Search results for: memory-performance-of-prolog-architectures

Memory Performance of Prolog Architectures

Author : Evan Tick
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One suspects that the people who use computers for their livelihood are growing more "sophisticated" as the field of computer science evolves. This view might be defended by the expanding use of languages such as C and Lisp in contrast to the languages such as FORTRAN and COBOL. This hypothesis is false however - computer languages are not like natural languages where successive generations stick with the language of their ancestors. Computer programmers do not grow more sophisticated - programmers simply take the time to muddle through the increasingly complex language semantics in an attempt to write useful programs. Of course, these programmers are "sophisticated" in the same sense as are hackers of MockLisp, PostScript, and Tex - highly specialized and tedious languages. It is quite frustrating how this myth of sophistication is propagated by some industries, universities, and government agencies. When I was an undergraduate at MIT, I distinctly remember the convoluted questions on exams concerning dynamic scoping in Lisp - the emphasis was placed solely on a "hacker's" view of computation, i. e. , the control and manipulation of storage cells. No consideration was given to the logical structure of programs. Within the past five years, Ada and Common Lisp have become programming language standards, despite their complexity (note that dynamic scoping was dropped even from Common Lisp). Of course, most industries' selection of programming languages are primarily driven by the requirement for compatibility (with previous software) and performance.

Memory Performance of AND parallel Prolog on Shared memory Architectures

Author : Manuel Hermenegildo
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Results are given both at the memory reference level and at the memory organization level. A two-level shared-memory architecture model is presented together with an analysis of various solutions to the cache coherency problem. Finally, PWAM shared-memory simulation results are presented. It is argued that the PWAM model can attain speeds in excess of 2 MLIPS with current technology for real applications which exhibit medium degrees of parallelism."

A High Performance Architecture for Prolog

Author : T.P. Dobry
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VLSI for Artificial Intelligence

Author : Jose G. Delgado-Frias
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Programming Language Implementation and Logic Programming

Author : Jan Maluszynski
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This volume contains invited and selected papers presented at the symposium PLILP '91. The aim of the symposium was to explore new declarative concepts, methods and techniques relevant for the implementation of all kinds of programming languages.

Progress in Artificial Intelligence

Author : Michel Filgueiras
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This volume presents the proceedings of the 6th Portuguese Conference on Artificial Intelligence, EPIA '93, organized by the Portuguese Artificial Intelligence Association. Like the last two conferences in this series, it was run as an international event with strict requirements as to the quality of accepted submissions. Fifty-one submissions were receivedfrom 9 countries, the largest numbers coming from Portugal (18), Germany (10), and France (8). The volume contains 25 selected papers, together with 7 poster abstracts and one invited lecture: "Organizations as complex, dynamic design problems" by L. Gasser, I. Hulthage, B. Leverich, J. Lieb, and A. Majchrzak, all from the University of Southern California. The papersare grouped into parts on: distributed artificial intelligence, natural language processing, knowledge representation, logic programming, non-standard logics, automated reasoning, constraints, planning, and learning.

Implementations of Logic Programming Systems

Author : Evan Tick
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Another theme of the book is compilation techniques to boost performance. The field of static analysis for logic programs is a rapidly developing field that deserves a volume on its own. Implementations of Logic Programming Systems serves as an excellent reference and may be used as a text for a course on the subject.

Euro Par 99 Parallel Processing

Author : Patrick Amestoy
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Euro-Parisaninternationalconferencededicatedtothepromotionandadvan- ment of all aspects of parallel computing. The major themes can be divided into the broad categories of hardware, software, algorithms and applications for p- allel computing. The objective of Euro-Par is to provide a forum within which to promote the development of parallel computing both as an industrial te- nique and an academic discipline, extending the frontier of both the state of the art and the state of the practice. This is particularly important at a time when parallel computing is undergoing strong and sustained development and experiencing real industrial take-up. The main audience for and participants in Euro-Parareseenasresearchersinacademicdepartments,governmentlabora- ries and industrial organisations. Euro-Par’s objective is to become the primary choice of such professionals for the presentation of new results in their specic areas. Euro-Par is also interested in applications which demonstrate the e - tiveness of the main Euro-Par themes. There is now a permanent Web site for the series http://brahms. fmi. uni-passau. de/cl/europar where the history of the conference is described. Euro-Par is now sponsored by the Association of Computer Machinery and the International Federation of Information Processing. Euro-Par’99 The format of Euro-Par’99follows that of the past four conferences and consists of a number of topics eachindividually monitored by a committee of four. There were originally 23 topics for this year’s conference. The call for papers attracted 343 submissions of which 188 were accepted. Of the papers accepted, 4 were judged as distinguished, 111 as regular and 73 as short papers.

