Search results for: mountain-timberlines

Mountain Timberlines

Author : Friedrich-Karl Holtmeier
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For more than 40 years I have been engaged in timberline research. Thus, one could suppose that writing this book should not have been too difficult. It was harder, however, than expected, and in the end I felt that more questions had arisen than could be answered within its pages. Perhaps it would have been easier to write the book 30 years ago and then leave the subject to mature. Lastly it was the late Prof. Heinz Ellenberg who had convinced me to portray a much needed and complete picture of what we know of the timberline with special respect to its great physiognomic, structural and ecological variety. The first version of this book was p- lished in the German language (Holtmeier, 2000). Nevertheless, I was very delighted when Prof. Martin Beniston encouraged me to prepare an English edition for the series ‘Advances in Global Change Research’, which guaranteed a wider circulation. Timberline is a worldwide and very heterogeneous phenomenon, which can only be presented by way of examples. My own field experience is necessarily limited to certain timberline areas, such as the Alps, northern Scandinavia, northern Finland and many high mountain ranges in the western United States and Canada. However, my own observations and the results of my and my previous collaborators research were essential for developing the concept of the book and became integrated into the picture of timberline that is presented in the following chapters.

Mountain Timberlines

Author : Friedrich-Karl Holtmeier
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Mt Hood National Forest N F the Timberline Express Proposal

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Mountain Environments

Author : Romola Parish
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This book breaks the ground in Geographical texts by transcending a strictly regional or topical focus. It presents the opportunities and constraints that mountains and their resources offer to local and global populations; the impacts of environmental and economic change, development and globalisation on mountain environments. Part of the Ecogeography series edited by Richard Hugget

Landscape Development and Climate Change in Southwest Bulgaria Pirin Mountains

Author : Karsten Grunewald
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Landscape Development and Climate Change in Southwest Bulgaria aims to address some of the current limitations in our understanding of past Balkan climate and environment. High mountains and their ecosystems offer an outstanding opportunity for studies on the impact of climate change. The Balkan Mountains in Southeast Europe, situated at the transition between temperate and Mediterranean climate, are considered as very sensitive to historical and current global changes. The geoarchives lake sediment, peat and soil, long living trees and glaciers have been used to reconstruct the climatically-driven change of forest and treeline during the Holocene and the younger past. These processes are interrelated with complex ecological changes, as for example the seasonality of climate parameters. The landscape research approach with the analyses through multi-palaeo-geoecological proxies is new for the Balkans.

The High Mountain Cryosphere

Author : Christian Huggel
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This edited volume, showcasing cutting-edge research, addresses two primary questions - what are the main drivers of change in high-mountains and what are the risks implied by these changes? From a physical perspective, it examines the complex interplay between climate and the high-mountain cryosphere, with further chapters covering tectonics, volcano-ice interactions, hydrology, slope stability, erosion, ecosystems, and glacier- and snow-related hazards. Societal dimensions, both global and local, of high-mountain cryospheric change are also explored. The book offers unique perspectives on high-mountain cultures, livelihoods, governance and natural resources management, focusing on how global change influences societies and how people respond to climate-induced cryospheric changes. An invaluable reference for researchers and professionals in cryospheric science, geomorphology, climatology, environmental studies and human geography, this volume will also be of interest to practitioners working in global change and risk, including NGOs and policy advisors.

Geographic Information Science and Mountain Geomorphology

Author : Michael Bishop
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From the reviews: "Bishop and Schroder (both, Univ. of Nebraska at Omaha) have brought together an impressive group of practitioners in the relatively new application of geographic information science to mountain geomorphology. In doing so, they have produced valuable, first, overall coverage of a high-tech approach to mountain, three-dimensional research. More than 40 contributing authors discuss a wide range of related aspects.... The book is well bound and well produced; each chapter provides an extensive source of references. The numerous line drawings are clearly reproduced, although the mediocre quality of photographic reproduction limits the value of air photographs and satellite images. As is characteristic of many edited collections, there is some variation in chapter quality. Some of the writing is so dense that it requires minute concentration--one chapter, for instance, has 14 pages of references from a total of 43 pages. Nevertheless, this is a vital compendium for a rapidly expanding field of research. Summing Up: Recommended. Upper-division undergraduates through professionals." (J. D. Ives, Choice, March 2005)

Timberline

Author : Stephen F. Arno
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Originally published in 1984, this is a classic in Western natural history now made available again to climbers, hikers, and other enthusiasts.

