Search results for: migration-of-organisms

Migration of Organisms

Author : Ashraf M.T. Elewa
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Why do some animals migrate? How does migration affect the gene pool? This book discusses these questions and more, in light of the high evolutionary costs and risks of mass movement. The editor presents a collection of topics explaining the migration of organisms through many examples of different groups of marine and non-marine organisms, from micro-invertebrates to large mammals.

The Darwinian Theory and the Law of the Migration of Organisms

Author : Moritz Wagner
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The Darwinian Theory and the Law of the Migration of Organisms

Author : Dr Moritz Wagner
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This historic book may have numerous typos and missing text. Purchasers can usually download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. Not indexed. Not illustrated. 1873 edition. Excerpt: ... of scorpion which it does not now possess. But had such been the case, the different conditions to which they must have been subjected would in all probability have produced a variety, and ultimately resulted in the formation of a new species. A kind of beetle of the genus Tetracha, inhabiting tropical America, presents a most remarkable example of how individuals of a species, having accidentally strayed or been transported to a neighbouring territory, may, in a comparatively short space of time, through complete isolation and very altered conditions, be changed in form, colour, and mode of life, and thus become an entirely new species. The mode of life of this genus is identical with that of the genus Megacephala of the Old World, so well known to all entomologists, of which the American genus Tetracha, properly speaking, forms a sub-genus. Tetracha Carolina, L., and T. geniculata, Chev., pursue the same gregarious mode of life as the Asiatic Megacephala euphratica; both are very numerous in the dampest parts of sandy river banks, and both require a damp climate. Even in the night, when they conceal themselves under stones or fallen trunks, they confine themselves to places saturated with water, and are but rarely to be met with inland. The rivers of Venezuela and of the western part of Central America, where the last-mentioned species abounds, flow partly through savannahs, where they have undermined the loose tufaceous soil, forming deep beds with high precipitous banks. Individuals of this species from the highlands, through which the river passes, have arrived, by accident or otherwise, at the level unwatered soil of the savannah, and cannot return without precipitating themselves down the perpendicular bank; the consequence has...

Migration The Biology of Life on the Move

Author : Davis Hugh Dingle Professor in the Department of Entomology and Center for Population Biology University of California
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Migration is one of the most fascinating and dramatic of all animal behaviors. Historically, however, the study of migration has been fragmented, with ornithologists, entomologists, and marine biologists paying little attention to work outside their own fields. This treatment of the subject shows how comparisons across taxa can in fact illuminate migratory life cycles and the relation of migration to other movements. The book thus takes an integrated ecological perspective, focusing on migration as a biological phenomenon. The work is divided into four parts, each with a brief introductory section. Part I defines migration, gives examples, and places migration in the spectrum of movement behaviors, concluding with a chapter on methods for its study. Part II focuses on proximate mechanisms, including physiology and morphology (and the constraints associated with them), the interactions between migration and wind and current patterns, and the various orientation and navigation mechanisms by which migrants find their way about. Part III on the evolution of migratory life histories addresses the evolutionary and ecological basis for migration and the roles of migration not only in the lives of organisms, but also in the ecological communities in which they live. Part IV is devoted to a brief consideration of migration and its relation to pest management and conservation. As a major contribution to a vital subject, this work will be valued by all researchers and students in the field of animal behavior, ecology, and zoology.

Migration of Organisms

Author : Ashraf M.T. Elewa
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Why do some animals migrate? How does migration affect the gene pool? This book discusses these questions and more, in light of the high evolutionary costs and risks of mass movement. The editor presents a collection of topics explaining the migration of organisms through many examples of different groups of marine and non-marine organisms, from micro-invertebrates to large mammals.

Animal Migration Orientation and Navigation

Author : Gauthreaux
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Animal Migration, Orientation, and Navigation presents the various aspects of animal migration, including the evolution of migration, climatic and meteorological influences, and bioenergetics. This book discusses the physiological control, sensory systems, orientation and navigation, and biological clocks and phenology aspects of animal migration. Organized into five chapters, this book begins with an overview of the migration strategies of animals in the context of a space continuum. This text then explains the influence of short- and long-term climatic cycles on the spectrum of migratory patterns in nature. Other chapters consider the energetic requirements of different migration strategies and the energy stores of the migrants. This book discusses as well the physiological basis of animal migration, with emphasis on endocrinal findings on the timing and energetic aspects of different migration strategies. The final chapter deals with the mechanisms used in direction finding by migrating animals. This book is a valuable resource for biologists and ecologists.

