Search results for: microbiomes-of-extreme-environments

Microbiomes of Extreme Environments

Author : Ajar Nath Yadav
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Extreme microbiomes are those microorganisms thriving under extreme conditions where no other living being will have any chance to survive. These extremophilic microbes are capable of thriving in the harshest places on earth including the deep sea, hot springs, glaciers, deserts, and hypersaline lakes. Nowadays, many new species have been discovered in both natural and artificial extreme environments. This book gives an extensive overview about several contemporary fields of research on extremophilic microbes and their potential applications in agriculture, industry, medicine and allied sectors. Key Features: Examines the biodiversity of extremophilic microbiomes Discusses the role of extremophilic microbes in diverse processes Presents potential applications of extremophiles in agriculture, and Industry

Microbiomes of Extreme Environments

Author : Ajar Nath Yadav
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The extreme microbiomes are those microorganisms thriving under extreme conditions where no other living being will have any chance to survive. The extreme habitats are those presenting high temperatures (thermophiles), low temperature (psychrophiles), hypersaline environments (halophiles), low and high pH (Acidophiles/alkaliphiles), high pressure (Piezophiles) are distributed worldwide. The extreme habitats have proved to offer a unique reservoir of genetic diversity and biological source of extremophiles. The extremophilic microbial diversity and their biotechnological potential use in agricultural and industrial applications will be a milestone for future needs. Extremophiles and their cell components, therefore, are expected to play an important role in the chemical, food, pharmaceutical, paper and textile industries as well as environmental biotechnology.

Microbial Ecology of Extreme Environments

Author : Caroline Chénard
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This book explores microbial lifestyles, biochemical adaptations, and trophic interactions occurring in extreme environments. By summarizing the latest findings in the field it provides a valuable reference for future studies. Spark ideas for biotechnological and commercial exploitation of microbiomes at the extremes of life are presented. Chapters on viruses complement this highly informative book. In a vertical journey through the microbial biosphere it covers aspects of cold environments, hot environments, extreme saline environments, and extreme pressure environments, and more. From the deep sea, through polar deserts, up to the clouds in the air - the diversity of microbial life in all habitats is described, explored, and comprehensively reviewed. Possible biotechnical applications are discussed. This book aims to provide a useful reference for those who want to start a research program in extreme microbiology and, hopefully, inspire new research directions.

Guide to Microbiome Diet

Author : Dr Sandra Carter
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The predominant bacteria on human skinAll plants and animals, from simple life forms to humans, live in close association with microbial organisms. Several advances have driven the perception of microbiomes, including: The ability to perform genomic and gene expression analyses of single cells and of entire microbial communities in the disciplines of metagenomics and metatranscriptomicsBiologists have come to appreciate that microbes make up an important part of an organism's phenotype, far beyond the occasional symbiotic case study.A microbiome is the community of microorganisms-such as bacteria, archaea, fungi, as well as viruses-that inhabit an ecosystem or organism. Microorganisms dominate all other life everywhere scientists have looked, including the human body, the Earth's soils and sediments, the oceans and fresh waterways, the atmosphere and even extreme environments such as hydrothermal vents and subglacial lakes. Scientists also use the term microbiome to refer to all these genes associated with those lifeforms.Microbiomes have several things in common. Their inhabitants are plentiful and diverse, varying from place to place and even from person to person. They are also dynamic, changing in response to factors such as diet or climate. Finally, they are interconnected with their host, engaged in a give-and-take relationship that is often beneficial, even essential, to both the host and their resident microorganisms.Researchers are just beginning to study microbiomes in as systematic way. They are trying to understand what makes a healthy microbiome, including what microbes are present and what those microbes are doing, as well as how microbiomes change over time, how such communities stay balanced and how changes to microbiomes impact human or environmental health. Microbiome research is even important for space exploration and planetary science. Understanding microorganisms here on Earth, especially those that inhabit extreme environments, may help us understand the potential for alternate lifeforms and to search for life on other planets. They may also help us colonize other planets by helping us to create Earth-like, human-friendly environments far, far away

