Search results for: languages-of-tolkiens-middle-earth

The Languages of Tolkien s Middle earth

Author : Ruth S. Noel
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Explains the fourteen different languages and assorted alphabets of Middle-earth, translates Elvish poetry, war slogans, and sayings, and features a complete dictionary of non-English words in the Middle-earth classics

Tolkien Linguistic Studies

Author : Books Llc
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Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Pages: 33. Chapters: Middle-earth languages, Elvish languages, Languages constructed by J. R. R. Tolkien, Black Speech, Ad naic, Quenya, Sindarin, Elfcon, Elvish Linguistic Fellowship, Westron, David Salo, Goldogrin, Entish, Khuzdul, The Etymologies, Primitive Quendian, Common Eldarin, The Languages of Tolkien's Middle-earth, Rohirric, Ilkorin, Lhammas, Telerin, Taliska, Orom an. Excerpt: Quenya (pronounced ) is a fictional language devised by J. R. R. Tolkien, and used in his Secondary world, often called Middle-earth. Quenya is one of the many Elvish languages spoken by the immortal Elves, called Quendi in Quenya. The tongue actually called Quenya was in origin the speech of two clans of Elves living in Eldamar ("Elvenhome"), the Noldor and the Vanyar. Quenya translates as simply "language," or in contrast to other tongues that the Elves met later in their long history "elf-language." In the Third Age, (the time of the setting of The Lord of the Rings) Quenya was no longer a living language for the Noldor of Middle-earth. Exilic Quenya was learned at an early age by all Elves of Noldorin origin, and it continued to be used in spoken and written form, but their mother-tongue was another Elven-tongue, Sindarin. For Tolkien's constructed languages we must distinguish two timelines of development: The young Tolkien in 1911, aged 19J. R. R. Tolkien began to construct his first Elfin tongue c. 1910-1911 while he was at the King Edward's School, Birmingham. He later called it Qenya (c. 1915), and even later wrote it Quenya. Tolkien was then already familiar with Latin, Greek, Spanish, and several ancient Germanic languages, Gothic, Old Norse and Old English. He had invented several crypotographic codes (one called Animalic), and two or three constructed languages (as Naffarin). But then he discovered Finnish, and was filled with joy. Tolkien...

Evolution of the Languages of Tolkien s Middle Earth

Author : Kathy Edwards
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One day quite exactly a hundred years ago, early teenage Tolkien was baffled to hear a couple of other kids communicating in Animalic. This was a primitive play-language that mainly consisted of English words for animals. The inventors of Animalic did not attempt to keep it a secret, and young Tolkien soon learnt some of it. In his essay A Secret Vice (published in The Monsters and the Critics p. 198-219) he gives one example of Animalic: Dog nightingale woodpecker forty, which translates as "you are an ass". (By all means: "ass" here means donkey and nothing else. In Animalic, forty meant donkey, while donkey, of course, meant forty...)Animalic soon became a dead language, but some of the kids continued their linguistic games. They invented a language called Nevbosh (this being Nevbosh for "new nonsense" - the nonsense replacing Animalic, evidently...) Tolkien was not the originator of this language, but according to himself, he contributed to the vocabulary and helped to standardize the spelling. "I was a member of the Nevbosh-speaking world," he proudly recalls.Nevbosh was mainly a mixture of heavily distorted English, French and Latin words. It did not represent a real breaking away from English or other normal languages. More than twenty years after it became a dead language Tolkien was still able to remember at least one connected fragment, that he calls "idiotic": Dar fys ma vel gom co palt 'hoc pys go iskili far maino woc? Pro si go fys do roc de Do cat ym maino bocte De volt fac soc ma taimful gyr�c!'The rhymes can actually be preserved in translation: "There was an old man who said 'how / can I possibly carry my cow? / For if I was to ask it / to get in my pocket / it would make such a fearful row!' "But for Tolkien, simply distorting existing words (like woc = "cow"!) was in the long run not enough. Already among the Nevbosh kids there emerged something more sophisticated: words that could not be traced to any specific source, but popped up simply because they seemed to fit their meaning - because the combination of sound and sense gave the kids pleasure. Tolkien mentions a word lint "quick, clever". Young John Ronald Reuel never forgot this word: Forty years later he had Galadriel singing how the years in Middle-earth had passed ve lint� yuldar liss�-miruv�reva, like swift draughts of the sweet mead...