The Darwinian Theory and the Law of the Migration of Organisms Translated from the German by J L Laird

Author : (Professor at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Uni
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This is a reproduction of the original artefact. Generally these books are created from careful scans of the original. This allows us to preserve the book accurately and present it in the way the author intended. Since the original versions are generally quite old, there may occasionally be certain imperfections within these reproductions. We're happy to make these classics available again for future generations to enjoy!

The migration of sessile organisms

Author : Y C. Collingham
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Cell Adhesion and Migration in the Development of Multicellular Organisms

Author : Takaaki Matsui
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During development, cells are generated at specific locations within the embryo and then migrate into their destinations. At their destinations, they assemble together through cell adhesions, eventually leading to the formation of tissues and organs. In some cases, orchestration of cell adhesion and migration produces the global movement of cell groups, called collective cell migration, which is also required for the development of basic tissue structures such as spheres, clusters, and vesicles in the morphogenetic processes of development. Therefore, individual regulation and orchestration of cell adhesion and migration are quite important for appropriate tissue/organ formation during development. However, how cell adhesion and migration are regulated, and orchestrated during development? How cell adhesion and migration affects tissue formation during development? To answer these questions, we assembled several review and research articles in this eBook. By assembling these articles, we could explore the presence of core regulatory mechanisms and deepen the current understanding of cell adhesion and migration during the development of multicellular organisms.

Animal Migration

Author : E.J. Milner-Gulland
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Migration is a fascinating phenomenon that can contribute to the fundamental structuring of ecosystems. This seminal volume synthesises insights from both mathematical modelling and empirical research in order to generate a unified understanding of the mechanisms underlying migration.

Migrations and Dispersal of Marine Organisms

Author : M.B. Jones
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This book represents the Proceedings of the 37th European Marine Biology Symposium, held in Reykjavík, Iceland, 5-9 August 2002. The main themes of the symposium were Migrations and Dispersal of Marine Organisms. These themes are highly relevant today. There is widespread man-aided dispersal (e.g. by ballast water) of marine plants and animals, which may have substantial effects on the regions receiving new species. The new introductions may result in reduced diversity of plants and animals and may affect natural resources in the countries receiving toxic algae and other foreign elements. Studies of changes in distribution and dispersal of marine animals and plants are also highly relevant with reference to the changing climate taking place. The study of dispersal has recently gained new impetus with the discovery of the remarkable communities found on isolated hydrothermal vents and cold water seeps in the world's oceans.

Animal Movement Across Scales

Author : Lars-Anders Hansson
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Movement, dispersal, and migration on land, in the air, and in water, are pervading features of animal life. They are performed by a huge variety of organisms, from the smallest protozoans to the largest whales, and can extend over widely different distance scales, from the microscopic to global. Integrating the study of movement, dispersal, and migration is crucial for a detailed understanding of the spatial scale of adaptation, and for analysing the consequences of landscape and climate change as well as of invasive species. This novel book adopts a broad, cross-taxonomic approach to animal movement across both temporal and spatial scales, addressing how and why animals move, and in what ways they differ in their locomotion and navigation performance. Written by an integrated team of leading researchers, the book synthesizes our current knowledge of the genetics of movement, including gene flow and local adaptations, whilst providing a future perspective on how patterns of animal migration may change over time together with their potential evolutionary consequences. Novel technologies for tracking the movement of organisms across scales are also discussed, ranging from satellite devices for tracking global migrations to nanotechnology that can follow animals only a millimetre in size. Animal Movement Across Scales is particularly suitable for graduate level students taking courses in spatial animal ecology, animal migration, and 'movement ecology', as well as providing a source of fresh ideas and opinions for those already active within the field. It will also be of interest and use to a broader audience of professional biologists interested in animal movements and migrations.

