Search results for: neuronal-dynamics-from-single-neurons-to-networks-and-models-of-cognition

Neuronal Dynamics

Author : Wulfram Gerstner
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This solid introduction uses the principles of physics and the tools of mathematics to approach fundamental questions of neuroscience.

From Neuron to Cognition via Computational Neuroscience

Author : Michael A. Arbib
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A comprehensive, integrated, and accessible textbook presenting core neuroscientific topics from a computational perspective, tracing a path from cells and circuits to behavior and cognition. This textbook presents a wide range of subjects in neuroscience from a computational perspective. It offers a comprehensive, integrated introduction to core topics, using computational tools to trace a path from neurons and circuits to behavior and cognition. Moreover, the chapters show how computational neuroscience—methods for modeling the causal interactions underlying neural systems—complements empirical research in advancing the understanding of brain and behavior. The chapters—all by leaders in the field, and carefully integrated by the editors—cover such subjects as action and motor control; neuroplasticity, neuromodulation, and reinforcement learning; vision; and language—the core of human cognition. The book can be used for advanced undergraduate or graduate level courses. It presents all necessary background in neuroscience beyond basic facts about neurons and synapses and general ideas about the structure and function of the human brain. Students should be familiar with differential equations and probability theory, and be able to pick up the basics of programming in MATLAB and/or Python. Slides, exercises, and other ancillary materials are freely available online, and many of the models described in the chapters are documented in the brain operation database, BODB (which is also described in a book chapter). Contributors Michael A. Arbib, Joseph Ayers, James Bednar, Andrej Bicanski, James J. Bonaiuto, Nicolas Brunel, Jean-Marie Cabelguen, Carmen Canavier, Angelo Cangelosi, Richard P. Cooper, Carlos R. Cortes, Nathaniel Daw, Paul Dean, Peter Ford Dominey, Pierre Enel, Jean-Marc Fellous, Stefano Fusi, Wulfram Gerstner, Frank Grasso, Jacqueline A. Griego, Ziad M. Hafed, Michael E. Hasselmo, Auke Ijspeert, Stephanie Jones, Daniel Kersten, Jeremie Knuesel, Owen Lewis, William W. Lytton, Tomaso Poggio, John Porrill, Tony J. Prescott, John Rinzel, Edmund Rolls, Jonathan Rubin, Nicolas Schweighofer, Mohamed A. Sherif, Malle A. Tagamets, Paul F. M. J. Verschure, Nathan Vierling-Claasen, Xiao-Jing Wang, Christopher Williams, Ransom Winder, Alan L. Yuille

Cognitive Phase Transitions in the Cerebral Cortex Enhancing the Neuron Doctrine by Modeling Neural Fields

Author : Robert Kozma
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This intriguing book was born out of the many discussions the authors had in the past 10 years about the role of scale-free structure and dynamics in producing intelligent behavior in brains. The microscopic dynamics of neural networks is well described by the prevailing paradigm based in a narrow interpretation of the neuron doctrine. This book broadens the doctrine by incorporating the dynamics of neural fields, as first revealed by modeling with differential equations (K-sets). The book broadens that approach by application of random graph theory (neuropercolation). The book concludes with diverse commentaries that exemplify the wide range of mathematical/conceptual approaches to neural fields. This book is intended for researchers, postdocs, and graduate students, who see the limitations of network theory and seek a beachhead from which to embark on mesoscopic and macroscopic neurodynamics.

Artificial Neural Networks as Models of Neural Information Processing

Author : Marcel van Gerven
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Modern neural networks gave rise to major breakthroughs in several research areas. In neuroscience, we are witnessing a reappraisal of neural network theory and its relevance for understanding information processing in biological systems. The research presented in this book provides various perspectives on the use of artificial neural networks as models of neural information processing. We consider the biological plausibility of neural networks, performance improvements, spiking neural networks and the use of neural networks for understanding brain function.