The Origins of Tolkien s Middle earth For Dummies

Author : Greg Harvey
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J.R.R. Tolkien's novels of Middle-earth – The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings trilogy, and The Silmarillian – have become some of the most famous, and most beloved, literary works of the twentieth century. And the Lord of the Rings films by director Peter Jackson have re-ignited interest in Tolkien and his works, as well as introduced his stories to a new generation of fans. Even if you've never read the novels and have only seen the films, you know that the world of Middle-earth is a complicated one. Tolkien took great care in representing this world, from creating new languages to including very particular cultural details that add to the richness of the world's fabric. Many other books have been written about Tolkien and his works, but none have come close to providing the kind of reference needed to comprehend the world of Middle-earth. That's what veteran Dummies author and unabashed Tolkien fan Greg Harvey attempts to do in The Origins of Tolkien's Middle-earth For Dummies. As the author says in his introduction to the book, this is not an encyclopedia or quick guide to all the diverse beings, languages, and history that make up Tolkien's Middle-earth. Nor is it a set of plot outlines for the novels. Rather, what you'll find in The Origins of Tolkien's Middle-earth For Dummies is a basic guide to some of the possible linguistic and mythological origins of Middle-earth, plus a rudimentary analysis of its many themes and lessons for our world. This book can help enrich your reading (or re-reading) of Tolkien's novels, and it will challenge you to think about the themes inherent in Tolkien's Middle-earth and their implications in your own life. Here's just a sampling of the topics you'll find covered in The Origins of Tolkien's Middle-earth For Dummies: Exploring the main themes in Tolkien's works, including immortality and death; the heroic quest; love; fate and free will; and faith and redemption Investigating the diverse lands of Middle-earth – including the Shire, Gondor, and Mordor – and their significance Examining the different cultures of Middle-earth, such as Hobbits, Elves, Men, and those wily Wizards Touring the history of Middle-earth Understanding Tolkien's creation of new languages to enrich the story of Middle-earth Top Ten lists on the battles in the War of the Ring, online resources, and the ways the films differ from the novels So, whether you're reading Tolkien's novels or watching the films for the first time, or you've been a fan for many years and are looking for a new take on Tolkien's works, The Origins of Tolkien's Middle-earth For Dummies can help you enhance your reading or viewing experience for years to come.

Splintered Light

Author : Verlyn Flieger
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J. R. R. Tolkien is perhaps best known for The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, but it is in The Silmarillion that the true depth of Tolkien's Middle-earth can be understood. The Silmarillion was written before, during, and after Tolkien wrote The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings. A collection of stories, it provides information alluded to in Tolkien's better known works and, in doing so, turns The Lord of the Rings into much more than a sequel to The Hobbit, making it instead a continuation of the mythology of Middle-earth. Verlyn Flieger's expanded and updated edition of Splintered Light, a classic study of Tolkien's fiction first published in 1983, examines The Silmarillion and The Lord of the Rings in light of Owen Barfield's linguistic theory of the fragmentation of meaning. Flieger demonstrates Tolkien's use of Barfield's concept throughout the fiction, showing how his central image of primary light splintered and refracted acts as a metaphor for the languages, peoples, and history of Middle-earth.

The Keys of Middle earth

Author : Stuart Lee
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A comprehensive introduction to the medieval languages and texts that inspired Tolkien's Middle-earth. Using key episodes in The Silmarillion , The Hobbit , and The Lord of the Rings , medieval texts are presented in their original language with translations. Essential for those who wish to delve deeper into the background to Tolkien's mythology.

Language Unlimited

Author : David Adger
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All humans, but no other species, have the capacity to create and understand language. It provides structure to our thoughts, allowing us to plan, communicate, and create new ideas, without limit. Yet we have only finite experiences, and our languages have finite stores of words. Where does our linguistic creativity come from? How does the endless scope of language emerge from our limited selves? Drawing on research from neuroscience, psychology, and linguistics, David Adger takes the reader on a journey to the hidden structure behind all we say (or sign) and understand. Along the way you'll meet children who created language out of almost nothing, and find out how new languages emerge using structures found in languages spoken continents away. David Adger will show you how the more than 7000 languages in the world appear to obey the same deep scientific laws, how to invent a language that breaks these, and how our brains go crazy when we try to learn languages that just aren't possible. You'll discover why rats are better than we are at picking up certain language patterns, why apes are far worse at others, and how artificial intelligences, such as those behind Alexa and Siri, understand language in a very un-human way. Language Unlimited explores the many mysteries about our capacity for language and reveals the source of its endless creativity.