The Practice of Prolog

Author : Leon Sterling
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Addressed to readers at different levels of programming expertise, The Practice of Prolog offers a departure from current books that focus on small programming examples requiring additional instruction in order to extend them to full programming projects. It shows how to design and organize moderate to large Prolog programs, providing a collection of eight programming projects, each with a particular application, and illustrating how a Prolog program was written to solve the application. These range from a simple learning program to designing a database for molecular biology to natural language generation from plans and stream data analysis. Leon Sterling is Associate Professor in the Department of Computer Engineering and Science at Case Western Reserve University. He is the coauthor, along with Ehud Shapiro, of The Art of Prolog. Contents: A Simple Learning Program, Richard O'Keefe. Designing a Prolog Database for Molecular Biology, Ewing Lusk, Robert Olson, Ross Overbeek, Steve Tuecke. Parallelizing a Pascal Compiler, Eran Gabber. PREDITOR: A Prolog-Based VLSI Editor, Peter B. Reintjes. Assisting Register Transfer Level Hardware Design, Paul Drongowski. Design and Implementation of a Partial Evaluation System, Arun Lakhotia, Leon Sterling. Natural Language Generation from Plans, Chris Mellish. Stream Data Analysis in Prolog, Stott Parker.

Parallel Machines Parallel Machine Languages

Author : Robert A. Iannucci
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It is universally accepted today that parallel processing is here to stay but that software for parallel machines is still difficult to develop. However, there is little recognition of the fact that changes in processor architecture can significantly ease the development of software. In the seventies the availability of processors that could address a large name space directly, eliminated the problem of name management at one level and paved the way for the routine development of large programs. Similarly, today, processor architectures that can facilitate cheap synchronization and provide a global address space can simplify compiler development for parallel machines. If the cost of synchronization remains high, the pro gramming of parallel machines will remain significantly less abstract than programming sequential machines. In this monograph Bob Iannucci presents the design and analysis of an architecture that can be a better building block for parallel machines than any von Neumann processor. There is another very interesting motivation behind this work. It is rooted in the long and venerable history of dataflow graphs as a formalism for ex pressing parallel computation. The field has bloomed since 1974, when Dennis and Misunas proposed a truly novel architecture using dataflow graphs as the parallel machine language. The novelty and elegance of dataflow architectures has, however, also kept us from asking the real question: "What can dataflow architectures buy us that von Neumann ar chitectures can't?" In the following I explain in a round about way how Bob and I arrived at this question.

Database Systems For Advanced Applications 91 Proceedings Of The 2nd International Symposium On Database Systems For Advanced Applications

Author : Makinouchi Akifumi
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This book provides an authoritative overview of the global development of surgical paediatrics. Biographical accounts of key people who developed this relatively new specialty, many of whom are now household names, are presented. The compendium also acknowledges the enormous contribution of imaging (ultrasound/MRI and PET scans), minimal invasive surgery, and fetal surgery, as well as the role of related journals and associations, in the progress of surgical paediatrics.Many of the contributors have been instrumental to the development of surgical paediatrics in their respective countries, and have considerable worldwide influence on the management of children requiring surgical care. Through their valuable insight and first-hand experience, this book not only shines a light on the past achievements of previous generations of paediatric surgeons, but also serves as a model to encourage future generations to do likewise.