A Bidirectional Trap for Quantifying the Vertical Migration of Planktonic Organisms

Author : W. P. Vass
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Migration

Author : Hugh Dingle
File Size : 85.70 MB
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Migration is one of the most fascinating and dramatic of all animal behaviors. Historically, however, the study of migration has been fragmented, with ornithologists, entomologists, and marine biologists paying little attention to work outside their own fields. This treatment of the subject shows how comparisons across taxa can in fact illuminate migratory life cycles and the relation of migration to other movements. The book thus takes an integrated ecological perspective, focusing on migration as a biological phenomenon. The work is divided into four parts, each with a brief introductory section. Part I defines migration, gives examples, and places migration in the spectrum of movement behaviors, concluding with a chapter on methods for its study. Part II focuses on proximate mechanisms, including physiology and morphology (and the constraints associated with them), the interactions between migration and wind and current patterns, and the various orientation and navigation mechanisms by which migrants find their way about. Part III on the evolution of migratory life histories addresses the evolutionary and ecological basis for migration and the roles of migration not only in the lives of organisms, but also in the ecological communities in which they live. Part IV is devoted to a brief consideration of migration and its relation to pest management and conservation. As a major contribution to a vital subject, this work will be valued by all researchers and students in the field of animal behavior, ecology, and zoology.

Faunal and Floral Migration and Evolution in SE Asia Australasia

Author : Ian Metcalfe
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This multidisciplinary book focuses on the relationships and interactions between palaeobiogeography, biogeography, dispersal, vicariance, migrations and evolution of organisms in the SE Asia-Australasian region. The book investigates biogeographic links between SE Asia and Australasia which go back more than 500 million years. It also focuses on the links between geological evolution and biological migrations and evolution in the region. It was in the SE Asian region that Alfred Russell Wallace established his biogeographic line, now known as Wallace's Line, which was the beginning of biogeography. Wallace also independently developed his theory of evolution based on his work in this area.;The book brings together, for the first time, geologists, palaeontologists, zoologists, botanists, entomologists, evolutionary biologists and archaeologists, in the one volume, to relate the region's geological past to its present biological peculiarities. The book is organized into six sections. Section 1 Paleobiogeographic Background provides overviews of the geological and tectonic evolution of SE Asia-Australasia, and changing patterns of land and sea for the last 540 million years. Section 2 Palaeozoic and Mesozoic Geology and Biogeography discusses Palaeozoic and Mesozoic biogeography of conodonts, brachiopods, plants, dinosaurs and radiolarians and the recognition of ancient biogeographic boundaries or Wallace Lines in the region. Section 3 Wallace's Line focuses on the biogeographic boundary established by Wallace, including the history of its establishment, its significance to biogeography in general and its applicability in the context of modern biogeography.;Section 4 Plant biogeography and evolution includes discussion on primitive angiosperms, the diaspora of the southern rushes, and environmental, climatic and evolutionary implications of plants and palynomorphs in the region. The biogeography and migration of insects, butterflies, birds, rodents and other non-primate mammals is discussed in section 5, Non Primates. The final section 6 Primates focuses on the biogeographic radiation, migration and evolution of primates and includes papers on the occurrence and migration of early hominids and the requirements for human colonization of Australia.

Aeroecology

Author : Phillip B. Chilson
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This book consists of a diverse collection of chapters that seeks to broaden our fundamental understanding of the ecological function and biological importance of the Earth’s lower atmosphere, which provides a huge living space for billions of animals moving within and across continents. Their migration, dispersal and foraging activities connect water and land habitats within and across continents. Drawing upon the wide-ranging experience of the authors, the book takes an inherently interdisciplinary approach that serves to introduce the reader to the topic of aeroecology, frame some of the basic biological questions that can be addressed within the context of aeroecology, and highlight several existing and emerging technologies that are being used to promote aeroecological studies. The book begins with several background chapters, that provide introduction into such topics as atmospheric science, the concept of the habitat, animal physiology, and methods of navigation. It then continues with a broad discussion of observational methods available to and used by aeroecologists. Finally, several targeted examples of aeroecological studies are presented. Following the development of the chapters, the reader is provided with a unifying framework for investigating how the dynamic properties of meteorological conditions at local, regional, and global scales affect the organisms that depend on the air for foraging and movement. Material presented in the book should be of interest to anyone wishing to gain a comprehensive understanding of the aerosphere itself and the myriad airborne organisms that inhabit and depend upon this environment for their existence. The material should be accessible to a diverse set of readers at all stages of training and across a range of research expertise.

