Search Results for "motivating-persistence-in-the-face-of-failure"

Motivating Persistence in the Face of Failure

Motivating Persistence in the Face of Failure

The Impact of an Ego-protective Buffer on Learning Choices and Outcomes in a Computer-based Educational Game

  • Author: N.A
  • Publisher: Stanford University
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category:
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 5241
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Failure often presents a valuable learning opportunity, however, students may need motivational scaffolds to protect them from the negative psychological ramifications of failure. This work explored the effectiveness of a motivation-based intervention called an ego-protective buffer (EPB), that was designed to enhance persistence after failure. An ego-protective buffer (EPB) maintains a stable sense of competence by lessening the impact of failure on one's psyche. The specific instantiation of an EPB tested here was designed to elicit a combination of internal and external attributions for failure. External attributions protect one's sense of competence by averting the blame for failure away from the self, while internal attributions encourage students to take some responsibility for remedying the failure situation. Based on this theory, we embedded an EPB into the rule structure of a computer-based genetics game and unleashed it on 143 seventh graders. In the EPB condition, students were told that winning in the game was a probabilistic outcome, dependent on a combination of chance and skill on the part of the students. In the Control condition, students were told that winning in the game was a deterministic outcome, dependent on students' skill only. Students played the game during two class periods. Measures include pre- and posttests, motivational survey measures, and in-game behaviors. The EPB did have an effect on learning, but only amongst high-failing students. High-failing EPB students learned just as much as their low-failing counterparts. This was not so in the Control condition, where high-failing students learned far less than their low-failing counterparts. So the high-failing EPB group was behaving as if they were "buffered" from the effects of failure. We also found evidence of a possible mechanism behind this learning effect. In the high-failing EPB condition, students were equally likely to persist after success and failure, while in the Control condition, students were far more likely to persist after success, exhibiting risk averse behaviors. This difference was more exaggerated in a within-subjects comparison, contrasting the same individuals in situations of high and low failure. Finally, persistence after failure was associated with learning across the full sample of subjects. Regardless of condition or failure rate, students who persisted more after failure also learned more. This study, together with the author's related body of work, provides compelling evidence that an EPB is a viable intervention for encouraging persistence in the face of failure.

Character Strengths and Virtues

Character Strengths and Virtues

A Handbook and Classification

  • Author: Christopher Peterson,Martin E. P. Seligman
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press
  • ISBN: 0199883246
  • Category: Psychology
  • Page: 816
  • View: 8302
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"Character" has become a front-and-center topic in contemporary discourse, but this term does not have a fixed meaning. Character may be simply defined by what someone does not do, but a more active and thorough definition is necessary, one that addresses certain vital questions. Is character a singular characteristic of an individual, or is it composed of different aspects? Does character--however we define it--exist in degrees, or is it simply something one happens to have? How can character be developed? Can it be learned? Relatedly, can it be taught, and who might be the most effective teacher? What roles are played by family, schools, the media, religion, and the larger culture? This groundbreaking handbook of character strengths and virtues is the first progress report from a prestigious group of researchers who have undertaken the systematic classification and measurement of widely valued positive traits. They approach good character in terms of separate strengths-authenticity, persistence, kindness, gratitude, hope, humor, and so on-each of which exists in degrees. Character Strengths and Virtues classifies twenty-four specific strengths under six broad virtues that consistently emerge across history and culture: wisdom, courage, humanity, justice, temperance, and transcendence. Each strength is thoroughly examined in its own chapter, with special attention to its meaning, explanation, measurement, causes, correlates, consequences, and development across the life span, as well as to strategies for its deliberate cultivation. This book demands the attention of anyone interested in psychology and what it can teach about the good life.

