Search results for: materials-science-in-static-high-magnetic-fields

Materials Science in Static High Magnetic Fields

Author : Watanabe Kyoko
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Presents the most comprehensive review of the influence of highly intense magnetic fields on materials of various classes.

Proceedings of the 8th Pacific Rim International Conference on Advanced Materials and Processing PRICM 8

Author : FernD.S. Marquis
File Size : 64.3 MB
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PRICM-8 features the most prominent and largest-scale interactions in advanced materials and processing in the Pacific Rim region. The conference is unique in its intrinsic nature and architecture which crosses many traditional discipline and cultural boundaries. This is a comprehensive collection of papers from the 15 symposia presented at this event.

Practical Design of Magnetostatic Structure Using Numerical Simulation

Author : Qiuliang Wang
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Magnets are widely used in industry, medical, scientific instruments, and electrical equipment. They are the basic tools for scientific research and electromagnetic devices. Numerical methods for the magnetic field analysis combined with mathematical optimization from practical applications of the magnets have been widely studied in recent years. It is necessary for professional researchers, engineers, and students to study these numerical methods for the complex magnet structure design instead of using traditional "trial-and-error" methods. Those working in this field will find this book useful as a reference to help reduce costs and obtain good magnetic field quality. Presents a clear introduction to magnet technology, followed by basic theories, numerical analysis, and practical applications Emphasizes the latest developments in magnet design, including MRI systems Provides comprehensive numerical techniques that provide solutions to practical problems Introduces the latest computation techniques for optimizing and characterizing the magnetostatic structure design Well organized and adaptable by researchers, engineers, lecturers, and students Appendix available on the Wiley Companion Website As a comprehensive treatment of the topic, Practical Design of Magnetostatic Structure Using Numerical Simulation is ideal for researchers in the field of magnets and their applications, materials scientists, structural engineers, and graduate students in electrical engineering. The book will also better equip mechanical engineers and aerospace engineers.

Materials Transactions

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High Magnetic Field Science and Its Application in the United States

Author : National Research Council
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The Committee to Assess the Current Status and Future Direction of High Magnetic Field Science in the United States was convened by the National Research Council in response to a request by the National Science Foundation. This report answers three questions: (1) What is the current state of high-field magnet science, engineering, and technology in the United States, and are there any conspicuous needs to be addressed? (2) What are the current science drivers and which scientific opportunities and challenges can be anticipated over the next ten years? (3) What are the principal existing and planned high magnetic field facilities outside of the United States, what roles have U.S. high field magnet development efforts played in developing those facilities, and what potentials exist for further international collaboration in this area? A magnetic field is produced by an electrical current in a metal coil. This current exerts an expansive force on the coil, and a magnetic field is "high" if it challenges the strength and current-carrying capacity of the materials that create the field. Although lower magnetic fields can be achieved using commercially available magnets, research in the highest achievable fields has been, and will continue to be, most often performed in large research centers that possess the materials and systems know-how for forefront research. Only a few high field centers exist around the world; in the United States, the principal center is the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL). High Magnetic Field Science and Its Application in the United States considers continued support for a centralized high-field facility such as NHFML to be the highest priority. This report contains a recommendation for the funding and siting of several new high field nuclear magnetic resonance magnets at user facilities in different regions of the United States. Continued advancement in high-magnetic field science requires substantial investments in magnets with enhanced capabilities. High Magnetic Field Science and Its Application in the United States contains recommendations for the further development of all-superconducting, hybrid, and higher field pulsed magnets that meet ambitious but achievable goals.

High Magnetic Fields

Author : Fritz Herlach
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This three-volume book provides a comprehensive review of experiments in very strong magnetic fields that can only be generated with very special magnets. The first volume is entirely devoted to the technology of laboratory magnets: permanent, superconducting, high-power water-cooled and hybrid; pulsed magnets, both nondestructive and destructive (megagauss fields). Volumes 2 and 3 contain reviews of the different areas of research where strong magnetic fields are an essential research tool. These volumes deal primarily with solid-state physics; other research areas covered are biological systems, chemistry, atomic and molecular physics, nuclear resonance, plasma physics and astrophysics (including QED).

Updates in Cardiac MRI An Issue of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America

Author : Karen G. Ordovas
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Cardiac MR is explored in this important issue in MRI Clinics of North America. Articles will include: MR physics in practice; Ventricular mechanics: Techniques and applications; MR safety issues particular to women; Novel MR applications for evaluation of pericardial diseases; 4D flow applications for aortic diseases; T1 mapping: technique and applications; ARVD: An updated imaging approach; Imaging the metabolic syndrome; Coronary MRA: how to optimize image quality; Prognostic role of MRI in nonischemic myocardial disease; MRI for valvular imaging; MRI for adult congenital heart disease assessment; Cardiac MRI applications for cancer patients; Applications of PET-MRI for cardiovascular disease; Rings and slings, and more.