Plant Microbiome Stress Response

Author : Dilfuza Egamberdieva
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This book presents state-of-the-art research on the many facets of the plant microbiome, including diversity, ecology, physiology and genomics, as well as molecular mechanisms of plant-microbe interactions. Topics considered include the importance of microbial secondary metabolites in stimulating plant growth, induced systemic resistance, tolerance to abiotic stress, and biological control of plant pathogens. The respective contributions show how microbes help plants to cope with abiotic stresses, and represent significant progress toward understanding the complex regulatory networks critical to host-microbe interaction and plant adaptation in extreme environments. New insights into the mechanisms of microbial actions in inducing plant stress tolerance open new doors for improving the efficacy of microbial strategies, and could produce new ways of economically increasing crop yields without harming the environment. As such, this book offers an essential resource for students and researchers with an interest in plant-microbe interaction, as well as several possibilities for employing the plant microbiome in the enhancement of crop productivity under future climate change scenarios.

Soil Microbiomes for Sustainable Agriculture

Author : Ajar Nath Yadav
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Cave Microbiomes A Novel Resource for Drug Discovery

Author : Naowarat Cheeptham
File Size : 63.51 MB
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This book details recent findings in the field of cave microbiology and builds on fast-paced efforts to exploit an unconventional and underexplored environment for new microorganisms which may provide an untapped source of drugs: microorganisms from caves.

New and Future Developments in Microbial Biotechnology and Bioengineering

Author : Ali Asghar Rastegari
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New and Future Developments in Microbial Biotechnology and Bioengineering: Trends of Microbial Biotechnology for Sustainable Agriculture and Biomedicine Systems: Diversity and Functional Perspectives describes how specific techniques can be used to generalize the metabolism of bacteria that optimize biologic improvement strategies and bio-transport processes. Microbial biotechnology focuses on microbes of agricultural, environmental, industrial, and clinical significance. This volume discusses several methods based on molecular genetics, systems, and biology of synthetic, genomic, proteomic, and metagenomics. Recent developments in our understanding of the role of microbes in sustainable agriculture and biotechnology have created a highly potential research area. The soil and plant microbiomes have a significant role in plant growth promotion, crop yield, soil health and fertility for sustainable developments. The microbes provide nutrients and stimulate plant growth through different mechanisms, including solubilization of phosphorus, potassium, and zinc; biological nitrogen fixation; production of siderophore, ammonia, HCN and other secondary metabolites which are antagonistic against pathogenic microbes. This new book provides an indispensable reference source for engineers/bioengineers, biochemists, biotechnologists, microbiologists, agrochemists, and researchers who want to know about the unique properties of this microbe and explore its sustainable agriculture future applications. Introduces the principles of microbial biotechnology and its application in plant growth and soil health for sustainable agriculture Explores various plant microbiomes and their beneficial impact on plant growth for crop improvement Explains the mechanisms of plant-microbe interaction and plant growth promotion Includes current applications of microbial consortium for enhance production of crop in eco-friendly manners

Plant Microbiome Stress Response

Author : Dilfuza Egamberdieva
File Size : 63.29 MB
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This book presents state-of-the-art research on the many facets of the plant microbiome, including diversity, ecology, physiology and genomics, as well as molecular mechanisms of plant-microbe interactions. Topics considered include the importance of microbial secondary metabolites in stimulating plant growth, induced systemic resistance, tolerance to abiotic stress, and biological control of plant pathogens. The respective contributions show how microbes help plants to cope with abiotic stresses, and represent significant progress toward understanding the complex regulatory networks critical to host-microbe interaction and plant adaptation in extreme environments. New insights into the mechanisms of microbial actions in inducing plant stress tolerance open new doors for improving the efficacy of microbial strategies, and could produce new ways of economically increasing crop yields without harming the environment. As such, this book offers an essential resource for students and researchers with an interest in plant-microbe interaction, as well as several possibilities for employing the plant microbiome in the enhancement of crop productivity under future climate change scenarios.

