Search results for: measurements-for-decision-making

Measurements for Decision Making

Author : Giulio Barbato
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In the technical-scientific field, many decisions are supported by measurements. However, it is essential to assign to measurement results their actual meaning to achieve a correct decision. This aspect is particularly important and formally required when operating in Quality Systems. Therefore, measures management must be rigorous and it can find a concrete support in the topics discussed in this volume, because of the attention to metrological part and the removal of unnecessary restrictions.

Measurements for Effective Decision Making

Author : Mokshagundam L. Srikanth
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Implementation of the Interval Approach to the Measurement of Decision Maker Preference

Author : Robert Philip King
File Size : 37.23 MB
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Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis State of the Art Surveys

Author : José Figueira
File Size : 49.42 MB
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MULTIPLE CRITERIA DECISION ANALYSIS: State of the Art Surveys is the most comprehensive work available to survey the state of the art in MCDA to date. Its 25 chapters are organized in eight parts and are written by 52 international leading experts. Each of these parts covers one of the central streams of multiple criteria decision analysis literature. These literature streams are: MCDA today, Foundations of MCDA, Our Ranking Methods, Multiattribute Utility Theory, Non-Classical MCDA Approaches, Multiobjective Mathematical Programming, Applications, and MCDM Software. The handbook presents the most up-to-date discussions on well-established methodologies and theories in the field, while systematically surveying emerging fields in MCDA such as conjoint measurement, fuzzy preferences, fuzzy integrals, rough sets, etc. MULTIPLE CRITERIA DECISION ANALYSIS: State of the Art Surveys is a valuable reference volume (more than 2000 references) for the field of decision analysis. It provides graduate students, researchers, and practitioners with a sweeping survey of MCDA theory, methodologies, and applications. It is a handbook that is particularly suitable for use in seminars in Decision Analysis, Decision Support, and Decision Theory.

Electrical Measuring Instruments and Measurements

Author : S.C. Bhargava
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This book, written for the benefit of engineering students and practicing engineers alike, is the culmination of the author's four decades of experience related to the subject of electrical measurements, comprising nearly 30 years of experimental research and more than 15 years of teaching at several engineering institutions. The unique feature of this book, apart from covering the syllabi of various universities, is the style of presentation of all important aspects and features of electrical measurements, with neatly and clearly drawn figures, diagrams and colour and b/w photos that illustrate details of instruments among other things, making the text easy to follow and comprehend. Enhancing the chapters are interspersed explanatory comments and, where necessary, footnotes to help better understanding of the chapter contents. Also, each chapter begins with a "recall" to link the subject matter with the related science or phenomenon and fundamental background. The first few chapters of the book comprise "Units, Dimensions and Standards"; "Electricity, Magnetism and Electromagnetism" and "Network Analysis". These topics form the basics of electrical measurements and provide a better understanding of the main topics discussed in later chapters. The last two chapters represent valuable assets of the book, and relate to (a) "Magnetic Measurements", describing many unique features not easily available elsewhere, a good study of which is essential for the design and development of most electric equipment – from motors to transformers and alternators, and (b) "Measurement of Non-electrical Quantities", dealing extensively with the measuring techniques of a number of variables that constitute an important requirement of engineering measurement practices. The book is supplemented by ten appendices covering various aspects dealing with the art and science of electrical measurement and of relevance to some of the topics in main chapters. Other useful features of the book include an elaborate chapter-by-chapter list of symbols, worked examples, exercises and quiz questions at the end of each chapter, and extensive authors' and subject index. This book will be of interest to all students taking courses in electrical measurements as a part of a B.Tech. in electrical engineering. Professionals in the field of electrical engineering will also find the book of use.

Environmental Justice Through Research Based Decision Making

Author : William M. Bowen
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This book discusses whether and to what extent there are widespread injustices and inequities caused by the distribution of environmental hazards in America today.

