Search results for: militia-order-in-afghanistan

Militia Order in Afghanistan

Author : Matthew P. Dearing
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This book offers a new insight into when and why paramilitary groups in Afghanistan engage in protective or predatory behavior against the civilians they purportedly defend. In Afghanistan’s counterinsurgency environment, America leaned on militias to provide order and stabilize communities cut off from weak central government institutions. However, the lucrative market of protection challenged militia loyalty, as many engaged in banditry, vendettas, and predation. This book examines the varying militia experiments in Afghanistan from 2001 to 2020 and their outcomes through three sub-national case studies. It argues that successful militia experiments in Afghanistan involved inclusion of local orders, where communities had well-established social structures and accountability mechanisms in place, and state patrons relied upon those structures as a restraint against militia behavior. Complementary management ensured patrons leaned on communities for strong accountability systems. But such environments were far from the norm. When patrons ignored community controls, militias preyed on civilians as they monopolized the market of protection. This book adds to the rich literature on the U.S. experience in Afghanistan, but differs by focusing on the interplay between states, communities, and militias. This book will be of much interest to students of military and strategic studies, Asian politics, security studies and International Relations.

Just Don t Call it a Militia

Author : Rachel Reid
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"With US plans to withdraw troops and hand over security to the Afghan government by 2014, the US and Afghan governments have embraced a high-risk strategy of arming tens of thousands of men in a new village-level defense force. Called the Afghan Local Police (ALP), it is the latest in a long line of new security forces and militias the US and other international forces have worked with in recent years to pave the way for the exit of international troops. The Afghan government has also recently reactivated various irregular armed groups, particularly in the north. Just Don't Call It a Militia, based primarily on interviews in Kabul, Wardak, Herat, and Baghlan, with additional interviews in Kandahar, Kunduz, and Uruzgan, first surveys attempts over the past decade to create civilian defense forces in Afghanistan. While some efforts have been more successful than others, all have at times been hijacked by local strongmen or by ethnic or political factions, spreading fear, exacerbating local political tensions, fueling vendettas and ethnic conflict, and in some areas even playing into the hands of Taliban insurgents, thus subverting the very purpose for which the militias were created. Against this backdrop, we then provide an account of the ALP one year after it was created, detailing instances in which local groups are again being armed without adequate oversight or accountability. We conclude that unless urgent steps are taken to prevent ALP units from engaging in abusive and predatory behavior, the ALP could exacerbate the same perverse dynamics that subverted previous efforts to use civilian defense forces to advance security and public order"--Cover, p. [4].

The Impact of Pro Government Militias on State and Human Security

Author : U. S. Military
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How do pro-government militias impact state and human security? Throughout the world, governments are more frequently interacting with and employing armed groups and militias in order to increase their security and position through unofficial means. Additionally, throughout the current academic literature, there are significant disagreements on the impacts of pro-government militias on state and human security. This thesis examines the relationship and impact of pro-government militias on state and human security by conducting a comparative analysis on two recent pro-government militias, the Afghan Local Police in Afghanistan and the Janjaweed in Sudan. The resulting analysis of this research generates two major theses: First, that the use of pro-government militias can provide limited increases in security to the principal who employed them; second, that we should expect to see an inverse relationship between pro-government militia employment and human security. This study also identifies several areas where the international community should focus, in order to understand how current or future pro-government militias may impact state and human security. I. INTRODUCTION * A. MAJOR RESEARCH QUESTION * B. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE RESEARCH * C. LITERATURE REVIEW * 1. Pro-government Militias: Definitions and Typologies * 2. The Principal-Agent Dilemma and the Deniability of Militias * 3. Pro-government Militias: Monopoly of Force and Regime Security * 4. Pro-government Militias and Human Security * D. POTENTIAL EXPLANATIONS AND HYPOTHESES * E. RESEARCH DESIGN * F. THESIS OVERVIEW * II. THE AFGHAN LOCAL POLICE * A. INTRODUCTION * B. HISTORY OF MILITIAS IN AFGHANISTAN * C. THE DECISION TO ESTABLISH THE AFGHAN LOCAL POLICE * 1. Factors leading up to the Establishment of the ALP * 2. Mission and Formal Establishment * 3. Recruitment, Training, and Expansion * D. THE IMPACT OF THE AFGHAN LOCAL POLICE ON STATE SECURITY AND STABILITY * 1. A Case for a Positive Impact * 2. A Case for a Negative Impact * 3. Analysis of the Overall Impact of the ALP on State Security * E. THE IMPACT OF THE AFGHAN LOCAL POLICE ON HUMAN SECURITY * 1. Example Cases of Human Rights Violations by the ALP * 2. The Importance of the Locality and Localized Group Dynamics * 3. Analysis of the Overall Impact of the ALP on Human Security * F. THE AFGHAN LOCAL POLICE IN KUNDUZ PROVINCE * G. CONCLUSION * III. THE JANJAWEED * A. INTRODUCTION * B. BACKGROUND * 1. A Brief History of Darfur * 2. A History of Militia Use and Khartoum's Militia Strategy * 3. Factors Leading to 2003 Conflict * C. THE DECISION TO EMPLOY THE JANJAWEED * 1. Onset of the Conflict and the Impact of Early Governmental Losses * 2. The Benefit of the Janjaweed's Deniability and "Out of Control" Nature to the GoS * 3. Analysis of Why the GoS Decided to Utilize the Janjaweed * D. THE IMPACT OF THE JANJAWEED ON STATE SECURITY * 1. A Case for a Positive Impact * 2. A Case for a Negative Impact * 3. Analysis of the Overall Impact of the Janjaweed on State Security * E. THE IMPACT OF THE JANJAWEED ON HUMAN SECURITY * 1. Example Cases and Characterizations of Human Rights Violations * 2. The Importance of the Locality and Localized Group Dynamics * 3. Analysis of the Overall Impact of the Janjaweed on Human Security * F. CONCLUSION * IV. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS AND OVERALL IMPLICATIONS * A. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS * 1. Research Questions and Hypothesis Evaluated * 2. Limits of the Analysis and Future Research * B. OVERALL IMPLICATIONS OF THE ANALYSIS


