institutional analysis, the book covers their regulatory framework, legal and science system, the labour and capital market, and intra-firm relations. It examines the present design and reasons underlying the Japanese and Chinese innovation systems, and based on those findings, emphasises the necessity for reform to secure the future competitiveness of both countries. The book is introduced by a foreword by Richard Whitley, Professor of Organisational Sociology at Manchester Business School.

Reconstructing Institutions

Author : Agnes Weiyun He
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Describes the role language plays in shaping institutional role identities,in accomplishing institutional tasks and activities, and in constituting associated knowledge and affective stances.

In Search of Democracy

Author : Larry Diamond
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This book evaluates the global status and prospects of democracy, with an emphasis on the quality of democratic institutions and the effectiveness of governance as key conditions for stable democracy. Bringing together a wide range of the author’s work over the past three decades, it advances a framework for assessing the quality of democracy and it analyzes alternative measures of democracy. Drawing on the most recent data from Freedom House, it assesses the global state of democracy and freedom, as of the beginning of 2015, and it explains why the world has been experiencing a mild but now deepening recession of democracy and freedom since 2005. A major theme of the book across the three decades of the author’s work is the relationship between democratic quality and stability. Democracies break down, Diamond argues, not so much because of economic factors but because of corrupt, inept governance that violates individual rights and the rule of law. The best way to secure democracy is to ensure that democracy is accountable, transparent, genuinely competitive, respectful of individual rights, inclusive of diverse forms and sources of participation, and responsive to the needs and aspirations of ordinary citizens. Viable democracy requires not only a state that can mobilize power to achieve collective goals, but also one that can restrain and punish the abuse of power—a particularly steep challenge for poor countries and those with natural resource wealth. The book examines these themes both in broad comparative perspective and with a deeper analysis of historical trends and future prospects in Africa and Asia,. Concluding with lessons for sustaining and reforming policies to promote democracy internationally, this book is essential reading for students and scholars interested in democracy, as well as politics and international relations more generally.

Campus Crisis Management

Author : Eugene L. Zdziarski
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Campus Crisis Management is a practical resource that helps campus administrators evaluate, revise, or establish a comprehensive crisis management plan appropriate for their college or university. Filled with examples, assessment tools, and checklists, this book describes the individuals who should be involved in developing a campus plan, what a plan should include, as well as a variety of crisis events and issues that should be addressed in a comprehensive crisis management plan. Including contributions from renowned practitioners at all levels, this fully revised, new edition contains the must-have information on crisis management, such as: How to develop a comprehensive crisis management system The different types of crises using the crisis matrix The structure, operation, and training of a crisis team Strategies for working with the media New chapters addressing behavioral intervention teams, active shooter situations, Title IX guidance, campus demonstrations, outbreaks of infectious and contagious diseases, and special event management. From a senior administrator working with an institution-wide emergency operations team, to a new professional looking to develop plans and protocols to respond to critical incidents, Campus Crisis Management is a comprehensive guide to planning and preparing for campus emergencies of any scale.

Innovation and Institutions

Author : Steven Casper
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The idea behind this book is that institutions are important when it comes to explaining the specialisation and performance of national innovation systems. The idea is not new. But largely the institution-concept has remained somewhat vague and unspecified in the literature. This book is valuable since it succeeds in opening up the black box of institutions and organisations. The distinction between institutions at different levels and how they link up and form a systemic whole is especially original and fruitful. The interdisciplinary team behind the book has also produced a welcome antidote to the current tendency to benchmark innovation systems exclusively on the basis of quantitative indicators. The analysis demonstrates that some national systems do better in some specific areas because of being supported by institutions that are sometimes deeply rooted in history and culture. This is why imitating best-practice across countries is not a straight forward thing to do. Bengt-Åke Lundvall, Aalborg University, Denmark Innovation and Institutions is an extensive elaboration on the make up of systems of innovation. It examines why some countries are more innovative than others, why national styles of innovation differ, and goes on to explore why some countries make radical innovations but fail to successfully market them, whilst others making incremental innovations have more commercial success. The book draws on a variety of different literatures and perspectives to illustrate the organizational and institutional dimensions of national innovation systems. Literatures discussed include the economics of innovation, organizational sociology, administrative science, institutional economics, organizational learning, network analysis, business systems, economic governance and regulation. This truly interdisciplinary book will be invaluable to academics and researchers focussing on innovation in a wide range of fields. It will also strongly appeal to practitioners and policymakers concerned with innovation.

EU Russia Energy Relations

Author : Dimo Böhme
File Size : 65.13 MB
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Sustainability Assessment in Higher Education Institutions

Author : Sandra Caeiro
File Size : 73.42 MB
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This Special Issue, “Sustainability Assessment in Higher Education Institutions”, provides peer-reviewed research from several geographies and institutions and covering various topics with the broad objective of achieving an assessment of the effectiveness and impact of different implementation dimensions, measuring and evaluating how sustainability is being applied in practice. A set of nine papers, covering sustainability education, interdisciplinary teaching, sustainable assessment, governance strategies, commitments and practices, and social responsibility at higher education institutions, contribute significantly to this area of knowledge.

Education 2 0

Author : Leonard J. Waks
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Thirty years of spirited school reforms have failed to improve our schools and instead have left our public school systems in disarray. Meanwhile, employment prospects for high school and college graduates are fading, and the public is losing faith in its schools. The education paradigm inherited from the Industrial Era is in crisis. In the last decade, however, the Internet and new Web 2.0 technologies have placed the entirety of human knowledge in the hands of everyone. What will our educational institutions make of this unprecedented flood of Web-based learning resources? How can schools be transformed to accommodate the new possibilities for personal and social learning? Leonard Waks gathers all the pieces of our current educational puzzle together in this groundbreaking book. Drawing on new organizational models grounded in complexity theory, Waks maps out an inspiring new paradigm for education in the Internet age, and connects all the dots in constructing detailed models for new schools-now transformed into "open learning centers." Finally, Waks details action steps readers can take to speed this transformative process along in their own locations.