Materials World

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Academic Press Dictionary of Science and Technology

Author : Christopher G. Morris
File Size : 54.23 MB
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Over 125,000 entries cover 124 scientific and technological fields, including acoustical engineering, cartography graphic arts, microbiology, organic chemistry, radiology, and zoology

Japanese Journal of Applied Physics

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High Temperature Measurements of Materials

Author : Hiroyuki Fukuyama
File Size : 33.65 MB
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A variety of industries – information technology, aerospace, automobile, and basic and new materials manufacturing – need technological innovations, which bring high-value-added and high-quality products at low cost not only because of global competition, but also because of the perspective of en- ronmental consciousness and regulation. Thermophysical properties of hi- temperature melts are indispensable for numerical simulations of material processes such as semiconductor and optical crystal growth of the melt, and castingofsuper-high-temperaturealloysforjet-engineturbineblades,inad- tion to welding in automobile manufacturing. Recent developments in process modeling provide 3D unsteady analysis of melt convection, temperature, and heat ?ux distribution, which enables us to predict product quality. In fact, 3D process visualization using computer modeling helps us to understand complicated phenomena occurring in the melt and to control the process. Accurate data are necessary to improve the modeling, which co- e?ectively engenders high-quality products. However, crucial obstacles render measurements of thermophysical properties di?cult at elevated temperatures because of high chemical reactivity and ?uidity of melts. Substantial and persistent challenges have been made to ascertain the precise thermophysical properties of high-temperature melts. This book describes the new techniques and latest developments in the measurements of atomic structure, density, surface tension, viscosity, heat capacity, thermal and mass di?usivity, th- mal conductivity, emissivity, and electrical conductivity of high-temperature melts. In addition to up-to-date improvements in conventional techniques, some new attempts are introduced to open a new scienti?c ?eld, that is, physics of high-temperature melts.

Metals Abstracts

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Applied Electromagnetic Engineering for Advanced Materials from Macro to Nanoscale under Static to Shock Loading

Author : A.G. Mamalis
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This collection of selected, peer reviewed papers from the 10th Japanese-Mediterranean Workshop on Applied Electromagnetic Engineering for Magnetic, Superconducting, Multifunctional and Nano Materials (JAPMED’10, Izmir, Turkey on July 4-8, 2017) gives readers the coverage of results of scientific and engineering researches in the fields of modern advanced technologies: nanomaterials and applied nanotechnology, precision and ultra precision processing, functional and multifunctional materials for various branches of the modern manufacturing.

Solid State Physics

Author : Harald Ibach
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This new edition of the well-received introduction to solid-state physics provides a comprehensive overview of the basic theoretical and experimental concepts of materials science. Experimental aspects and laboratory details are highlighted in separate panels that enrich text and emphasize recent developments. Notably, new material in the third edition includes sections on important new devices, aspects of non- periodic structures of matter, phase transitions, defects, superconductors and nanostructures. Students will benefit significantly from solving the exercises given at the end of each chapter. This book is intended for university students in physics, materials science and electrical engineering. It has been thoroughly updated to maintain its relevance and usefulness to students and professionals.

Progress in Advanced Structural and Functional Materials Design

Author : Tomoyuki Kakeshita
File Size : 62.5 MB
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This book describes clearly various research topics investigated for these 10 years in the Research Center of Advanced Structural and Functional Materials Design in Osaka University, Japan. Every chapter is aimed at understanding most advanced researches in materials science by describing its fundamentals and details as much as possible. Since both general explanations and cutting-edge commentaries are given for each topic in this book, it provides a lot of useful information for ordinary readers as well as materials scientists & engineers who wish to understand the future development in materials science fields of metals, alloys, ceramics, semiconductors etc. In particular, this book deals with special fusion area of structural and functional materials such as medical bone materials, of which contents are very unique features as materials science textbook.

Caffey s Pediatric Diagnostic Imaging E Book

Author : Brian D. Coley
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Since 1945, radiologists have turned to Caffey's Pediatric Diagnostic Imaging for the most comprehensive coverage and unparalleled guidance in all areas of pediatric radiology. Continuing this tradition of excellence, the completely revised 12th edition - now more concise yet still complete - focuses on the core issues you need to understand new protocols and sequences, and know what techniques are most appropriate for given clinical situations. "This text will obviously be of great interest not only to radiologists, also to those who work with children including all pediatric specialties. It is also extremely useful in countries with resource poor setting where there is shortage of well-trained radiologists in pediatric specialties." Reviewed by: Yangon Children Hospital on behalf of the Journal of the European Paediatric Neurology Society, January 2014 "This is a thoroughly up-to-date text, divided into manageable topics, at a very reasonable price and I thoroughly recommend it to anyone who needs updating in the field of paediatrics or paediatric imaging." RAD, February 2014 Determine the best modality for each patient with state-of-the art discussions of the latest pediatric imaging techniques. Quickly grasp the fundamentals you need to know through a more precise, streamlined format, reorganized by systems and disease processes, as well as "Teaching Boxes" that highlight key points in each chapter. Apply all the latest pediatric advances in clinical fetal neonatology techniques, technology, and pharmacology. Achieve accurate diagnoses as safely as possible. Increased coverage of MRI findings and newer imaging techniques for all organ systems emphasizes imaging examination appropriateness and safety. Reap the fullest benefit from the latest neuroimaging techniques including diffusion tensor imaging, fMRI, and susceptibility weighted imaging. Keep current with the latest pediatric radiological knowledge and evidence-based practices. Comprehensive updates throughout include new and revised chapters on prenatal imaging; newer anatomic and functional imaging techniques (including advances in cardiac imaging); disease classifications and insights into imaging disease processes; and advanced imaging topics in neurological, thoracoabdominal, and musculoskeletal imaging. Compare your findings to more than 10,000 high-quality radiology images. Access the full text online at Expert Consult including illustrations, videos, and bonus online-only pediatric imaging content.

