Search results for: lexical-priming

Lexical Priming

Author : Michael Hoey
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Lexical Priming proposes a radical new theory of the lexicon, which amounts to a completely new theory of language based on how words are used in the real world. Here they are not confined to the definitions given to them in dictionaries but instead interact with other words in common patterns of use. Using concrete statistical evidence from a corpus of newspaper English, but also referring to travel writing and literary text, the author argues that words are 'primed' for use through our experience with them, so that everything we know about a word is a product of our encounters with it. This knowledge explains how speakers of a language succeed in being fluent, creative and natural.

Lexical Priming

Author : Michael Pace-Sigge
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Published in 2005, Michael Hoey’s Lexical Priming – A new theory of words and language introduced a completely new theory of language based on how words are used in the real world. In the ten years that have passed, the theory has since gained traction in the field of corpus-linguistics. This volume brings together some of the most important contributions to the theory, in areas such as language teaching and learning, discourse analysis, stylistics as well as the design of language learning software. Crucially, this book introduces aspects of the language that have so far been given less focus in lexical priming, such as spoken language, figurative language, forced primings, priming as predictor of genre, and historical primings. The volume also focuses on applying the lexical priming theory to languages other than English including Mandarin Chinese and Finnish.

Lexical Priming in Spoken English Usage

Author : Michael Pace-Sigge
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This book shows that over forty years of psychological laboratory-based research support the claims of the Lexical Priming Theory. It examines how Lexical Priming applies to the use of spoken English as the book provides evidence that Lexical Priming is found in everyday spoken conversations.

Spreading Activation Lexical Priming and the Semantic Web

Author : Michael Pace-Sigge
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This book explores the interconnections between linguistics and Artificial Intelligence (AI) research, their mutually influential theories and developments, and the areas where these two groups can still learn from each other. It begins with a brief history of artificial intelligence theories focusing on figures including Alan Turing and M. Ross Quillian and the key concepts of priming, spread-activation and the semantic web. The author details the origins of the theory of lexical priming in early AI research and how it can be used to explain structures of language that corpus linguists have uncovered. He explores how the idea of mirroring the mind’s language processing has been adopted to create machines that can be taught to listen and understand human speech in a way that goes beyond a fixed set of commands. In doing so, he reveals how the latest research into the semantic web and Natural Language Processing has developed from its early roots. The book moves on to describe how the technology has evolved with the adoption of inference concepts, probabilistic grammar models, and deep neural networks in order to fine-tune the latest language-processing and translation tools. This engaging book offers thought-provoking insights to corpus linguists, computational linguists and those working in AI and NLP.

An Activation Analysis of Lexical Priming

Author : Eric John Davis
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The experiments in this thesis have revealed that implicit memory can be satisfactorily interpreted within an activational framework. Predictions and interpretations were derived from Marslen-Wilson and Welsh's (1978) and Marslen-Wilson's (1987) cohort theory, supplemented by Ellis and Young's (1988) version of the language processing system, and were applied to subjects who were normal, amnesic or had Dementia of the Alzheimer Type (DAT). Experiment l revealed identity priming and a novel form of priming referred to as c̀ohort priming', which is assumed to represent a sub-lexically based form of priming. In Experiment 2 cohort priming was found to permeate across lexical boundaries, being evident after the study of pseudowords. A preference priming task was introduced in Experiment 3 and it was shown that student subjects preferred studied pseudowords in terms of work likeness in a two forced-choice paradigm. Furthermore, a number of different reading conditions at study permitted identification of the probable loci of this priming effect, the major contribution deriving from the Grapheme-Phoneme Conversion (GPC), with a less important orthographic component. Experiment 4 revealed a similar effect although ....

Lexical Ambiguity Resolution

Author : Steven Small
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The most frequently used words in English are highly ambiguous; for example, Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary lists 94 meanings for the word "run" as a verb alone. Yet people rarely notice this ambiguity. Solving this puzzle has commanded the efforts of cognitive scientists for many years. The solution most often identified is "context": we use the context of utterance to determine the proper meanings of words and sentences. The problem then becomes specifying the nature of context and how it interacts with the rest of an understanding system. The difficulty becomes especially apparent in the attempt to write a computer program to understand natural language. Lexical ambiguity resolution (LAR), then, is one of the central problems in natural language and computational semantics research. A collection of the best research on LAR available, this volume offers eighteen original papers by leading scientists. Part I, Computer Models, describes nine attempts to discover the processes necessary for disambiguation by implementing programs to do the job. Part II, Empirical Studies, goes into the laboratory setting to examine the nature of the human disambiguation mechanism and the structure of ambiguity itself. A primary goal of this volume is to propose a cognitive science perspective arising out of the conjunction of work and approaches from neuropsychology, psycholinguistics, and artificial intelligence--thereby encouraging a closer cooperation and collaboration among these fields. Lexical Ambiguity Resolution is a valuable and accessible source book for students and cognitive scientists in AI, psycholinguistics, neuropsychology, or theoretical linguistics.