EDIS

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Alpine Treelines

Author : Christian Körner
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Alpine treelines mark the low-temperature limit of tree growth and occur in mountains world-wide. Presenting a companion to his book Alpine Plant Life, Christian Körner provides a global synthesis of the treeline phenomenon from sub-arctic to equatorial latitudes and a functional explanation based on the biology of trees. The comprehensive text approaches the subject in a multi-disciplinary way by exploring forest patterns at the edge of tree life, tree morphology, anatomy, climatology and, based on this, modelling treeline position, describing reproduction and population processes, development, phenology, evolutionary aspects, as well as summarizing evidence on the physiology of carbon, water and nutrient relations, and stress physiology. It closes with an account on treelines in the past (palaeo-ecology) and a section on global change effects on treelines, now and in the future. With more than 100 illustrations, many of them in colour, the book shows alpine treelines from around the globe and offers a wealth of scientific information in the form of diagrams and tables.

Mt Hood National Forest N F Timberline Lodge Complex Management

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Terrestrial Ecosystems and Biodiversity

Author : Yeqiao Wang
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Authored by world-class scientists and scholars, The Handbook of Natural Resources, Second Edition, is an excellent reference for understanding the consequences of changing natural resources to the degradation of ecological integrity and the sustainability of life. Based on the content of the bestselling and CHOICE-awarded Encyclopedia of Natural Resources, this new edition demonstrates the major challenges that the society is facing for the sustainability of all well-being on the planet Earth. The experience, evidence, methods, and models used in studying natural resources are presented in six stand-alone volumes, arranged along the main systems of land, water, and air. It reviews state-of-the-art knowledge, highlights advances made in different areas, and provides guidance for the appropriate use of remote sensing and geospatial data with field-based measurements in the study of natural resources. Volume 1, Terrestrial Ecosystems and Biodiversity, provides fundamental information on terrestrial ecosystems, approaches to monitoring, and impacts of climate change on natural vegetation and forests. New to this edition are discussions on biodiversity conservation, gross and net primary production, soil microbiology, land surface phenology, and decision support systems. This volume demonstrates the key processes, methods, and models used through many case studies from around the world. Written in an easy-to-reference manner, The Handbook of Natural Resources, Second Edition, as individual volumes or as a complete set, is an essential reading for anyone looking for a deeper understanding of the science and management of natural resources. Public and private libraries, educational and research institutions, scientists, scholars, and resource managers will benefit enormously from this set. Individual volumes and chapters can also be used in a wide variety of both graduate and undergraduate courses in environmental science and natural science at different levels and disciplines, such as biology, geography, earth system science, and ecology.

Encyclopedia of Natural Resources Land Volume I

Author : Yeqiao Wang
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With unprecedented attention on global change, the current debate revolves around the availability and sustainability of natural resources and how to achieve equilibrium between what society demands from natural environments and what the natural resource base can provide. A full understanding of the range of issues, from the consequences of the changing resource bases to the degradation of ecological integrity and the sustainability of life, is crucial to the process of developing solutions to this complex challenge. Authored by world-class scientists and scholars, The Encyclopedia of Natural Resources provides an authoritative reference on a broad spectrum of topics such as the forcing factors and habitats of life; their histories, current status, and future trends; and their societal connections, economic values, and management. The content presents state-of-the-art science and technology development and perspectives of resource management. Written and designed with a broad audience in mind, the entries clearly elucidate the issues for readers at all levels without sacrificing the scientific rigor required by professionals in the field. Volume I – Land includes 98 entries that cover the topical areas of renewable and nonrenewable natural resources such as forest and vegetative; soil; terrestrial coastal and inland wetlands; landscape structure and function and change; biological diversity; ecosystem services, protected areas, and management; natural resource economics; and resource security and sustainability. Natural resources represent such a broad scope of complex and challenging topics that a reference book must cover a vast number of subjects in order to be titled an encyclopedia. The Encyclopedia of Natural Resources does just that. The topics covered help you face current and future issues in the maintenance of clean air and water as well as the preservation of land resources and native biodiversity. Also Available Online This Taylor & Francis encyclopedia is also available through online subscription, offering a variety of extra benefits for researchers, students, and librarians, including: Citation tracking and alerts Active reference linking Saved searches and marked lists HTML and PDF format options Contact Taylor and Francis for more information or to inquire about subscription options and print/online combination packages. US: (Tel) 1.888.318.2367; (E-mail) [email protected] International: (Tel) +44 (0) 20 7017 6062; (E-mail) [email protected]