Physics and Materials Science of Vortex States Flux Pinning and Dynamics

Author : R. Kossowsky
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A discussion by an assembly of expert physicists and materials scientists, embracing the specific features of vortex-pin interactions, the modes of different kinds of vortex motion under the action of Lorenz force, and the mechanisms of dissipation. The effects of transport and screening currents, superimposed AC magnetic fields and the microwave electromagnetic irradiation on vortex behaviour define the electromagnetic properties of a high-Tc superconducting material. The mechanisms driving the depinning of vortices and the dynamics of their motion determine the critical current density and its file dependence, the mechanisms of energy dissipation, and linear and nonlinear resistivity, AC losses, and noise in electronic circuitry. The book therefore has direct implications for the development of new devices and components in electrical engineering, modern electronics, computer technology, and microwave communication.

Electromagnetic Processing of Materials

Author : Shigeo Asai
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This book is both a course book and a monograph. In fact, it has developed from notes given to graduate course students on materials processing in the years 1989 to 2006. Electromagnetic Processing of Materials (EPM), originates from a branch of materials science and engineering developed in the 1980s as a field aiming to create new materials and/or design processes by making use of various functions which appear when applying the electric and magnetic fields to materials. It is based on transport phenomena, materials processing and magnetohydrodynamics. The first chapter briefly introduces the history, background and technology of EPM. In the second chapter, the concept of transport phenomena is concisely introduced and in the third chapter the essential part of magnetohydrodynamics is transcribed and readers are shown that the concept of transport phenomena does not only apply to heat, mass and momentum, but also magnetic field. The fourth chapter describes electromagnetic processing of electrically conductive materials such as electromagnetic levitation, mixing, brake, and etc., which are caused by the Lorentz force. The fifth chapter treats magnetic processing of organic and non-organic materials such as magnetic levitation, crystal orientation, structural alignment and etc., which are induced by the magnetization force. This part is a new academic field named Magneto-Science, which focuses on the development of super-conducting magnets. This book is written so as to be understood by any graduate student in engineering courses but also to be of interest to engineers and researchers in industries.

High resolution Diffusion MRI of Targeted Regions

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Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an MRI method that provides information about random microscopic motion of water molecules in biological tissues. In addition to offering a higher sensitivity for the diagnosis of white matter diseases such as stroke and multiple sclerosis, and producing connectivity maps of the brain, it is a promising prognostic tool in the assessment and treatment response monitoring of cancer in the body. While high in-plane resolution is desirable for all diffusion MRI applications, it is particularly essential for imaging of small structures. Unfortunately, the performance of diffusion MRI techniques is often hindered by a variety of factors including susceptibility variations, field inhomogeneities and bulk physiologic motion. This thesis presents a reduced field-of-view (FOV) single-shot echo-planar imaging (ss-EPI) method to address these problems and enable high-resolution diffusion MRI of targeted regions. The proposed method utilizes a two-dimensional (2D) echo-planar radio-frequency (RF) excitation pulse to achieve a sharp reduced-FOV profile, while still allowing contiguous multi-slice imaging and suppressing the fat signal. Extensive clinical evaluation of the technique demonstrated that sub-mm diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) on human spinal cords is feasible with minimal artifacts. High-resolution fiber tractography of the spinal cord successfully visualized the connectivity between the cord and the medulla oblongata, delineating internal structures such as gray/white matter. In vivo DWI of the larynx, breast and prostate validated the effectiveness of this technique in providing detailed depiction of the morphology outside the central nervous system. When the exponential diffusion attenuation is combined with high spatial resolution, DWI may suffer from poor signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The last part of this thesis presents an optimization strategy for the DWI parameters as a function of the imaging SNR. Specifically, the optimum b-value is shown to be a monotonically increasing function of the imaging SNR, with a convergence asymptote identical to the previously proposed values in literature. The effects of T2 relaxation are also incorporated for a more accurate optimization. In vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated reduced error in ADC estimations and improved SNR in the diffusion-weighted images with the proposed technique.

Introduction to the Physics of Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors

Author : Jan A. Gaj
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As materials whose semiconducting properties are influenced by magnetic ions, DMSs are central to the emerging field of spintronics. This volume focuses both on basic physical mechanisms (e.g. carrier-ion and ion-ion interactions), and resulting phenomena.