Strategic Decision Making in Modern Manufacturing

Author : Harinder S. Jagdev
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The rapid pace of technological innovation and the effects of the Information and Communications Technology (ICT) revolution have resulted in dramatic changes on a global scale, from the empowerment of the individual to the spawning of global markets. From the business perspective, the widespread deployment of Information Technology (IT) has resulted in many organisational changes and the development and use of new management and business processes. An important challenge for today's manufacturing organisations is to be able to anticipate the impact of investments in new (frequently IT-based) manufacturing technologies and programmes. Ideally, management needs to be able to identify and articulate the many ways in which investment decisions influence their organisation - in terms of performance across a range of measures. Furthermore, in today's manufacturing environment, it is increasingly necessary that a close relationship exists between manufacturing decision making and corporate business strategy, so that manufacturing decisions complement and are fully aligned with the organisation's strategic objectives. Strategic Decision Making in Modern Manufacturing introduces and explains the AMBIT (Advanced Manufacturing Business ImplemenTation) approach, which has been developed to bridge the gap between strategic management considerations and the operational effects of technology investment decisions on the manufacturing organisation, so that the likely impact of new manufacturing technology and/or programme implementations can be evaluated, anticipated and accurately predicted. The AMBIT approach focuses specifically on the non-financial aspects of such investment decisions and offers an approach that allows a manager, or more frequently a management team, to understand the impacts of a new technology or a new programme on the manufacturing organisation in terms of manufacturing performance. The prediction of future trends and patterns is a very imprecise and ambiguous activity at the best of times. Yet despite such ambiguity, managers need to be forward looking. They need appropriate tools and approaches to help them anticipate the future. Thus, whilst the pages of organisational history may be filled with anecdotes about organisations that failed to "predict" the future, it is the challenge of today's organisations to evade such a fate. The AMBIT approach delineated in this book has been specifically developed to anticipate the future by analysing the impact of managerial decisions.

Distributed Decision Making and Control

Author : Rolf Johansson
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Distributed Decision Making and Control is a mathematical treatment of relevant problems in distributed control, decision and multiagent systems, The research reported was prompted by the recent rapid development in large-scale networked and embedded systems and communications. One of the main reasons for the growing complexity in such systems is the dynamics introduced by computation and communication delays. Reliability, predictability, and efficient utilization of processing power and network resources are central issues and the new theory and design methods presented here are needed to analyze and optimize the complex interactions that arise between controllers, plants and networks. The text also helps to meet requirements arising from industrial practice for a more systematic approach to the design of distributed control structures and corresponding information interfaces Theory for coordination of many different control units is closely related to economics and game theory network uses being dictated by congestion-based pricing of a given pathway. The text extends existing methods which represent pricing mechanisms as Lagrange multipliers to distributed optimization in a dynamic setting. In Distributed Decision Making and Control, the main theme is distributed decision making and control with contributions to a general theory and methodology for control of complex engineering systems in engineering, economics and logistics. This includes scalable methods and tools for modeling, analysis and control synthesis, as well as reliable implementations using networked embedded systems. Academic researchers and graduate students in control science, system theory, and mathematical economics and logistics will find mcu to interest them in this collection, first presented orally by the contributors during a sequence of workshops organized in Spring 2010 by the Lund Center for Control of Complex Engineering Systems, a Linnaeus Center at Lund University, Sweden.>

Strategy specific Decision Making A Guide for Executing Competitive Strategy

Author : William G. Forgang
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Providing a novel approach to business policy and strategic management, this book focuses on the implementation of a firm's competitive strategy throughout all levels of the organization.

Utility Probability and Human Decision Making

Author : Dirk Wendt
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Human decision making involves problems which are being studied with increasing interest and sophistication. They range from controversial political decisions via individual consumer decisions to such simple tasks as signal discriminations. Although it would seem that decisions have to do with choices among available actions of any kind, there is general agreement that decision making research should pertain to choice prob lems which cannot be solved without a predecisional stage of finding choice alternatives, weighing evidence, and judging values. The ultimate objective of scientific research on decision making is two-fold: (a) to develop a theoretically sound technology for the optimal solution of decision problems, and (b) to formulate a descriptive theory of human decision making. The latter may, in tum, protect decision makers from being caught in the traps of their own limitations and biases. Recently, in decision making research the strong emphasis on well defined laboratory tasks is decreasing in favour of more realistic studies in various practical settings. This may well have been caused by a growing awareness of the fact that decision-behaviour is strongly determined by situational factors, which makes it necessary to look into processes of interaction between the decision maker and the relevant task environ ment. Almost inevitably there is a parallel shift of interest towards problems of utility measurement and the evaluation of consequences.