The Changing Alpine Treeline

Author : David R. Butler
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The alpine treeline ecotone (ATE) is an area of transition high on mountains where closed canopy forests from lower elevations give way to the open alpine tundra and rocky expanses above. Alpine tundra is an island biome and its ecotone with forest is subject to change, and like oceanic islands, alpine tundra is subject to invasion – or the upward advance of treeline. The invasion of tundra by trees will have consequences for the tundra biome as invasion does for other island flora and fauna. To examine the invasibility of tundra we take a plant’s-eye-view, wherein the local conditions become extremely important. Among these local conditions, we find geomorphology to be exceptionally important. We concentrate on aspects of microtopography (and microgeomorphology) and microclimate because these are the factors that matter: from the plant’s-eye-view, but we pay attention to multiple scales. At coarse scales, snow avalanches and debris flows are widespread and create “disturbance treelines whose elevation is well below those controlled by climate. At medium scales, turf-banked terraces create tread-and-riser topography that is a difficult landscape for a tree seedling to survive upon because of exposure to wind, dryness, and impenetrable surfaces. At fine scales, turf exfoliation of the fronts of turf-banked risers, and boulders, offer microsites where tree seedlings may find shelter and are able to gain a foothold in the alpine tundra; conversely, however, surfaces of needle-ice pans and frost heaving associated with miniature patterned ground production are associated with sites inimical to seedling establishment or survival. We explicitly consider how local scale processes propagate across scales into landscape patterns. The objective of this book is to examine the controls on change at alpine treeline. All the papers are focused on work done in Glacier National Park, Montana, USA. Although any one place is limiting, we are able to examine the alpine treeline here in some detail – and an advantage is that the treeline ecotone in Glacier National Park is quite variable in itself due to the underlying variability in geomorphology at multiple scales. This book will provide insights into an important ecological phenomenon with a distinctly geomorphic perspective. The editors collectively have over 100 years of experience in working in geomorphology, biogeography, and ecology. They also have each worked on research in Glacier National Park for several decades. The book will be a reference for a variety of professionals and students, both graduate and undergraduate, with interests in Physical Geography, Geomorphology, Ecology, and Environmental Science. Because of the importance of the alpine treeline ecotone for recreation and aesthetic interests in mountain environments, wildland and park managers will also use this book. * Subject matter: geomorphology at alpine treeline * Expertise of contributors: each editor brings over 25 years of experience in studies of ecotones and geomorphology, and collectively over 100 years of experience in Glacier National Park * Changing alpine treeline examines climate change

Trees at their Upper Limit

Author : Gerhard Wieser
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The product of decades of intensive research into alpine timberlines, this book presents a complete synthesis of current knowledge on the ecophysiology of tree growth and survival on high mountains in Europe. Amid growing realization that high elevation forests have a crucial role to play in protection against natural hazards, this book sets a new standard for research on the ecophysiology of trees growing at the alpine timberline.

Second Conference on Mountain Meteorology

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Encyclopedia of Forest Sciences