Cave Microbiomes A Novel Resource for Drug Discovery

Author : Naowarat Cheeptham
File Size : 71.53 MB
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This book details recent findings in the field of cave microbiology and builds on fast-paced efforts to exploit an unconventional and underexplored environment for new microorganisms which may provide an untapped source of drugs: microorganisms from caves.

Soil Microbiomes for Sustainable Agriculture

Author : Ajar Nath Yadav
File Size : 40.42 MB
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This book encompasses current knowledge of soil microbiomes and their potential biotechnological application for plant growth, crop yield, and soil health under the natural as well as harsh environmental conditions for sustainable agriculture. The microbes are ubiquitous in nature. The soil is a natural hotspot of the soil microbiome. The soil microbiome plays a critical role in the maintenance of global nutrient balance and ecosystem functioning. The soil microbiomes are associated with plant ecosystems through the intense network of plant–microbe interactions. The microbes present in bulk soil move toward the rhizospheric region due to the release of different nutrients by plant systems. The rhizospheric microbes may survive or proliferate in rhizospheric zone depending on the extent of influences of the chemicals secreted into the soil by roots. The root exudates contain the principal nutrients factors (amino acids, glucose, fructose, and sucrose). The microbes present in rhizospheric region have capabilities to fix atmospheric nitrogen, produce different phytohormones, and solubilize phosphorus, potassium, and zinc. The plant systems take these nutrients for their growth and developments. These soil and plant associated microbes also play an important role in protection of plants from different plant pathogenic organisms by producing different secondary metabolites such as ammonia, hydrogen cyanide, siderophores, and hydrolytic enzymes. The soil microbiomes with plant growth-promoting (PGP) attributes have emerged as an important and promising tool for sustainable agriculture. The soil microbiomes promote the plant growth and enhance the crop yield and soil fertility via directly or indirectly different plant growth-promoting mechanism. The soil microbes help the plant for adaptation in extreme habitats by mitigating the abiotic stress of high/low temperatures, hypersalinity, drought, and acidic/alkaline soil. These PGP microbes are used as biofertilizers/bioinoculants to replace the harmful chemical fertilizers for sustainable agriculture and environments. The aim of the book “Soil Microbiomes for Sustainable Agriculture” is to provide the recent advances in mechanisms of plant growth promotion and applications of soil microbiomes for mitigation of different abiotic stresses in plants. The book is useful to scientists, researchers, and students related to microbiology, biotechnology, agriculture, molecular biology, environmental biology, and related subjects.

Agriculturally Important Fungi for Sustainable Agriculture

Author : Ajar Nath Yadav
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Microbes are ubiquitous in nature. Among microbes, fungal communities play an important role in agriculture, the environment, and medicine. Vast fungal diversity has been found in plant systems. The fungi associated with any plant system are in the form of epiphytic, endophytic, and rhizospheric fungi. These associated fungi play important roles in plant growth, crop yield, and soil health. The rhizospheric fungi present in rhizospheric zones have a sufficient amount of nutrients released by plant root systems in the form of root exudates for growth, development, and activities of microbes. Endophytic fungi enter in host plants mainly through wounds that naturally occur as a result of plant growth, or develop through root hairs and at epidermal conjunctions. The phyllospheric fungi may survive or proliferate on leaves, depending on the extent of influences of material in leaf diffuseness or exudates. The diverse group of fungal communities is a key component of soil-plant systems, where they are engaged in an intense network of interactions in the rhizospheric, endophytic, and phyllospheric areas, and they have emerged as an important and promising tool for sustainable agriculture. These fungal communities help to promote plant growth directly or indirectly by mechanisms for plant growth-promoting (PGP) attributes. These PGP fungi can be used as biofertilizers, bioinoculants, and biocontrol agents in place of chemical fertilizers and pesticides in an environmentally and eco-friendly manner. This book covers the current knowledge of plant-associated fungi and their potential biotechnological applications in agriculture and allied sectors. This book should be useful to scientists, researchers, and students of microbiology, biotechnology, agriculture, molecular biology, environmental biology, and related subjects.