Analysis of Cache Performance for Operating Systems and Multiprogramming

Author : Agarwal
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As we continue to build faster and fast. er computers, their performance is be coming increasingly dependent on the memory hierarchy. Both the clock speed of the machine and its throughput per clock depend heavily on the memory hierarchy. The time to complet. e a cache acce88 is oft. en the factor that det. er mines the cycle time. The effectiveness of the hierarchy in keeping the average cost of a reference down has a major impact on how close the sustained per formance is to the peak performance. Small changes in the performance of the memory hierarchy cause large changes in overall system performance. The strong growth of ruse machines, whose performance is more tightly coupled to the memory hierarchy, has created increasing demand for high performance memory systems. This trend is likely to accelerate: the improvements in main memory performance will be small compared to the improvements in processor performance. This difference will lead to an increasing gap between prOCe880r cycle time and main memory acce. time. This gap must be closed by improving the memory hierarchy. Computer architects have attacked this gap by designing machines with cache sizes an order of magnitude larger than those appearing five years ago. Microproce880r-based RISe systems now have caches that rival the size of those in mainframes and supercomputers.

Programming Language Implementation and Logic Programming

Author : Pierre Deransart
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This volume consists of the papers accepted for presentation at the second international workshop on Programming Language Implementation and Logic Programming (PLILP '90) held in Linköping, Sweden, August 20-22, 1990. The aim of the workshop was to identify concepts and techniques used both in implementation of programming languages, regardless of the underlying programming paradigm, and in logic programming. The intention was to bring together researchers working in these fields. The volume includes 26 selected papers falling into two categories. Papers in the first category present certain ideas from the point of view of a particular class of programming languages, or even a particular language. The ideas presented seem to be applicable in other classes of languages. Papers in the second category directly address the problem of integration of various programming paradigms. The proceedings of the predecessor workshop PLILP '88, held in Orléans, France, May 16-18, 1988, are available as Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 348.

A Code Mapping Scheme for Dataflow Software Pipelining

Author : Guang R. Gao
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This monograph evolved from my Ph. D dissertation completed at the Laboratory of Computer Science, MIT, during the Summer of 1986. In my dissertation I proposed a pipelined code mapping scheme for array operations on static dataflow architectures. The main addition to this work is found in Chapter 12, reflecting new research results developed during the last three years since I joined McGill University-results based upon the principles in my dissertation. The terminology dataflow soft ware pipelining has been consistently used since publication of our 1988 paper on the argument-fetching dataflow architecture model at McGill University [43]. In the first part of this book we describe the static data flow graph model as an operational model for concurrent computation. We look at timing considerations for program graph execution on an ideal static dataflow computer, examine the notion of pipe lining, and characterize its performance. We discuss balancing techniques used to transform certain graphs into fully pipelined data flow graphs. In particular, we show how optimal balancing of an acyclic data flow graph can be formulated as a linear programming problem for which an optimal solution exists. As a major result, we show the optimal balancing problem of acyclic data flow graphs is reduceable to a class of linear programming problem, the net work flow problem, for which well-known efficient algorithms exist. This result disproves the conjecture that such problems are computationally hard.

Building a Deductive Database

Author : Miguel Nussbaum
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This text illustrates the main issues and concepts behind deductive databases through the description of a real system. Both theory and practice combine to advance a pragmatic approach. The book covers all related topics from basic theory to its coupling with a known database management system and its implementation on a commerical multiprocessor. An overview describes the problems related to the field. In the introduction, basic tools and references to related work give the necessary background context. Chapter two slowly begins building the concepts that finally lead to the kern algorithm used throughout the book - mixed top-down, bottom-up computation. Upon completion of the book, the reader should be able to build a deductive database. Implementation problems are exposed and solved and new strategies and algorithms with their performance behaviour are presented. Additionally the reader should also learn the benefits and drawbacks of working with an existing database and the usefulness of a parallel machine.

Logic Programming

Author : Philippe Codognet
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This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Logic Programming, ICLP 2001, held in Paphos, Cyprus in November/December 2001. The 23 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 64 submissions. All current aspects of logic programming and computational logics are addressed.

Practical Aspects of Declarative Languages

Author : Gopal Gupta
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Declarative languages have traditionally been regarded by the mainstream c- puting community as too impractical to be put to practical use. At the same time, traditionalconferencesdevotedto declarativelanguagesdo not haveissues related to practice as their central focus. Thus, there are few forums devoted to discussion of practical aspects and implications of newly discovered results and techniques related to declarative languages. The goal of the First International Workshop on Practical Aspects of Declarative Languages (PADL) is to bring together researchers,practitioners and implementors of declarative languages to discuss practical issues and practical implications of their research results. The workshop was held in San Antonio, Texas, during January 18-19, 1999. This volume contains its proceedings. Fifty three papers were submitted in response to the call for papers. These papers were written by authors belonging to twenty one countries from six c- tinents. Each paper was assigned to at least two referees for reviewing. Twenty four papers were nally selected for presentation at the workshop. Many good papers could not be included due to the limited duration of the workshop. The workshop included invited talks by Mark Hayden of DEC/Compaq Systems - search Center, speaking on \Experiences Building Distributed Systems in ML," and Mark Wallace of Imperial College Center for Planning And Resource C- trol (IC-PARC), speaking on \ECLiPSe: Declarative Specic ation and Scalable Implementation.