Measurement and Probability

Author : Giovanni Battista Rossi
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Measurement plays a fundamental role both in physical and behavioral sciences, as well as in engineering and technology: it is the link between abstract models and empirical reality and is a privileged method of gathering information from the real world. Is it possible to develop a single theory of measurement for the various domains of science and technology in which measurement is involved? This book takes the challenge by addressing the following main issues: What is the meaning of measurement? How do we measure? What can be measured? A theoretical framework that could truly be shared by scientists in different fields, ranging from physics and engineering to psychology is developed. The future in fact will require greater collaboration between science and technology and between different sciences. Measurement, which played a key role in the birth of modern science, can act as an essential interdisciplinary tool and language for this new scenario. A sound theoretical basis for addressing key problems in measurement is provided. These include perceptual measurement, the evaluation of uncertainty, the evaluation of inter-comparisons, the analysis of risks in decision-making and the characterization of dynamical measurement. Currently, increasing attention is paid to these issues due to their scientific, technical, economic and social impact. The book proposes a unified probabilistic approach to them which may allow more rational and effective solutions to be reached. Great care was taken to make the text as accessible as possible in several ways. Firstly, by giving preference to as interdisciplinary a terminology as possible; secondly, by carefully defining and discussing all key terms. This ensures that a wide readership, including people from different mathematical backgrounds and different understandings of measurement can all benefit from this work. Concerning mathematics, all the main results are preceded by intuitive discussions and illustrated by simple examples. Moreover, precise proofs are always included in order to enable the more demanding readers to make conscious and creative use of these ideas, and also to develop new ones. The book demonstrates that measurement, which is commonly understood to be a merely experimental matter, poses theoretical questions which are no less challenging than those arising in other, apparently more theoretical, disciplines.

Measurements with Persons

Author : Birgitta Berglund
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Measurements with persons are those in which human perception and interpretation are used for measuring complex, holistic quantities and qualities, which are perceived by the human brain and mind. Providing means for reproducible measurement of parameters such as pleasure and pain has important implications in evaluating all kind of products, services, and conditions. This book inaugurates a new era for this subject: a multi- and inter-disciplinary volume in which world-renowned scientists from the psychological, physical, biological, and social sciences reach a common understanding of measurement theory and methods. In the first section, generic theoretical and methodological issues are treated, including the conceptual basis of measurement in the various fields involved; the development of formal, representational, and probabilistic theories; the approach to experimentation; and the theories, models, and methods for multidimensional problems. In the second section, several implementation areas are presented, including sound, visual, skin, and odor perception, functional brain imagining, body language and emotions, and, finally, the use of measurements in decision making Measurement with Persons will appeal to a wide audience across a range of sciences, including general psychology and psychophysics, measurement theory, metrology and instrumentation, neurophysiology, engineering, biology, and chemistry.

Decision Making

Author : Byron M. Roth
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This text, written by a philosopher and a social psychologist, emphasizes concrete applications of decision research to problems of everyday living, as well as to business, social, and political issues. The text contains scores of interesting examples and problems for analysis, ranging from personal decisions about medical treatment to Truman's decision to use the atomic bomb. There is no other text with such a wide-ranging coverage, with so practical an orientation, with such clear descriptions of the steps to effective decision making, and with so many end-of-chapter problems for analysis and practice.

Software Measurement

Author : Christof Ebert
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In this comprehensive introduction to software measurement, Ebert and Dumke detail knowledge and experiences about the subject in an easily understood, hands-on presentation. The book describes software measurement in theory and practice as well as provides guidance to all relevant measurement tools and online references. In addition, it presents hands-on experience from industry leaders and provides many examples and case studies from Global 100 companies. Besides the many practical hints and checklists, readers will also appreciate the large reference list, which includes links to metrics communities where project experiences are shared.