Visual Word Recognition Meaning and context individuals and development

Author : James S. Adelman
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Word recognition is the component of reading which involves the identification of individual words. Together the two volumes of Visual Word Recognition offer a state-of-the-art overview of contemporary research from leading figures in the field. This second volume examines how research on word recognition has been linked to the study of concepts and meaning, such as how morphemes affect word recognition, how the meaning of words affects their processing and the effect of priming on the processing of words. The book also discusses eye-movement research, the reading of whole sentences and passages, how bilinguals recognize words in different languages, individual differences in visual word recognition, and the development of visual word recognition difficulties in developmental dyslexia. The two volumes serve as a state-of-the-art, comprehensive overview of the field. They are essential reading for researchers of visual word recognition, and students on undergraduate and postgraduate courses in cognition and cognitive psychology, specifically the psychology of language and reading. They will also be of use to those working in education and speech-language therapy.

Visual Word Recognition Volume 2

Author : James S Adelman
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Word recognition is the component of reading which involves the identification of individual words. Together the two volumes of Visual Word Recognition offer a state-of-the-art overview of contemporary research from leading figures in the field. This second volume examines how research on word recognition has been linked to the study of concepts and meaning, such as how morphemes affect word recognition, how the meaning of words affects their processing and the effect of priming on the processing of words. The book also discusses eye-movement research, the reading of whole sentences and passages, how bilinguals recognize words in different languages, individual differences in visual word recognition, and the development of visual word recognition difficulties in developmental dyslexia. The two volumes serve as a state-of-the-art, comprehensive overview of the field. They are essential reading for researchers of visual word recognition, and students on undergraduate and postgraduate courses in cognition and cognitive psychology, specifically the psychology of language and reading. They will also be of use to those working in education and speech-language therapy.

Psycholinguistics

Author : Gerry T. M. Altmann
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Corpora and Language Learners

Author : Guy Aston
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Corpus-aided language pedagogy is one of the central application areas of corpus methodologies, and a test bed for theories of language and learning. This volume provides an overview of current trends, offering methodological and theoretical position statements along with results from empirical studies. The relationship between corpora and learning is examined from complementary perspectives — the study of learner language, the didactic use of corpus findings, and the interaction between corpora and their users. Reflections on current theory and technology open and close the volume.With its focus on the learner and the learning setting, Corpora and Language Learners is addressed to corpus linguists with an interest in learner language, applied linguists wishing to expand their understanding of corpora and their pedagogic potential, and language teachers wishing to critically assess the relevance of work in this field. This volume grew out of selected presentations at the 5th Teaching and Language Corpora conference in Bertinoro, Italy.

Spelling

Author : Rebecca Treiman
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are the findings that Wade-Woolley and Siegel obtained when they studied children for whom English was a second language. Although the second language speakers performed more poorly than the native speakers on tests of syntactic knowledge, phoneme deletion, and pseudoword repetition, the second language speakers were not worse than the native speakers in spelling. These results suggest that, even if children have not fully mastered the sound system of their second language, they need not be disadvantaged in spelling it. The findings appear to pose a challenge to views of reading and spelling that place primary emphasis on phonology. The Muter and Snowling study, together with the Nunes, Bryant and Bindman study, broadens the focus by examining aspects of spelling beyond phonology. Muter and Snow ling, in their longitudinal study of British school children, examined the degree to which various linguistic skills measured between the ages of 4 and 6 predicted spelling ability at age 9. The results support the idea that phonological skill plays an important role in spelling development, and further suggest that awareness of phonemes is more strongly related to spelling ability than awareness of rimes. In addition, grammatical awareness appears to predict spelling skill. Children who are able to reflect on meaning relationships among words may be in a position to understand how this information is represented in English spelling.

Corpus Linguistics Computer Tools and Applications State of the Art

Author : Barbara Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk
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Contents: Barbara Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk: PALC 2007: Where are we now? - Paul Rayson/Dawn Archer/Alistair Baron/Nicholas Smith: Travelling through time with corpus annotation software - Eugene H. Casad: Parsing texts and compiling a dictionary with shoebox - Belinda Maia/Rui Silva/Anabela Barreiro/Cecília Fróis: 'N-grams in search of theories' - Piotr Pęzik/Jung-jae Kim/Dietrich Rebholz-Schuhmann: MedEvi - A permuted concordancer for the biomedical domain - Patrick Hanks: Why the «word sense disambiguation problem» can't be solved, and what should be done instead - Rafał

Exploring the Lexis Grammar Interface

Author : Ute Römer
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This volume showcases studies that recognize and provide evidence for the inseparability of lexis and grammar. The contributors explore in what ways these two areas, often treated separately in linguistic theory and description, form an organic whole. The papers in Section I (Setting the Scene) introduce some of the key methodological approaches and theoretical positions at the lexis-grammar interface, while Section II (Considering the Particulars) contains papers that report on case studies and show concrete applications of the central methods and theories. Exploring the Lexis-Grammar Interface is a stimulating collection of papers for anyone who wishes to learn more about and get fresh state-of-the-art perspectives on language patterning.