Using Marine Migration to Assess Biodiversity

Author : Ian C. Davidson
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Biodiversity has become a topic of enormous interest in ecology because it is fundamental to issues of genetics, populations, communities, ecosystems and conservation. Although the sea covers 70% of the earth's surface, marine biodiversity is much less understood than its terrestrial counterpart to such an extent that a dearth of knowledge into patterns and processes at local scales persists. In particular, insight into the influence of movements and migrations of organisms on biodiversity patterns of benthic habitats is required to determine the effect of 'mobility' on community variability. This study focused on the biodiversity and migrations of benthic macrofauna within intertidal and shallow subtidal hard-bottom communities using Lough Hyne Marine Nature Reserve in southwest Ireland as the study system. Protocols involved in situ quantitative sampling of entire macrofaunal communities across gradients of shore height, depth, flow, sedimentation, sediment accumulation, substratum stability and through diurnal and tidal cycles. A total of 153 species from 13 phyla were recorded from the intertidal where the effects of vertical and horizontal gradients had variable effects on univariate and multivariate community patterns. A mobile versus sessile taxonomic approach to analyses revealed that mobile species were more numerous, but individuals much less abundant, than sessile taxa and that movement maybe more important at mid and high shore levels compared to lower shore zones in terms of influencing biodiversity assessment. Also, the impact of mobility and rarity requires greater attention in studies of ecosystem functioning, especially in marine ecosystems. Subtidal species richness reached a peak of 348 for all sites and substrata and the interrelated effects of flow and sediment accumulation were significant in determining assemblage composition in different habitats. A snapshot survey of subtidal biodiversity between habitats showed that sessile assemblage composition had greater redundancy between factors (site, substratum) than mobile assemblages because mobile taxa were not as confined to ambient environmental conditions as sessile species. When examined over tidal and diurnal cycles, the influence of movements and migrations within, above and below the intertidal ecotone were significant between tidal states despite the majority of taza being either sedentary or showing no clear activity pattern.

Dispersal and Migration

Author : William Zander Lidicker
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Cell Migration

Author : Jun-Lin Guan
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Central to the better understanding of both molecular mechanisms and disease, cell migration plays an essential role in a variety of biological processes and is now the subject of intense study using an array of powerful new technologies. In Cell Migration: Developmental Methods and Protocols, researchers describe in step-by-step detail their most successful techniques for studying the macromolecular machinery of cell movement. These readily reproducible protocols include a wide range of novel and state-of-the-art methodologies, as well as many classic methods, for use in cultured cells, different model organisms, and specialized cells in both normal development and disease. Highlights include basic assays that apply to all cell migration studies in vitro, assays in various model organisms, and assays for cancer cells, endothelial cells, and neurons both in vitro and in animal models. The authors also offer several novel approaches to the study of cell migration, as well as extensive coverage of cell migration studies in developmental and disease models. The protocols follow the successful Methods in Molecular BiologyTM series format, each offering step-by-step laboratory instructions, an introduction outlining the principle behind the technique, lists of the necessary equipment and reagents, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Comprehensive and highly practical, Cell Migration: Developmental Methods and Protocols offers researchers easy access to many readily reproducible techniques for the optimally productive investigation of cell migration in today's interdisciplinary experimental environment.

Chemical Tracers Elucidate Trophic and Migratory Dynamics of Pacific Pelagic Predators