The Complete Tolkien Companion

Author : J. E. A. Tyler
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For all those who journey to J.R.R. Tolkien's Middle Earth, here is the complete guide to its lands, legends, histories, languages, and people. The Complete Tolkien Companion explains, translates, and links every single reference - names, dates, places, facts, famous weapons, even food and drink - to be found in Tolkien's world, which includes not only The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings but also The Simarillion and many other posthumously published works. A detailed explanation of the various Elvish writing systems, together with maps, charts, and genealogical tables, bring the remarkable genius of Tolkien and the unforgettable world and wonder of Middle Earth to life with focus and accuracy. Presented in alphabetical order for quick and easy reference, this is an indispensable accompaniment for anyone who embarks on the reading journey of a lifetime. First published in 1976, this edition has been fully revised and updated for a new century of Tolkien lovers.

Encyclopedia of Fictional and Fantastic Languages

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Quote Double Quote

Author : Paul Ferstl
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The boundary between ‘high’ culture and ‘popular’ culture is neither hermetic nor stable. A wide-spread mechanism of a reception strongly influenced by structuralism and post-modernism has led to the amplification and acceleration of cultural production between these two poles. Relying on a decidedly theoretical approach, this volume offers a broad perspective transgressing linguistic, cultural, temporal, and media borders. Reflections and perspectives on the relationship between ‘high’ and ‘popular’ culture are the subject of the thirteen articles collected here. Side by side with theoretical approaches, case studies covering classical and Heavy Metal music, TV series and pornographic films, zombies and ‘Creature Features’, philosophically infused comics and popular lexicography, professional wrestling and hypertext literature pave the way to a contemporary aesthetics.

The Road to Middle Earth

Author : T. A. Shippey
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The author draws on his own knowledge of Anglo-Saxon and on his friendship with J.R.R. Tolkien to show that the key to the inspiration, magic, and enchantment of Tolkien's Middle-earth books is language itself

J R R Tolkien and His Literary Resonances

Author : Sir George Clark, Sir
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Although Tolkien's literary works have, over the past few decades, attracted a considerable and varied body of criticism, much of this material is inaccessible, unreflective, and repetitive. Though various scholars have treated Tolkien's sources and his concept of fantasy, this study situates the author in a broad literary context that includes ancient metrical modes, medieval culture, Renaissance poetics, 19th-century social movements, and modern critical thought. Each chapter is written by an expert contributor and examines the literary resonances of Tolkien's works from a variety of informed perspectives.

Approaches to Teaching Tolkien s The Lord of the Rings and Other Works

Author : Leslie A. Donovan
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A philologist and medieval scholar, J. R. R. Tolkien never intended to write immensely popular literature that would challenge traditional ideas about the nature of great literature and that was worthy of study in colleges across the world. He set out only to write a good story, the kind of story he and his friends would enjoy reading. In The Hobbit and in The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien created an entire world informed by his vast knowledge of mythology, languages, and medieval literature. In the 1960s, his books unexpectedly gained cult status with a new generation of young, countercultural readers. Today, the readership for Tolkien's absorbing secondary world--filled with monsters, magic, adventure, sacrifice, and heroism--continues to grow. Part 1 of this volume, "Materials," introduces instructors to the rich array of resources available for teaching Tolkien, including editions and criticism of his fiction and scholarship, historical material on his life and times, audiovisual materials, and film adaptations of his fiction. The essays in part 2, "Approaches," help instructors introduce students to critical debates around Tolkien's work, its sources, its influence, and its connection to ecology, religion, and science. Contributors draw on interdisciplinary approaches to outline strategies for teaching Tolkien in a wide variety of classroom contexts.