Metagenomic Profiling of Microbial Metal Interaction in Red Sea Deep anoxic Brine Pools

Author : Mina Magdy Abdelsayed Hanna
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Abstract: Extreme environmental conditions induce evolution of microbiomes and shape microbial abundance. Different geochemical studies reported high metal abundance in Red Sea deep-anoxic brine pools, especially in Atlantis II Deep, which has the highest metals content. Brine pools show wide diversity of biologically essential and non-essential metals. Several metals known for their toxicity to biological life were detected in these pools. Yet, previous microbiome analyses of the pools demonstrated vast microbiological diversity. In this study, we compare metal-resistant prokaryotic microbiomes in different metal-rich brine water samples from Atlantis II lower convective layer (ATII-LCL), Atlantis II upper convective layer (ATII-UCL), Discovery Deep (DD) and Kebrit Deep (KD). Moreover, we investigate genome evolution of microbial communities in response to such excessive metal abundance. Using 16S rRNA pyrotags and shot-gun 454-pyrosequencing, we perform a comparative analyses of (i)-taxonomic assignment of operational taxonomic units to major bacterial and archaeal groups and (ii)-metal resistant protein-coding genes, of the microbial communities and metagenomes. The ATII-LCL, ATII-UCL, DD and KD brine pools metagenomes protein-coding genes involved in microbial-metal interaction and resistances were assessed for abundance and diversity. We report specific microbial richness of these three brine pools. Functional analyses of the metagenomes revealed different metal resistance mechanisms and different modes of mutual interaction between dissolved metals/sediments and microbial communities. This was supported by the strong correlation between specific high metal/s concentration in selected brine water, where; metal resistance, enrichment of metals metabolism and transport were revealed. As expected, ATII-LCL showed the highest relative abundance of genes involved in microbial-metal interaction. Additionally, we report significant abundance of peroxidases-encoding genes, mainly in ATII-LCL, and we hypothesize that generation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) occurs through interaction of pyrite deposits. Moreover, we suggest that genus Paenibacillus, which is highly abundant in ATII-LCL has a role in increasing concentration of dissolved iron in brine water. DD and KD showed relatively lower enrichment of genes involved in microbial-metal interaction. However, geochemistry of these environments together with unique microbial abundance give an inference about mechanisms of microbial metal interaction and metabolism taking place there. Eventually, we successfully identified free living metal-resistant prokaryotic communities, showed how prokaryotes tolerate and induce changes to the surrounding environment, and highlighted how geochemical conditions affected microbial abundance and induced evolution of microbiomes in brine pools.

The Marine Microbiome

Author : Lucas J. Stal
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This book describes the state-of-the-art concerning the ‘marine microbiome’ and its uses in biotechnology. The first part discusses the diversity and ecology of marine microorganisms and viruses, including all three domains of life: Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. It discusses whether marine microorganisms exist and, if so, why they might be unique. The second part presents selected marine habitats, their inhabitants and how they influence biogeochemical cycles, while the third discusses the utilization of marine microbial resources, including legal aspects, dissemination, and public awareness. The marine microbiome is the total of microorganisms and viruses in the ocean and seas and in any connected environment, including the seafloor and marine animals and plants. The diversity of microbial life remains unquantified and largely unknown, and could represent a hidden treasure for human society. Accordingly, this book is also intended to connect academics and industry, providing essential information for microbiologists from both fields.