Handbook of Research on Schools, Schooling and Human Development

Handbook of Research on Schools, Schooling and Human Development

  • Author: Judith L. Meece,Jacquelynne S. Eccles
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • ISBN: 1135283869
  • Category: Education
  • Page: 536
  • View: 9258
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Children spend more time in school than in any social institution outside the home. And schools probably exert more influence on children’s development and life chances than any environment beyond the home and neighbourhood. The purpose of this book is to document some important ways schools influence children’s development and to describe various models and methods for studying schooling effects. Key features include: Comprehensive Coverage – this is the first book to provide a comprehensive review of what is known about schools as a context for human development. Topical coverage ranges from theoretical foundations to investigative methodologies and from classroom-level influences such as teacher-student relations to broader influences such as school organization and educational policies. Cross-Disciplinary – this volume brings together the divergent perspectives, methods and findings of scholars from a variety of disciplines, among them educational psychology, developmental psychology, school psychology, social psychology, psychiatry, sociology, and educational policy. Chapter Structure – to ensure continuity, chapter authors describe 1) how schooling influences are conceptualized 2) identify their theoretical and methodological approaches 3) discuss the strengths and weaknesses of existing research and 4) highlight implications for future research, practice, and policy. Methodologies – chapters included in the text feature various methodologies including longitudinal studies, hierarchical linear models, experimental and quasi-experimental designs, and mixed methods.

Strategic Management Communication for Leaders

Strategic Management Communication for Leaders

  • Author: Robyn Walker
  • Publisher: Cengage Learning
  • ISBN: 0538451343
  • Category: Business & Economics
  • Page: 384
  • View: 1588
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STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT COMMUNICATION is based upon an alternative theoretical foundation grounded in theory but with connections to communication in the world of business. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT COMMUNICATION shows students how various business courses are related and highlights communication as a practice that is applicable to all business situations regardless of the discipline, department, or organizational level at which it takes place. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

Higher Education: Handbook of Theory and Research

Higher Education: Handbook of Theory and Research

  • Author: John C. Smart
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
  • ISBN: 1402096283
  • Category: Education
  • Page: 492
  • View: 8829
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Published annually since 1985, the Handbook series provides a compendium of thorough and integrative literature reviews on a diverse array of topics of interest to the higher education scholarly and policy communities. Each chapter provides a comprehensive review of research findings on a selected topic, critiques the research literature in terms of its conceptual and methodological rigor, and sets forth an agenda for future research intended to advance knowledge on the chosen topic. The Handbook focuses on twelve general areas that encompass the salient dimensions of scholarly and policy inquiries undertaken in the international higher education community. The series is fortunate to have attracted annual contributions from distinguished scholars throughout the world.

Human Motivation

Human Motivation

  • Author: B. Weiner
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
  • ISBN: 1461250927
  • Category: Psychology
  • Page: 480
  • View: 6389
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This book represents a major revision of my earlier work, Theories of Motivation: From Mechanism to Cognition. A number of shortcomings in the p,revious book became increasingly evident to me. First of all, there were serious omissions. Second, there has been much new knowl edge since the inception of the prior book, so that it was becoming out dated. And finally, I was dissatisfied with some of the writing, feeling that parts of the book were needlessly complex and that certain topics did not deserve the space that they were allotted. A revision, therefore, was initiated. I attempted to fill some of the gaps by including chapters on psychoanalytic, social learning, and humanistic theory. Furthermore, other topics that could have been dis cussed within the outline of Theories of Motivation but were neglected are incorporated into the present volume. These topics include, for ex ample, social facilitation, arousal, emotions, personal responsibility, and the irrationality of attributions. In addition to this new material, I up dated the ideas examined in Theories of Motivation. Little could be altered in-the sections on H ullian and Lewinian theory, for these con ceptions are no longer undergoing modification. The discussion of these theories was merely shortened and simplified, bringing them more in line with their current influence in psychology. But achievement and attribution theories have changed in the past years - or at least our understanding in these areas has changed - and discussion of these topics was greatly altered.