The Role of Synaptic Tagging and Capture for Memory Dynamics in Spiking Neural Networks

Author : Jannik Luboeinski
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Memory serves to process and store information about experiences such that this information can be used in future situations. The transfer from transient storage into long-term memory, which retains information for hours, days, and even years, is called consolidation. In brains, information is primarily stored via alteration of synapses, so-called synaptic plasticity. While these changes are at first in a transient early phase, they can be transferred to a late phase, meaning that they become stabilized over the course of several hours. This stabilization has been explained by so-called synaptic tagging and capture (STC) mechanisms. To store and recall memory representations, emergent dynamics arise from the synaptic structure of recurrent networks of neurons. This happens through so-called cell assemblies, which feature particularly strong synapses. It has been proposed that the stabilization of such cell assemblies by STC corresponds to so-called synaptic consolidation, which is observed in humans and other animals in the first hours after acquiring a new memory. The exact connection between the physiological mechanisms of STC and memory consolidation remains, however, unclear. It is equally unknown which influence STC mechanisms exert on further cognitive functions that guide behavior. On timescales of minutes to hours (that means, the timescales of STC) such functions include memory improvement, modification of memories, interference and enhancement of similar memories, and transient priming of certain memories. Thus, diverse memory dynamics may be linked to STC, which can be investigated by employing theoretical methods based on experimental data from the neuronal and the behavioral level. In this thesis, we present a theoretical model of STC-based memory consolidation in recurrent networks of spiking neurons, which are particularly suited to reproduce biologically realistic dynamics. Furthermore, we combine the STC mechanisms with calcium dynamics, which have been found to guide the major processes of early-phase synaptic plasticity in vivo. In three included research articles as well as additional sections, we develop this model and investigate how it can account for a variety of behavioral effects. We find that the model enables the robust implementation of the cognitive memory functions mentioned above. The main steps to this are: 1. demonstrating the formation, consolidation, and improvement of memories represented by cell assemblies, 2. showing that neuromodulator-dependent STC can retroactively control whether information is stored in a temporal or rate-based neural code, and 3. examining interaction of multiple cell assemblies with transient and attractor dynamics in different organizational paradigms. In summary, we demonstrate several ways by which STC controls the late-phase synaptic structure of cell assemblies. Linking these structures to functional dynamics, we show that our STC-based model implements functionality that can be related to long-term memory. Thereby, we provide a basis for the mechanistic explanation of various neuropsychological effects. Keywords: synaptic plasticity; synaptic tagging and capture; spiking recurrent neural networks; memory consolidation; long-term memory

Patterns of Synchrony in Complex Networks of Adaptively Coupled Oscillators

Author : Rico Berner
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The focus of this thesis is the interplay of synchrony and adaptivity in complex networks. Synchronization is a ubiquitous phenomenon observed in different contexts in physics, chemistry, biology, neuroscience, medicine, socioeconomic systems, and engineering. Most prominently, synchronization takes place in the brain, where it is associated with cognitive capacities like learning and memory, but is also a characteristic of neurological diseases like Parkinson and epilepsy. Adaptivity is common in many networks in nature and technology, where the connectivity changes in time, i.e., the strength of the coupling is continuously adjusted depending upon the dynamic state of the system, for instance synaptic neuronal plasticity in the brain. This research contributes to a fundamental understanding of various synchronization patterns, including hierarchical multifrequency clusters, chimeras and other partial synchronization states. After a concise survey of the fundamentals of adaptive and complex dynamical networks and synaptic plasticity, in the first part of the thesis the existence and stability of cluster synchronization in globally coupled adaptive networks is discussed for simple paradigmatic phase oscillators as well as for a more realistic neuronal oscillator model with spike-timing dependent plasticity. In the second part of the thesis the interplay of adaptivity and connectivity is investigated for more complex network structures like nonlocally coupled rings, random networks, and multilayer systems. Besides presenting a plethora of novel, sometimes intriguing patterns of synchrony, the thesis makes a number of pioneering methodological advances, where rigorous mathematical proofs are given in the Appendices. These results are of interest not only from a fundamental point of view, but also with respect to challenging applications in neuroscience and technological systems.