Groupthink Versus High Quality Decision Making in International Relations

Author : Mark Schafer
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Are good and bad outcomes significantly affected by the decision-making process itself? Indeed they are, in that certain decision-making techniques and practices limit the ability of policymakers to achieve their goals and advance the national interest. The success of policy often turns on the quality of the decision-making process. Mark Schafer and Scott Crichlow identify the factors that contribute to good and bad policymaking, such as the personalities of political leaders, the structure of decision-making groups, and the nature of the exchange between participating individuals. Analyzing thirty-nine foreign-policy cases across nine administrations and incorporating both statistical analyses and case studies, including a detailed examination of the decision to invade Iraq in 2003, the authors pinpoint the factors that are likely to lead to successful or failed decision making, and they suggest ways to improve the process. Schafer and Crichlow show how the staffing of key offices and the structure of central decision-making bodies determine the path of an administration even before topics are introduced. Additionally, they link the psychological characteristics of leaders to the quality of their decision processing. There is no greater work available on understanding and improving the dynamics of contemporary decision making.

Evaluation of Education

Author : Educational technology
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This tutorial is organised to teach the beginner what they need to know in order to get a Web site up and running in the shortest time possible. Covering the techniques that would be used by a beginner, the book is arranged in one-hour courses.'

Radiological Factors Affecting Decision making in a Nuclear Attack

Author : National Committee on Radiation Protection and Measurements (U.S.)
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Better Decision Making in Complex Dynamic Tasks

Author : Hassan Qudrat-Ullah
File Size : 78.99 MB
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Computer simulation-based education and training is a multi-billion dollar industry. With the increased complexity of organizational decision making, projected demand for computer simulation-based decisional aids is on the rise. The objective of this book is to enhance systematically our understanding of and gain insights into the general process by which human facilitated ILEs are effectively designed and used in improving users’ decision making in dynamic tasks. This book is divided into four major parts. Part I serves as an introduction to the subject of “decision making in dynamic tasks”, its importance and its complexity. Part II provides background material, drawing upon the relevant literature, for the development of an integrated process model on the effectiveness of human facilitated ILEs in improving decision making in dynamic tasks. Part III focuses on the design, development and application of Fish Bank ILE, in laboratory experiments, to gather empirical evidence for the validity of the process model. Finally, part IV presents a comprehensive analysis of the gathered data to provide a powerful basis for understating important phenomena of training with human facilitated simulation-based learning environments, thereby, help to drive critical lessons to be learned. This book provides the reader with both a comprehensive understanding of the phenomena encountered in decision making with human facilitated ILEs and a unique way of studying the effects of these phenomena on people’s ability to make better decision in complex, dynamic tasks. This book is intended to be of use to managers and practitioners, researchers and students of dynamic decision making. The background material of Part II provides a solid base to understand and organize the existing experimental research literature and approaches.

Analysis of Performance Measurement and Training Requirements for Driving Decision Making in Emergency Situations Final Report

Author : Gerald V. Barrett
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Digital Signal Processing in Power System Protection and Control

Author : Waldemar Rebizant
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Digital Signal Processing in Power System Protection and Control bridges the gap between the theory of protection and control and the practical applications of protection equipment. Understanding how protection functions is crucial not only for equipment developers and manufacturers, but also for their users who need to install, set and operate the protection devices in an appropriate manner. After introductory chapters related to protection technology and functions, Digital Signal Processing in Power System Protection and Control presents the digital algorithms for signal filtering, followed by measurement algorithms of the most commonly-used protection criteria values and decision-making methods in protective relays. A large part of the book is devoted to the basic theory and applications of artificial intelligence techniques for protection and control. Fuzzy logic based schemes, artificial neural networks, expert systems and genetic algorithms with their advantages and drawbacks are discussed. AI techniques are compared and it is also shown how they can be combined to eliminate the disadvantages and magnify the useful features of particular techniques. The information provided in Digital Signal Processing in Power System Protection and Control can be useful for protection engineers working in utilities at various levels of the electricity network, as well as for students of electrical engineering, especially electrical power engineering. It may also be helpful for other readers who want to get acquainted with and to apply the filtering, measuring and decision-making algorithms for purposes other than protection and control, everywhere fast and on-line signal analysis is needed for proper functioning of the apparatus.