Computational Logic CL 2000

Author : John Lloyd
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These are the proceedings of the First International Conference on Compu- tional Logic (CL 2000) which was held at Imperial College in London from 24th to 28th July, 2000. The theme of the conference covered all aspects of the theory, implementation, and application of computational logic, where computational logic is to be understood broadly as the use of logic in computer science. The conference was collocated with the following events: { 6th International Conference on Rules and Objects in Databases (DOOD 2000) { 10th International Workshop on Logic-based Program Synthesis and Tra- formation (LOPSTR 2000) { 10th International Conference on Inductive Logic Programming (ILP 2000). CL 2000 consisted of seven streams: { Program Development (LOPSTR 2000) { Logic Programming: Theory and Extensions { Constraints { Automated Deduction: Putting Theory into Practice { Knowledge Representation and Non-monotonic Reasoning { Database Systems (DOOD 2000) { Logic Programming: Implementations and Applications. The LOPSTR 2000 workshop constituted the program development stream and the DOOD 2000 conference constituted the database systems stream. Each stream had its own chair and program committee, which autonomously selected the papers in the area of the stream. Overall, 176 papers were submitted, of which 86 were selected to be presented at the conference and appear in these proceedings. The acceptance rate was uniform across the streams. In addition, LOPSTR 2000 accepted about 15 extended abstracts to be presented at the conference in the program development stream.

Data Organization in Parallel Computers

Author : Harry A.G. Wijshoff
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The organization of data is clearly of great importance in the design of high performance algorithms and architectures. Although there are several landmark papers on this subject, no comprehensive treatment has appeared. This monograph is intended to fill that gap. We introduce a model of computation for parallel computer architec tures, by which we are able to express the intrinsic complexity of data or ganization for specific architectures. We apply this model of computation to several existing parallel computer architectures, e.g., the CDC 205 and CRAY vector-computers, and the MPP binary array processor. The study of data organization in parallel computations was introduced as early as 1970. During the development of the ILLIAC IV system there was a need for a theory of possible data arrangements in interleaved mem ory systems. The resulting theory dealt primarily with storage schemes also called skewing schemes for 2-dimensional matrices, i.e., mappings from a- dimensional array to a number of memory banks. By means of the model of computation we are able to apply the theory of skewing schemes to var ious kinds of parallel computer architectures. This results in a number of consequences for both the design of parallel computer architectures and for applications of parallel processing.

Parallel Programming and Compilers

Author : Constantine D. Polychronopoulos
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The second half of the 1970s was marked with impressive advances in array/vector architectures and vectorization techniques and compilers. This progress continued with a particular focus on vector machines until the middle of the 1980s. The major ity of supercomputers during this period were register-to-register (Cray 1) or memory-to-memory (CDC Cyber 205) vector (pipelined) machines. However, the increasing demand for higher computational rates lead naturally to parallel comput ers and software. Through the replication of autonomous processors in a coordinated system, one can skip over performance barriers due technology limitations. In princi ple, parallelism offers unlimited performance potential. Nevertheless, it is very difficult to realize this performance potential in practice. So far, we have seen only the tip of the iceberg called "parallel machines and parallel programming". Parallel programming in particular is a rapidly evolving art and, at present, highly empirical. In this book we discuss several aspects of parallel programming and parallelizing compilers. Instead of trying to develop parallel programming methodologies and paradigms, we often focus on more advanced topics assuming that the reader has an adequate background in parallel processing. The book is organized in three main parts. In the first part (Chapters 1 and 2) we set the stage and focus on program transformations and parallelizing compilers. The second part of this book (Chapters 3 and 4) discusses scheduling for parallel machines from the practical point of view macro and microtasking and supporting environments). Finally, the last part (Le.