Author : Julian Evans
File Size : 63.63 MB
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A combination of broad disciplinary coverage and scientific excellence, the Encyclopedia of Forest Sciences will be an indispensable addition to the library of anyone interested in forests, forestry and forest sciences. Packed with valuable insights from experts all over the world, this remarkable set not only summarizes recent advances in forest science techniques, but also thoroughly covers the basic information vital to comprehensive understanding of the important elements of forestry. The Encyclopedia of Forest Sciences also covers relevant biology and ecology, different types of forestry (e.g. tropical forestry and dryland forestry), scientific names of trees and shrubs, and the applied, economic, and social aspects of forest management. Valuable key features further enhance the utility of this Encyclopedia as an exceptional reference tool. Also available online via ScienceDirect – featuring extensive browsing, searching, and internal cross-referencing between articles in the work, plus dynamic linking to journal articles and abstract databases, making navigation flexible and easy. For more information, pricing options and availability visit www.info.sciencedirect.com. Edited and written by a distinguished group of editors and contributors Well-organized encyclopedic format provides concise, readable entries, easy searches, and thorough cross-references Illustrative tables, figures, and photographs in every entry, produced in full color Comprehensive glossary defines new and important terms Complete, up-to-date coverage of over 60 areas of forest sciences - sure to be of interest to scientists, students, and professionals alike! Editor-in-Chief is the past president of the International Union of Forestry Research Organizations, the oldest international collaborative forestry research organization with over 15,000 scientists from 100 countries

Timberline Lodge

Author : Sarah Baker Munro
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Timberline is a ski lodge on the slopes of Mt. Hood, Oregon, only 65 miles from Portland. Between 1936 and 1938 and in the middle of the Great Depression, it was hand built and furnished through the Works Progress Administration. When Pres. Franklin Roosevelt came to Oregon in 1937 to dedicate the lodge, its significance as a New Deal success was confirmed. Timberline stands today as an icon of New Deal art and Cascadian architecture. Its rustic style is complemented by locally sourced and handmade wood furniture, wrought iron furnishings, and textiles. Designated as a National Historic Landmark, the lodge, a living museum, is one of Oregon’s most visited sites. It is managed for the public by the US Forest Service and operated as a ski area, hotel, and tourist attraction by R.L.K. and Company.

Responses to Climate Change in the Cold Biomes

Author : Hans J. De Boeck
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Climate change is thought to be especially relevant to ecosystems in the cold biomes. Observed warming has been higher in cold climates through various positive feedbacks, especially declining snow and ice cover, and climate projections indicate further rapid warming in the decades to come. Temperature change can have profound impacts in cold biome ecosystems, either directly in terms of impacts on physiology or growing season length, or indirectly via changes in nutrient cycling. The regions focused on here are the (sub)arctic and the (sub)alpine areas, both characterized by short growing seasons and low annual temperatures, but with different radiation environments depending on latitude. Climate change can have impacts in all seasons. Increased spring temperatures can accelerate snowmelt, leading to an earlier onset of the growing season, while warmer summers may stimulate primary productivity through temperatures closer to metabolic optima and/or increased mineralization rates. Winter warming can lead to the vegetation being damaged because of exposure to harsh frost without insulating snow cover. In all of this, concurrent changes in precipitation also play an important role: increased snowfall can buffer warming-induced advances in snowmelt, a higher ratio of rain to snow can greatly accelerate snowmelt in winter and spring, and summer drought may reverse growth-stimulation by warming directly (drought stress) or indirectly (e.g. impaired nutrient uptake). Micro-climate is crucial in these systems and requires particular attention as it can vary widely across the landscape, creating different growing environments in the space of a few meters or even less. Interest in cold region responses to climate change does not only arise from the fact that they harbor unique ecosystems that may be endangered, but also because they store large amounts of carbon that may be released under climate change. However, research is challenging because of the remoteness of many of these areas and the harsh conditions during much of the year. In spite of this, some studies have been carried out over an extensive period, spanning decades and yielding information on for example plant community reorganization (including invasions), and changes in phenology above- and/or belowground. Other studies focus on shorter term effects, such as impacts of heat waves, late frosts or other anomalous weather, including longer term (after-) effects that may differ drastically from other regions because of the short growing season in cold climates. Ultimately, models are used to predict future changes in vegetation along latitudinal or elevational gradients, although phenology and microclimatic variation may pose particular challenges. Contributions to this Research Topic focus on climate change, encompassing both changes in the mean (gradual warming) and variability (heat waves, altered precipitation distribution) in cold biomes. The Topic contains reports on observed changes or events, but also research making use of experimentally imposed environmental changes. The focus is varied, including phenology, physiology, soil and vegetation science and biogeochemistry, with the aim of providing a comprehensive overview of observed and expected responses to climate change in cold biome ecosystems.

Arctic and Alpine Research

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