Computational Modelling of the Brain

Author : Michele Giugliano
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This volume offers an up-to-date overview of essential concepts and modern approaches to computational modelling, including the use of experimental techniques related to or directly inspired by them. The book introduces, at increasing levels of complexity and with the non-specialist in mind, state-of-the-art topics ranging from single-cell and molecular descriptions to circuits and networks. Four major themes are covered, including subcellular modelling of ion channels and signalling pathways at the molecular level, single-cell modelling at different levels of spatial complexity, network modelling from local microcircuits to large-scale simulations of entire brain areas and practical examples. Each chapter presents a systematic overview of a specific topic and provides the reader with the fundamental tools needed to understand the computational modelling of neural dynamics. This book is aimed at experimenters and graduate students with little or no prior knowledge of modelling who are interested in learning about computational models from the single molecule to the inter-areal communication of brain structures. The book will appeal to computational neuroscientists, engineers, physicists and mathematicians interested in contributing to the field of neuroscience. Chapters 6, 10 and 11 are available open access under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License via link.springer.com.

Stevens Handbook of Experimental Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience Methodology

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V. Methodology: E. J. Wagenmakers (Volume Editor) Topics covered include methods and models in categorization; cultural consensus theory; network models for clinical psychology; response time modeling; analyzing neural time series data; models and methods for reinforcement learning; convergent methods of memory research; theories for discriminating signal from noise; bayesian cognitive modeling; mathematical modeling in cognition and cognitive neuroscience; the stop-signal paradigm; hypothesis testing and statistical inference; model comparison in psychology; fmri; neural recordings; open science; neural networks and neurocomputational modeling; serial versus parallel processing; methods in psychophysics.

Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Applications in Nonlinear Dynamics ICAND 2016

Author : Visarath In
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This book presents collaborative research works carried out by experimentalists and theorists around the world in the field of nonlinear dynamical systems. It provides a forum for applications of nonlinear systems while solving practical problems in science and engineering. Topics include: Applied Nonlinear Optics, Sensor, Radar & Communication Signal Processing, Nano Devices, Nonlinear Biomedical Applications, Circuits & Systems, Coupled Nonlinear Oscillator, Precision Timing Devices, Networks, and other contemporary topics in the general field of Nonlinear Science. This book provides a comprehensive report of the various research projects presented at the International Conference on Applications in Nonlinear Dynamics (ICAND 2016) held in Denver, Colorado, 2016. It can be a valuable tool for scientists and engineering interested in connecting ideas and methods in nonlinear dynamics with actual design, fabrication and implementation of engineering applications or devices.>

Neuroscience for Psychologists

Author : Marc L. Zeise
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This textbook is intended to give an introduction to neuroscience for students and researchers with no biomedical background. Primarily written for psychologists, this volume is a digest giving a rapid but solid overview for people who want to inform themselves about the core fields and core concepts in neuroscience but don’t need so many anatomical or biochemical details given in “classical” textbooks for future doctors or biologists. It does not require any previous knowledge in basic science, such as physics or chemistry. On the other hand, it contains chapters that do go beyond the issues dealt with in most neuroscience textbooks: One chapter about mathematical modelling in neuroscience and another about “tools of neuroscience” explaining important methods. The book is divided in two parts. The first part presents core concepts in neuroscience: Electrical Signals in the Nervous System Basics of Neuropharmacology Neurotransmitters The second part presents an overview of the neuroscience fields of special interest for psychology: Clinical Neuropharmacology Inputs, Outputs and Multisensory Processing Neural Plasticity in Humans Mathematical Modeling in Neuroscience Subjective Experience and its Neural Basis The last chapter, “Tools of Neuroscience” presents important methodogical approaches in neuroscience with a special focus on brain imaging. Neuroscience for Psychologists aims to fill a gap in the teaching literature by providing an introductory text for psychology students that can also be used in other social sciences courses, as well as a complement in courses of neurophysiology, neuropharmacology or similar in careers outside as well as inside biological or medical fields. Students of data sciences, chemistry and physics as well as engineering interested in neuroscience will also profit from the text.