The Oxford Handbook of Human Motivation

The Oxford Handbook of Human Motivation

  • Author: Richard M. Ryan
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press
  • ISBN: 019936625X
  • Category: Psychology
  • Page: 608
  • View: 8722
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Motivation is that which moves us to action. Human motivation is thus a complex issue, as people are moved to action by both their evolved natures and by myriad familial, social and cultural influences. The Oxford Handbook of Human Motivation collects the top theorists and researchers of human motivation into a single volume, capturing the current state-of-the-art in this fast developing field. The book includes theoretical overviews from some of the best-known thinkers in this area, including chapters on Social Learning Theory, Control Theory, Self-determination theory, Terror Management theory, and the Promotion and Prevention perspective. Topical chapters appear on phenomena such as ego-depletion, flow, curiosity, implicit motives, and personal interests. A section specifically highlights goal research, including chapters on goal regulation, achievement goals, the dynamics of choice, unconscious goals and process versus outcome focus. Still other chapters focus on evolutionary and biological underpinnings of motivation, including chapters on cardiovascular dynamics, mood, and neuropsychology. Finally, chapters bring motivation down to earth in reviewing its impact within relationships, and in applied areas such as psychotherapy, work, education, sport, and physical activity. By providing reviews of the most advanced work by the very best scholars in this field, The Oxford Handbook of Human Motivation represents an invaluable resource for both researchers and practitioners, as well as any student of human nature.

Readings for Reflective Teaching in Schools

Readings for Reflective Teaching in Schools

  • Author: Andrew Pollard
  • Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
  • ISBN: 1472509110
  • Category: Education
  • Page: 504
  • View: 7425
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Readings for Reflective Teaching in Schools provides a portable library of over a hundred readings to support teacher education and professional development. Extensively updated since earlier editions, the book concisely introduces both classic and contemporary research and understanding on teaching and learning. The selection reflects current issues and concerns in education and has been designed to support school-led teacher education as well as a wide range of school–university partnership arrangements. Uniquely, two types of reading are provided: - summaries enabling easy access to evidence on key classroom issues – including relationships, behaviour, curriculum planning, teaching strategies and assessment processes; - analyses of deeper forms of understanding about teaching and learning processes, to support the development of expertise throughout a teaching career. This collection of readings is edited by Andrew Pollard, former Director of the UK's Teaching and Learning Research Programme, with the advice of primary and secondary specialists from the University of Cambridge. Readings for Reflective Teaching in Schools is part of a fully integrated set of resources for primary and secondary education. Reflective Teaching in Schools focuses on how to achieve high-quality teaching and learning. By design, it offers both practical support for effective practice and routes towards deeper expertise. The website, reflectiveteaching.co.uk, offers supplementary resources including reflective activities, research briefings, advice on further reading and additional chapters. It also features a glossary, links to useful websites, and a conceptual framework for deepening expertise. This book is one of the Reflective Teaching Series – inspiring education through innovation in early years, schools, further, higher and adult education.

The Psychology of Action

The Psychology of Action

Linking Cognition and Motivation to Behavior

  • Author: Peter M. Gollwitzer,John A. Bargh
  • Publisher: Guilford Press
  • ISBN: 9781572300323
  • Category: Psychology
  • Page: 683
  • View: 1140
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Moving beyond the traditional, and unproductive, rivalry between the fields of motivation and cognition, this book integrates the two domains to shed new light on the control of goal-directed action. Renowned social and motivational psychologists present concise formulations of the latest research programs which are effectively mapping the territory, providing new findings, and suggesting innovative strategies for future research. Ideally structured for classroom use, this book will effectively familiarize readers with important theories in the psychology of action.

The Culture of Craft

The Culture of Craft

  • Author: Peter Dormer
  • Publisher: Manchester University Press
  • ISBN: 9780719046186
  • Category: Crafts & Hobbies
  • Page: 242
  • View: 7908
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Dormer presents a series of lively, clearly argued discussions about the relevance of handicraft in a world whose aesthetics and design are largely determined by technology. The question of computer aided design in craft is also addressed.