Author : Musa Khan Jalalzai
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Writers and analysts have uncovered the illegal role of private militias' commanders in Afghanistan. These commanders and self styled leaders were driven overwhelmingly by their personal power, and they were not only considered illegitimate on the domestic political scene, and viewed as irrelevant. The present Afghan government is a mix of all types of its efforts, including war criminals, and militia commanders who smuggle narcotics, drugs, arm, and kill women and children. War criminals and militias commanders have developed complex survival and legitimation strategies beyond their territorial realms. After years of its establishment, the Afghan local police (ALP) was undermined due to its failure to stabilize remote regions of the country. The US proxy militias are the source of consternation. The US army established an incompetent intelligence agency (NDS) to serve its interest. The NDS established regional militias to support the CIA and Pentagon war mission against the people of the country. The NDS established Unit-01 for Central Region, Unit-02 for Eastern Region, Unit-03 for Southern Region, and Unit-04, as a Khost Protection Force (KPF), and committed war crimes in these regions with the support of the US army and CIA. This book has documented the role of all internal and external actors, warlords and stakeholders.

Afghanistan Reconstituting a Collapsed State

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Inside Afghanistan

Author : Timor Sharan
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This book maps out how political networks and centres of power, engaged in patronage, corruption, and illegality, effectively constituted the Afghan state, often with the complicity of the U.S.-led military intervention and the internationally directed statebuilding project. It argues that politics and statehood in Afghanistan, in particular in the last two decades, including the ultimate collapse of the government in August 2021, are best understood in terms of the dynamics of internal political networks, through which warlords and patronage networks came to capture and control key sectors within the state and economy, including mining, banking, and illicit drugs as well as elections and political processes. Networked politics emerged as the dominant mode of governance that further transformed and consolidated Afghanistan into a networked state, with the state institutions and structures functioning as the principal “marketplace” for political networks’ bargains and rent-seeking. The façade of state survival and fragmented political order was a performative act, and the book contends, sustained through massive international military spending and development aid, obscuring the reality of resource redistribution among key networked elites and their supporters. Overall, the book offers a way to explain what it was that the international community and the Afghan elites in power got so wrong that brought Afghanistan full circle and the Taliban back to power.

The American War in Afghanistan

Author : Carter Malkasian
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A history of the war in Afghanistan between 2001 and 2020. The work follows a narrative format to go through the 2001 US invasion, the state-building of 2002-2005, the Taliban offensive of 2006, the US surge of 2009-2011, the subsequent drawdown, and the peace talks of 2019-2020

U Afghanistan

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A Concise History of Afghanistan in 25 Volumes

Author : Hamid Wahed Alikuzai
File Size : 23.9 MB
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Afghanistan Literature is Worlds greatest and richest without Afghan- Literature no European (German, French, Spanish or English) Literature would exist today The Vedas, Zoroastrian, and Buddhist, among the oldest known Literature of Afghanistan, originating from the Great capital of Bactria present day Balkh, and Aria present day Herat, Sanskrit is the reference to the original history of Afghanistan. The Saxon Europeans influence during the Great Games of the mid nineteenth century affected the Afghan language, religion and Territories size, which previously had extended from India to North Africa at 2.6 million square kilometers. The Great Games continued at any cost evolving into present-day conflicts of 2013.

American Troops in Afghanistan

Author : Philip Wolny
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Explains why United States soldiers are in Afghanistan, discussing such issues as the war against the Taliban, why Afghanistan is one of the primary fronts in the war on terror, and nation-building activities designed to create a stable democratic country.