Microorganisms for Sustainable Environment and Health

Author : Pankaj Chowdhary
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Microorganisms for Sustainable Environment and Health covers hazardous pollutants released from natural as well as anthropogenic activities and implications on environmental and human health. This book serves as a valuable source of basic knowledge and recent developments in the clean technologies and pollution-associated diseases and abnormalities in the context of microorganisms. Focused on current solutions to various environmental problems in the field of bioremediation, it provides a detailed knowledge on the various types of toxic environmental pollutants discharged from different sources, their toxicological effects in environments, humans, animals and plants as well as their biodegradation and bioremediation approaches. This book helps environmental scientists and microbiologists learn about existing environmental problems and suggests ways to control or contain their effects by employing various treatment approaches. Provides information on waste treatment approaches using microbes Includes applications in biofuel and bioenergy production Covers green belt development, hydroponics, phytoremediation, wetland treatment technology, and common effluent treatment plants (CETPs) Discusses dissemination of antibiotic resistance among pathogenic microbes and strategies to combat multi-drug resistance (MDR)

Understanding Host Microbiome Interactions An Omics Approach

Author : Ravindra Pal Singh
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This book offers up-to-date information on different microbiomes, their community composition and interactive functions with the host, bringing together information from diverse research reports to provide an overview of the rapid developments in meta-omics technologies. It is a valuable resource for scientists, researchers, postgraduate and graduate students interested in understanding the impact and importance of next generation sequencing technologies on different hosts and their microbiomes.

Microbiome Host Interactions

Author : D. Dhanasekaran
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Microbiota are a promising and fascinating subject in biology because they integrate the microbial communities in humans, animals, plants, and the environment. In humans, microbiota are associated with the gut, skin, and genital, oral, and respiratory organs. The plant microbial community is referred to as "holobiont," and it is influential in the maintenance and health of plants, which themselves play a role in animal health and the environment. The contents of Microbiome-Host Interactions cover all areas as well as new research trends in the fields of plant, animal, human, and environmental microbiome interactions. The book covers microbiota in polar soil environments, in health and disease, in Caenorhabditis elegans, and in agroecosystems, as well as in rice root and actinorhizal root nodules, speleothems, and marine shallow-water hydrothermal vents. Moreover, this book provides comprehensive accounts of advanced next-generation DNA sequencing, metagenomic techniques, high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing, and understanding nucleic acid sequence data from fungal, algal, viral, bacterial, cyanobacterial, actinobacterial, and archaeal communities using QIIME software (Quantitative Insights into Microbial Ecology). FEATURES Summarizes recent insight in microbiota and host interactions in distinct habitats, including Antarctic, hydrothermal vents, speleothems, oral, skin, gut, feces, reproductive tract, soil, root, root nodules, forests, and mangroves Illustrates the high-throughput amplicon sequencing, computational techniques involved in the microbiota analysis, downstream analysis and visualization, and multivariate analysis commonly used for microbiome analysis Describes probiotics and prebiotics in the composition of the gut microbiota, skin microbiome impact in dermatologic disease prevention, and microbial communities in the reproductive tract of humans and animals Presents information in a reachable way for students, teachers, researchers, microbiologists, computational biologists, and other professionals who are interested in strengthening or enlarging their knowledge about microbiome analysis with next-generation DNA sequencing in the different branches of the sciences

Advanced Techniques for Studying Microorganisms in Extreme Environments

Author : Étienne Yergeau
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This book will highlight advanced techniques that were recently used for studying microorganisms in extreme environments. Recent technological leaps in the study of microorganisms in the environment now make it possible to comprehensively study microbes in the environment. Extreme environments could benefit from the application of these techniques, but many challenges such as low biomass, low activity and slow growth has prevented their wide adoption. This book will review recent application of state-of-the-art techniques in extreme environments, helping researcher and graduate students get a better knowledge of the tools available.