Text Discourse and Corpora

Author : Michael Hoey
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Corpus linguistics is often regarded as a methodology in its own right, but little attention has been given to the theoretical perspectives from which the subject can be approached. The present book contributes to filling this gap. Bringing together original contributions by internationally renowned authors, the chapters include coverage of the lexical priming theory, parole-linguistics, a four-part model of language system and language use, and the concept of local textual functions. The theoretical arguments are illustrated and complemented by case studies using data from large corpora such as the BNC, smaller purpose-built corpora, and Google searches. By presenting theoretical positions in corpus linguistics, Text, Discourse, and Corpora provides an essential overview for advanced undergraduate, postgraduate and academic readers.

Applied psycholinguistics

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Comprehensive Handbook of Psychopathology

Author : Henry E. Adams
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The purpose of this handbook, originally published in 1984, was to provide a compreh- sive review of current clinical descriptions, research , and theories of psychopathology. Descriptive psychopathology is a ?eld that forms the foundation of clinical practice and research in clinical psychology, psychiatry, psychiatric social work, psychiatric nursing, and allied professions in mental health. Since the 1st edition, the editors have devised and updated a handbook to cover both general and speci?c topics in psychopathology that would be useful to researchers, practitioners, and graduate or other advanced students in the mental health and behavioral medicine professions. To implement this plan, we have very carefully chosen colleagues whom we respect for their expertise in particular ?elds. These authors include both clinicians and researchers who have outstanding national reputations, as well as more junior behavioral scientists and clinicians who, in our opinion, will achieve similar recognition in the future. The excellent chapters in this book lead us to believe that we have chosen wisely. We would like to express our appreciation to these authors for their outstanding contributions and cooperation.

Sadness Expressions in English and Chinese

Author : Ruihua Zhang
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Winner of the Tianjin Social Science Outstanding Achievement Award. This book reports on the contrastive-semantic investigation of sadness expressions between English and Chinese, based on two monolingual general corpora and a parallel corpus. The exploration adopts a unique theoretical approach which integrates corpus-linguistic theories on meaning (as a social construct, usage and paraphrase) with a corpus-linguistic lexical model. It employs a new complex but workable methodology which combines computational tools with manual examination to tease meaning out of corpus evidence, to compare and contrast lexical items that do not match up neatly between languages. It looks at sadness expressions both within and across languages in terms of three corpus-linguistic structural categories, i.e. colligation, collocation and semantic association/preference, and paraphrase (both explicit and implicit) to capture their subtle nuances of meaning, disclose the culture-specific conceptualisations encoded in them, and highlight their respective cultural distinctiveness of emotion. By presenting multidisciplinary original work, Sadness Expressions in English and Chinese will be of interest to researchers in corpus linguistics, contrastive lexical semantics, psychology, bilingual lexicography and language pedagogy.

Basic Processes in Reading

Author : Derek Besner
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The chapters in this new book span the range of reading processes from early visual analysis to semantic influences on word identification, thus providing a state-of-the-art summary of current work and offering important contributions to prospective reading research. Basic Processes in Reading examines both future plans and past accomplishments in the world of word identification research. Three chapters provide a futuristic view taking a parallel distributed processing approach to semantic priming, phonology, and the identification of old words and the learning of new words. Reviews on eye movements in reading and semantic priming on word identification provide a retrospective summary of work on these issues as well as solid pointers for future investigations. Other chapters provide new demonstrations of the importance of phonological contributions to word identification, of interactive processes in the identification of handwritten words, and a re-evaluation of the processes involved in the neuropsychological syndrome described as "letter-by-letter" reading.

Ageing cognition and neuroscience Envejecimiento cognici n y neurociencia

Author : Soledad BALLESTEROS JIMÉNEZ
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La ciencia conductual, la ciencia cognitiva y la neurociencia están realizando grandes progresos en la comprensión de los cambios cognitivos que se producen durante el proceso de envejecimiento. Especialistas de distintos campos, tales como la psicología conductual y cognitiva y las neurociencias, que están investigando en un número de áreas diferentes, fueron invitados a participar en este volumen. Estas áreas incluyen el estudio de los mecanismos básicos que explican el declive cognitivo asociado a la edad, los procesos mentales (percepción, atención, memoria, razonamiento y lenguaje), los cambios neurológicos que ocurren a nivel molecular y celular que influyen en el funcionamiento mental durante el ciclo vital, los cambios cerebrales y conductuales asociados a la edad que se producen en las enfermedades neurodegenerativas, tales como la enfermedad de Alzheimer, métodos experimentales y clínicos e intervenciones sociales.

An Exemplar Model of Syntactic Priming

Author : Neal Snider
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