Author : Daniel James Madigan
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Pelagic predators face many challenges and uncertain futures. Much work has revealed their decline due to overfishing, alteration of ecosystems, trophic cascades, and climate change. In the face of these challenges there has been a dearth of information regarding fundamental life history and ecology of these species due to the difficulty of studying them in their natural environment. Electronic tagging studies have greatly expanded our knowledge of pelagic organisms, but in many cases they raise as many questions as are answered. From the moment of animal capture, we can find out where a tagged animal migrates to, but from where did it emigrate before capture? What are the ecological roles of these predators on their various regions of high use? What is the timing and origin of migrations? These questions have implications for management, both using movement data (to understand where, and to what an extent, a species may need protection from exploitation) and ecological data (to understand how over-exploitation of different species or trophic levels may affect other organisms in a pelagic ecosystem). Various chemical tracers have served as new tools to answer some of these questions. Environmental contaminants, radioactive isotopes, and stable isotopes all have been used to examine movement patterns and trophic interactions in marine animals. Complementary techniques and laboratory-based studies are sometimes necessary to interpret data and provide the necessary parameters to use chemical analyses to understand the timing and origin of migrations and the roles migratory predators play in their various oceanic environments. In Chapter 1, I use archived, frozen Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis (PBFT) tissues to study the turnover and trophic fractionation of two stable isotope ratios ([delta]13C and [delta]15N) in two PBFT tissues (white muscle and liver). Captive bluefin with demonstrably lower white muscle and liver [delta]13C and [delta]15N values than their captive diet were kept in captivity for 1-2914 days, allowing for a long-term experiment of stable isotope dynamics (specifically, [delta]13C and [delta]15N) in PBFT. This experiment tuna reveals isotopic turnover rates and trophic discrimination factors (TDFs) for PBFT in the size range commonly encountered in the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem (CCLME). TDFs can then be used to investigate tuna trophic ecology, and the long turnover times of tuna muscle (t1/2 for PBFT WM = 167 days) demonstrate that tunas take more than a year to reflect local isotopic prey conditions, and turnover rates can be applied to multiple tissues using isotopic clock techniques. These parameters are necessary for the interpretation of trophic ecology of pelagic predators in Chapter 2 and the timing and origin of PBFT migrations in Chapter 4. In Chapter 2, I assess trophic dynamics in the CCLME using stable isotope analysis (SIA), utilizing isotope turnover parameters from Chapter 1. Using [delta]13C and [delta]15N values of primary consumers (plankton), secondary consumers (small squids and forage fish), and mid-upper trophic level predators (n = 17 predator and 13 prey species; 292 predator and 181 prey samples), I categorize organisms into trophic groups and estimate food inputs between trophic groups. I reveal higher connectivity in the pelagic food web of the CCLME than is predicted by the generally-accepted wasp-waist model of upwelling pelagic food webs, which assumes that most pelagic predators in upwelling, eastern boundary current systems feed primarily on one or few species of planktivorous secondary consumers, such as sardine or anchovy, which in turn feed on highly diverse and abundant zooplankton. Chapter 3 and Chapter 4 examine PBFT migration using different chemical tracer techniques. In 2011 the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant caused a massive spill of radionuclides into the Pacific Ocean in the waters off eastern Japan. This presented the possibility that migratory animals that forage in this region and subsequently migrate to distant ecoregions could be identified as emigrants from western Pacific waters. To test this new tracer we measured radioactive cesium (134Cs and 137Cs) in 15 PBFT that were caught in the CCLME and were between 1-2 years of age, making them definitive recent (previous year) migrants from waters around Japan. All 15 PBFT had elevated 134+137Cs compared to pre-Fukushima bluefin and post-Fukushima CCLME yellowfin tuna (CCLME migrants), proving that the PBFT had transported radiocesium across the Pacific Ocean and demonstrating the potential use of radiocesium as a tracer of migration. Chapter 4 validates the concept put forth in Chapter 3 to use Fukushima-derived radiocesium to track the movements of PBFT. In 2012, we sampled a larger dataset (n = 350) of PBFT in the CCLME to determine migration status using presence or absence of 134Cs and levels of 137Cs compared to 'background' levels of this radioisotope present in yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacares, residents of the CCLME. Using a sample set of 50, we demonstrate that all small PBFT (n = 28), known from size to be recent migrants from Japan, show measurable levels of 134Cs and elevated levels of 137Cs. This shows that all known migrants carry the radiocesium signal from the Fukushima accident. In contrast, larger fish (n = 22) showed pre-Fukushima levels of radiocesium in 17 fish, and 5 fish showed measurable levels of 134Cs and elevated levels of 137Cs, indicating recent migration from Japan. This study demonstrates that the radiocesium marker is detectable in all recent migrants, and that recent migrants or> 1 year CCLME residents can be discerned using this tracer in larger PBFT, for which recent, retrospective migratory history is unknown. Chapter 5 combines three chemical techniques (SIA, Cs radiotracer, and amino acid compound-specific isotope analysis or AA-CSIA) to elucidate bluefin migration in the CCLME. I used Cs-marked PBFT (definitive Japan migrants) to inform a larger SIA dataset for PBFT sampled between 2008-2010. We revealed that a larger proportion of older PBFT in the CCLME are recent Japan migrants than is generally believed. We also demonstrate that there is a seasonal trend to the arrival of Japan migrants to the CCLME. Finally, we suggest that this complementary chemical tracer toolbox can be applied to many highly migratory pelagic species in the Pacific to further elucidate their migration dynamics. Overall this work develops several tracers for application to PBFT (SIA and AA-CSIA) and presents the discovery and validation of a new tracer for migrations of Pacific pelagic predators (Fukushima-derived radionuclides). New information is supplied on the migratory dynamics of PBFT. These tracers, when used in the context of their model organism, can be applied to other pelagic predators to better understand their movement patterns. These approaches are especially pragmatic for species that are targeted by fisheries, as with the use of chemical tracers novel information can still be obtained from organisms that are no longer alive.