Plant Microbiomes for Sustainable Agriculture

Author : Ajar Nath Yadav
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This book encompasses the current knowledge of plant microbiomes and their potential biotechnological application for plant growth, crop yield and soil health for sustainable agriculture. The plant microbiomes (rhizospheric, endophytic and epiphytic) play an important role in plant growth, development, and soil health. Plant and rhizospheric soil are a valuable natural resource harbouring hotspots of microbes, and it plays critical roles in the maintenance of global nutrient balance and ecosystem function. The diverse group of microbes is key components of soil–plant systems, where they are engaged in an intense network of interactions in the rhizosphere/endophytic/phyllospheric. The rhizospheric microbial diversity present in rhizospheric zones has a sufficient amount of nutrients release by plant root systems in form of root exudates for growth, development and activities of microbes. The endophytic microbes are referred to those microorganisms, which colonize in the interior of the plant parts, viz root, stem or seeds without causing any harmful effect on host plant. Endophytic microbes enter in host plants mainly through wounds, naturally occurring as a result of plant growth, or through root hairs and at epidermal conjunctions. Endophytes may be transmitted either vertically (directly from parent to offspring) or horizontally (among individuals). The phyllosphere is a common niche for synergism between microbes and plant. The leaf surface has been termed as phyllosphere and zone of leaves inhabited by microorganisms as phyllosphere. The plant part, especially leaves, is exposed to dust and air currents resulting in the establishments of typical flora on their surface aided by the cuticles, waxes and appendages, which help in the anchorage of microorganisms. The phyllospheric microbes may survive or proliferate on leaves depending on extent of influences of material in leaf diffuseness or exudates. The leaf diffuseness contains the principal nutrients factors (amino acids, glucose, fructose and sucrose), and such specialized habitats may provide niche for nitrogen fixation and secretions of substances capable of promoting the growth of plants. The microbes associated with plant as rhizospheric, endophytic and epiphytic with plant growth promoting (PGP) attributes have emerged as an important and promising tool for sustainable agriculture. PGP microbes promote plant growth directly or indirectly, either by releasing plant growth regulators; solubilization of phosphorus, potassium and zinc; biological nitrogen fixation or by producing siderophore, ammonia, HCN and other secondary metabolites which are antagonistic against pathogenic microbes. The PGP microbes belong to different phylum of archaea (Euryarchaeota); bacteria (Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Deinococcus-Thermus, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria) and fungi (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota), which include different genera namely Achromobacter, Arthrobacter, Aspergillus, Azospirillum, Azotobacter, Bacillus, Beijerinckia, Burkholderia, Enterobacter, Erwinia, Flavobacterium, Gluconoacetobacter, Haloarcula, Herbaspirillum, Methylobacterium, Paenibacillus, Pantoea, Penicillium, Piriformospora, Planomonospora, Pseudomonas, Rhizobium, Serratia and Streptomyces. These PGP microbes could be used as biofertilizers/bioinoculants at place of chemical fertilizers for sustainable agriculture. The aim of “Plant Microbiomes for Sustainable Agriculture” is to provide the current developments in the understanding of microbial diversity associated with plant systems in the form of rhizospheric, endophytic and epiphytic. The book is useful to scientist, research and students related to microbiology, biotechnology, agriculture, molecular biology, environmental biology and related subjects.

Microbiomes of the Built Environment

Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
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People's desire to understand the environments in which they live is a natural one. People spend most of their time in spaces and structures designed, built, and managed by humans, and it is estimated that people in developed countries now spend 90 percent of their lives indoors. As people move from homes to workplaces, traveling in cars and on transit systems, microorganisms are continually with and around them. The human-associated microbes that are shed, along with the human behaviors that affect their transport and removal, make significant contributions to the diversity of the indoor microbiome. The characteristics of "healthy" indoor environments cannot yet be defined, nor do microbial, clinical, and building researchers yet understand how to modify features of indoor environmentsâ€"such as building ventilation systems and the chemistry of building materialsâ€"in ways that would have predictable impacts on microbial communities to promote health and prevent disease. The factors that affect the environments within buildings, the ways in which building characteristics influence the composition and function of indoor microbial communities, and the ways in which these microbial communities relate to human health and well-being are extraordinarily complex and can be explored only as a dynamic, interconnected ecosystem by engaging the fields of microbial biology and ecology, chemistry, building science, and human physiology. This report reviews what is known about the intersection of these disciplines, and how new tools may facilitate advances in understanding the ecosystem of built environments, indoor microbiomes, and effects on human health and well-being. It offers a research agenda to generate the information needed so that stakeholders with an interest in understanding the impacts of built environments will be able to make more informed decisions.