Choice

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Ecocriticism and the Trans corporeal

Author : Garrett Van Curen
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This paper explores J.R.R Tolkien's Middle Earth in light of the material ecocritical notions of trans-corporeality, vibrant matter, and intrinsic language. Namely, this paper asserts that Tolkien's treatment of plants, specifically trees, deconstructs an otherwise unflattering and over-simplified binary that separates the natural world from the human, while highlighting important nuances sometimes overlooked in Tolkien's natural world. The two sides of this affixed binary, as this paper asserts, are intermeshed in Tolkien's conception of Middle Earth in what Stacy Alaimo terms a "trans-corporeal" process. The humanoid and nonhumanoid beings of Tolkien's world are constantly engaged in a process of mixing and intermingling that suggests a bodily and sentient unity in their interaction. Furthermore, this paper claims that Tolkien's natural world contains a multitude of agencies, empowering what has so often been otherwise treated as homogenous backdrop for the action of Tolkien's story. Lastly, Tolkien's use of language as it applies specifically to trees, or as is represented in his Ents, suggests a sensitivity to the agency of the vegetal, which is best formed in Tolkien's representing trees or tree-like bodies with access to language. The intrinsic, nonhuman language of plants helps add a greater sense of agency to what have so often been otherwise considered non-agentic and passive living creatures. Ultimately, the paper encourages thinking about Tolkien's Middle Earth as full of agentic and valuable nonhuman beings whose own bodies and language are constantly entangled with those of the humanoid. Furthermore, this paper ends by encouraging a break from the environmental imperialist mindset that so often governs existing readings of Tolkien and the natural world itself.

A Secret Vice Tolkien on Invented Languages

Author : J. R. R. Tolkien
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First ever critical study of Tolkien’s little-known essay, which reveals how language invention shaped the creation of Middle-earth and beyond, to George R R Martin’s Game of Thrones.

Flora of Middle Earth

Author : Walter S. Judd
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"This book catalogs every plant found in J.R.R. Tolkien's Legendarium, showing how these plants influenced Tolkien's stories and characters"--

Tolkien in the New Century

Author : John Wm. Houghton,
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Widely considered one of the leading experts on the works of J.R.R. Tolkien, Thomas Alan Shippey has informed and enlightened a generation of Tolkien scholars and fans. In this collection, friends and colleagues honor Shippey with 15 essays that reflect their mentor's research interests, methods of literary criticism and attention to Tolkien's shorter works. In a wide-ranging consideration of Tolkien's oeuvre, the contributors explore the influence of 19th and 20th century book illustrations on Tolkien's work; utopia and fantasy in Tolkien's Middle-earth; the Silmarils, the Arkenstone, and the One Ring as thematic vehicles; the pattern of decline in Middle-earth as reflected in the diminishing power of language; Tolkien's interest in medieval genres; the heroism of secondary characters; and numerous other topics. Also included are brief memoirs by Shippey's colleagues and friends in academia and fandom and a bibliography of Shippey's work.

The Ring of Words

Author : Peter Gilliver
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Three senior editors at the Oxford English Dictionary examine Tolkien's career as a lexicographer who spent two years on the staff of the OED, analyze its influence on his creative use of language in his fictional works, and probe the origins and meaning of such Tolkienesque words as "hobbit," "Ent," and "mithril."

J R R Tolkien Encyclopedia

Author : Michael D. C. Drout
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A detailed work of reference and scholarship, this one volume Encyclopedia includes discussions of all the fundamental issues in Tolkien scholarship written by the leading scholars in the field. Coverage not only presents the most recent scholarship on J.R.R. Tolkien, but also introduces and explores the author and scholar's life and work within their historical and cultural contexts. Tolkien's fiction and his sources of influence are examined along with his artistic and academic achievements - including his translations of medieval texts - teaching posts, linguistic works, and the languages he created. The 550 alphabetically arranged entries fall within the following categories of topics: adaptations art and illustrations characters in Tolkien's work critical history and scholarship influence of Tolkien languages biography literary sources literature creatures and peoples of Middle-earth objects in Tolkien's work places in Tolkien's work reception of Tolkien medieval scholars scholarship by Tolkien medieval literature stylistic elements themes in Tolkien's works theological/ philosophical concepts and philosophers Tolkien's contemporary history and culture works of literature